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ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN NIGERIA: YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW

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					         International Journal of Humanities, Volume 3, number 1, 2010, p. 160 - 167

ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN NIGERIA: YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW

                                      ARO Olaide Ismail,
                                        College of Law,
                         Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria

                                              ABSTRACT
       Nigeria Government, some Civil Society Organisation {CSOS} and some specialised
       Private Sector Operator have been putting series of efforts in place in term of
       programmes and policies targeting at empowering the people which at the end of the
       day did not bring the contemplated result. It is the belief of this present writer which
       as a matter of fact instigates this paper that some factors were serving as hindrance
       towards its success. As a result of the above fact, efforts were made to clearly analyse,
       expatiate and examine some of this factor which were tagged missing links and
       categorised as enabling environment, good governance, propaganda policies,
       corruption and people’s perception towards empowerment activities.
       KEYWORDS: Economic empowerment, Enabling environment, Propaganda policy,
       good governance, Corruption and people’s perception.

INTRODUCTION
My Country {Nigeria} despite the fact that is endowed with lots of natural gifts such as millions of
arable land, billion barrels of oil reserves, vast gas reserves, varieties of unexploited minerals and a
wealth of human capital estimated 150 million and as well appear as the 8th largest oil exporter in
the world and the Africa’s 2nd largest economy; still far behind the economic and social progress
required to impact the well being of the average Nigerian, as a result of which one half of the
population live on less than one dollar per day and as well top three Countries in the world that
have the largest population of poor people {World Bank report, 1999; Arunma Oteh, 2009}. It is as
a result of the above facts among others that have been instigating Nigeria Government to
formulate and implement policies and programmes aimed at empowering Nigerians economically.
The most interesting fact is that empowering Nigerians economically is beyond extending aids to
people and for genuine economic empowerment policies and programmes in Nigeria of ours to
transform to contemplated result, lots of machinery were needed to be put in place which appear as
a missing links to successful operation of the previously implemented economic empowerment
programmes and it contemplated results. Until this lacuna is bridge, all present economic
empowerment programme will not yield contemplated results but will continue to be temporarily
serving as it has been done because half bread is better than none. I can assure you that the ability of
stakeholders to bridge this lacunae particularly the government will drastically increase our
economy and serving as developmental foundation of our hidden nourished economy as well as
enclosed the gap between the rich and the poor as was observed by Alhaji Shuaibu Aro the
President-General/CEO of Arocom Group {2009} in his oral presentation during the Company One
day Workshop for their Staff to hindrance development when he stated among others that no
Nation can develop if the gap between the rich and the poor is too high like we have in Nigeria {Italics
are mine}.

CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
The term empowerment has been differently perceived by different writer which if clearly peruse is
pointing to the means of restoring the people’s essential lacking among who is F K Olakulein and O
D Ojo {2006} who perceive empowerment thus: empowerment arise from the inability of an
                                                  [1]
individual or a group of people to actualise their dreams and reach their greatest potentials due to
artificial barriers created by individuals and other groups within the same society. It is the
manifestation of an incontrovertible inequality, segregation or marginalization. . . . The foregoing
definitions show that empowerment implies that an individual or a group had hitherto lacked
power or authority by circumstances, denial or default. It appear to Oxfam {1995; F K Olakulein and Ojo
O D, 2006} as challenging oppression which compels millions of people to play a part in their society on
terms which are inequitable, or in ways which deny them their human rights. Okeke {1995; F K Olakulein
and Ojo O D, 2006} also submitted that to empower means to give power to, to give authority to, to enable a
person or a group of persons gain power. Likewise Batliwa {1995} stated thus: empowerment is the process
and the result of the process whereby the powerless or less powerful members of the society gain greater
access and control over material and knowledge, resources, challenges and ideologies of discrimination and
subordination and transform the institutions and structures through which unequal access and control over
resources is sustained and perpetuated. While the word ‘economic empowerment’ appear to this present
writer and for the purpose of this arena as the ability of an individual as well as efforts targeting on an
individual in the Society to override, conquer and as well as reduce poverty, inequality and unemployment .
It also appear as putting the machineries in motion to restore the people’s essential lacking at basic level so
as to be in position of acquiring the basics materials needed such as foods and shelter, housing, health
services, safe drinking water, clothing, sanitation facilities, education e.t.c that will make them attain a
minimum standard of living. It can also be described as people’s ability to acquire asserts such as human
assets {basic labour, skills, and good health}, natural assets {Land}, physical assets {infrastructure}, financial
assets {savings and access to credit} and social assets {networks of contacts and reciprocal obligations}.

ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND RELATED ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA
It is interesting to note that series of effort have been put in place by Government and some
organised and specialised Private Sector Operators as well as some Civil Society Organisations
{CSOS} aimed at empowering the people which were embraced and as a matter of facts still in
existence but things remains the same as a result of the facts that something is lacking in the system
which needs to be restored. And I must confess to you that the major stakeholder which have been
privileged to be in frontline as far as empowering the people of Nigeria is concern are Private
Sector Operators and some sincere Civil Society Organisations {CSOS} through series of
programmes. The programmes cut across granting of soft loan on no collateral basis called Micro-
Credits to enhance people’s microenterprises which involved engaging in micro small enterprises
or business. Some were even assisted in their bid to acquire desired goods for personal use and
commercial use such as household equipments, vehicles, plants and machineries as a result of
which payment were spread across a period of time which were called Assert Acquisition Scheme
while some were tagged Equipment Leasing/Financing. Some operators restrict this opportunities
to those that have secured source of income been public or Civil Servants as well as Organised
Private Sector’s Worker while some extent it to Self Employed Individuals with veritable source of
income. It must be noted at this junction that Nigerians were not totally relying on aids from this
quarters alone, series of efforts were puts in place to empower each order; individually and
collectively in form of informal microfinancing like Self Help Groups, Rotating Savings and Credit
Associations {ROSACAS} and Cooperative Societies for the purpose of lending each other and
Mobile Savings Collectors aimed at acquiring necessary needs though not enough putting the
resultant effects into consideration. Nigeria Government did not fold her arm watching; as a result
of which series of programmes and policies were put in place under different administration
targeting at empowering Nigerians. In 1972 National Accelerated Food Production Programme
{NAFPP} and the Nigerian Agricultural and Co-operative Bank were established to fund
agriculture but NAFPP turned out to be a colossal waste and nothing was achieved. Also
Operation Feed the Nation {OFN} was established in 1976 in which an undergraduates were been
use to teach the peasants farmers how to farm. It is a pity that this is wasting of recourses because
it sound odd for an undergraduate who is mainly engaged in theory as far as farming is concern to
be teaching a farmer who his living is based on farming how to farm but according to Anthony
                                                       [2]
Maduagwu{2000}, the scheme's only succeeded in creating awareness of food shortage and
the urgent need to tackle the problem in Nigeria. In 1979 Green Revolution Programme with
the twin objectives of curtailing food importation while boosting crop and fibre production
with the overall objective of mechanised farming which eventually ended in 1983 without
achieving contemplated results but creating avenue for some elites who use the opportunity to
acquire lands which were used for speculative purposes was also introduced. And not only that
in 1986 Structural Adjustments Programme was introduced with the mandate of alleviate poverty
and provide safety nets for the poor coupled with the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural
Infrastructure {DFRRI} for rural development which was meant to provide feeder roads,
electricity, potable water and toilet facilities for the rural dwellers without bringing contemplated
result . And later on, Peoples Bank of Nigeria and the Community Bank of Nigeria were
established to give loan to less privileged people but it is surprising that those financial
institutions did not lived up to their expectations as a results of which they did not actualised
their aims and purposes. This were later compliment with the establishment of “Better Life
Programme” with an objectives of catering for poor which end up creating another sets of elites in
Nigeria then. According to Anthony Maduagwu {2000}, “the better life for rural women became
the better life for rich women. The Nigerian poor did not know what hit them, before the poor
could say "Food At Last", the food was taken away from them, they were left gapping and
hungry as usual”. And around 1993 Nigerian Government also seen catering for poor as an urgent
factor which results to setting up the Family Support Programme {FSP} and the Family
Economic Advancement Programme {FEAP} which were used to take Nigerian poor for a ride
again despite the facts that FEAP objectives theoretically are very good among which is . . . to build
economic bridges, between the haves and have-nots, put meaning into people’s life by bringing
them comfort as well as security” {FEAP Brochure and Akanmidu, 2004, p. 23}. This was followed in
1994 by the setting up a broad-based Poverty Alleviation Programme Development Committee
{PAPDC} under the aegis of the National Planning Commission with an objective of advice the
government on the design, coordination and implementation of poverty alleviation programmes
which resulted in 1996 to the establishment of Community Action Programme for Poverty
Alleviation {CAPPA}. CAPPA is a community based approach that adopts a combination of social
funds and social action strategy as well as put Nigerian past experience on poverty reduction efforts
into consideration {Obadan}. Likewise in 1999 National Economic Empowerment and Development
Strategies {NEEDS} and its State counterpart State Economic and Empowerment Development
Strategy (SEEDS) were established with an objective of providing needed financial services to the
people to enable them engage or expand their present scope of economic activities and
employment generation with the establishment of National Poverty Eradication Programme
{NAPEP} in 2001 who have the mandate of monitoring and coordinating all poverty eradication
efforts of the Federal Government as well as mobilise resources for the poor for the purpose of
wiping-off poverty in Nigeria by 2010 that we are now without any traces of achieving the given
mandate. And finally, informal practise of Microfinancing {Self-Help Groups [SHGS], Rotating
Savings and Credit Associations [ROSACAS] types, Mobile Savings Collectors e.t.c} were formalised
by granting licence to some Finance Operators to operate Microfinance Bank which later extended
to transforming all existing Community Bank into Microfinance Bank. But what can be tagged as
most recent economic empowerment of Nigeria Government can be inferred from President Umaru
Yar ‘Adua/Goodluck Jonathan administration 7-point agenda.

THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA
It has been quite noted that “vision is the magic wards for developments, those who posses it see
what others could not see” {Arocom Brochure} and that vision without action is merely a dream
while action without vision just passes the time and vision with action can change the World {Joel
A. Barker; Arunma Oteh, 2009}, which indicate for the purpose of this arena that economic
                                                 [3]
empowerment entails having vision and not just initiating and implementing a programme before
contemplated result can be yield. Corroborating this Sulaiman {2008} observed that “ignorance and
general misconceptions about concepts and issues related to economic development and social welfare
contribute to the failure of governments and philanthropists in their bid to attack mass poverty,
unemployment, crime, drug addiction, illiteracy, disease, environmental degradation and low
productivity”. No wonder Anthony Maduagwu {2000} stated thus about Peoples Bank which is not
really difference from currently introduced Microfinance Bank considering it objective: “My
optimism was premised on the knowledge that the idea had been tried and tested somewhere
in the world and it worked and, guess what, the idea is still thriving now as you are reading
this article. The country in question is Bangladesh and their own Peoples Bank is called
Grameen Bank. In fact Nigeria got the idea of the Peoples Bank, as an effective way of
alleviating poverty, from the Bangladesh's Grameen Bank. So one is forced to ask why is it
that when something is working perfectly well in one country, when the idea is imported to
Nigeria it stops working”. The answer to this question is not far-fetch which has even result to
closing down of some Microfinance Bank in Nigeria but will be answer in relation to economic
empowerment under this sub-title. And instead of the Economic Empowerment stakeholders to
sincerely reviewing the whole economic empowerment initiatives, Nigerian Government keep
using tax payer money and financial derivation from our natural endowment on implementing
some policies targeting at empowering the people which supposes to have been use for another
project that will have aid economic empowerment activities while Private Sector Operators were
busy putting all available machinery at their disposal in motion to empower the people and
Organised Civil Society Organisation {CSOS} were not relaxing but the consequential result were no
more or less different from what is on ground before. The fact remains that all this efforts that were
put in place for the purpose of empowering the people were necessary but most of our stakeholder
were not vigilant enough. Putting Nigerian Government as a case study, her expected angle of
participation is different from what is fond of doing like given-out loan, distributing motor-cycle,
motor-vehicle and some other equipment to people on instalmental payment basis which appear to
this present writer as nothing but propaganda because it is what should be expected from other
operators particularly the Private Sector Operators instead and what is expected from Nigerian
Government is to put necessary machinery in place for organised private sector to strive. No
wonder it was stated during flagging-off of AROCOM ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME of
AROCOM GROUP OF COMPANY that “. . . Issues relating to economic empowerment of individual
people are better packaged by Private Sectors than Government for meaningful and effective result.
It is better for the Government to set the rule of operations in the economy and create an enabling
environment for social-economic activities to thrive; and set the stage for the private sectors to
operate” {Alhaji Shuaibu Aro, 2009}. Also it must be noted that economic empowerment towards
poverty eradication and employment generation in Nigeria has nothing to do with international
societies guideline rather its entails study the people and their environment including the
Government which will serve as a guide towards this sacred objective and I must confess to you
that following International Community guideline is nothing but an efforts in futility which will not
at the end of the day change the situation of things. It is on the basis of the above fact that I’m
presenting the following as the missing links between visible, realistic and effective economic
empowerment activities in Nigeria because economic empowerment in Nigeria is beyond grating
loan, motor-cycles, vehicles among others to people on instalmental payment basis which as a
matter of facts inter-related, inter-dependence as well as indivisible which means that for this
sacred objective to be achieve, non of this highlighted facts must be left out.

Enabling Environment
It is the duty of Nigeria Government to create enable environment which implies paving way in
terms of projects, policies and programmes that will complements other operator’s activities in
                                                 [4]
empowering the people, lots were needed from them which include provision of social service,
formulation of accommodative policies, putting the effects of policies on people into consideration
among others. It is on this basis I’m calling on the government to take provision of stable electricity
as a serious business rather than deceiving Nigerians to be dreamt of its since years back. No
wonder Otunba Gbenga Daniel; the Governor of Ogun State stated that “. . . another major and
debilitating challenge is that of inadequacy and Inconsistency in energy supply of our nation. This
scenario until recently badly affected every segment of our economy. Most Industrial/manufacturing
industries, government and commercial offices could no longer run on generators as the cheapest and
commonest source of energy supply (i.e. electricity from National grid) was failing. We however, thank
God with an unusual knack of determination by the Federal Government; we will soon put this
inglorious scenario behind us”. Although recent increase in electricity supply through the activities
of President Goodluck Jonathan who is also Honourable Minister of Power is nothing but a sign that
things are better. It is worthy of notes that creating enabling environment will go a long way in
ensuring that most of Nigerians are jobs creator rather than job seeker to aids all the existing
empowering activities. No wonder Richard Egbule {2010} stated thus: the public sector can only
provide enabling environment. If you provide an enabling environment, then people will find
employment because a lot of employment opportunities will be generated in the private sector. Let
assume an Entrepreneur called ‘Danjuma Okechukwu Idowu’ was empowered by Private Sector
Operator to establish a Photo Laboratory Studio through their Assert Acquisition Scheme. He will
rent an apartment as his Laboratory as well as employed two or more staff. Constant electricity
supply would be one of his major requirements due to the electrical nature of the
equipments that is been use in such Laboratory but with today's nature of electricity supply in
Nigeria, it will be discovered that power failure will be one of the numerous problem he will
face. But if he chose to rely on the use of generator which will make his service to be expensive and
the situation will be worst during fuel scarcity which will affect his patronage. At the end of the day,
him and his staff could be idling most of the days, not making money and is expected to pay
his Staff, feed his family, pay the Landlord as well as honour his repayment’s obligation. It would
not be long before customers, landlord and hard life will frustrate him out of the business and
back to square one. Also the provision of stable electricity will encourage foreign investors as well
as hidden local {Nigerian} investors to invest and established industries in Nigeria. Putting China as
a case study, it will be discovered that most of the electrical appliances we are using in Nigeria are
made in China and is not that all this Companies were owns by Chinese instead most of the
Companies were owned by Foreigner but the stability of electricity coupled with availability of
labour in China as we have in Nigeria and other amenities were the major factor that contribute to
the establishment of these Company in which Nigeria can be like them and even better than them if
our government are sincere to the extent of reducing goods and services price. I must confess to
you that insincerity of our government about this have result to collapse of many Industries in
Nigeria which even result to unemployment of millions of Nigerians as well as increase our
unemployment status. Likewise, efficient and effective transport services with necessary amenities
which consist of road transport; railway transport service, water transport and air transport
service will also assist in empowering the people. It will interest you to note that most of our roads
in Nigeria are full of potholes, waterway system were not effective as it suppose to be while railway
service have been abandoned and the airline that is the most effective one cannot be afforded by all
especially those that were hungry of economic empowerment and funny enough Formal President
Olusegun Obasanjo led administration that promised to awake the dead Nigerian Railway
Corporation have not been able to do so until recently that Nigerian Railway Corporation Managing
Director; Mr. Adeseyi Sijuwade disclosed that the Corporation will begin full operations in
December 2010 {Punch Newspaper, 8th October, 2010}. I also found its crucial to call the attention
of Nigeria Government to the need to formulate policies that will aids talented Nigerians to display
their talent and make it useful for development of Nigeria which will also serve as a means of
                                                  [5]
empowering the People. It is in this Country a Citizen who is an ordinary Road-Side Mechanic have
built motor vehicle, also a talented Citizen of Nigeria have so develop himself up to the extent of
interfering in radio network and also the developer of ‘Pentium 4 processing system’ is also a
Nigerian among others. The question is where are they today? Let assume that Nigeria Government
have create enabling environment for them we will have go a long way in belonging to Developed
Nation of the World. Also for the purpose of creating enabling environment, Nigerian politicians
were needed to be informed that they contribute greatly to constant increase of unemployment
rate particularly at every or towards every transitional era of our Country. You will discovered that
prior to election time some people who are mostly youth will be seen following our politician to
every campaign point either at Zones level, Wards level, Local Government level and as well to
different States. The fact is that most of them who are not Salary Earners and probably Self-
Employed Service Provider end up losing their mean of livelihood because of every day campaign
activities at Abeokuta today; Ijebu-Ode tomorrow and Owode-Yewa next tomorrow which would
have made his customer to find another service provider for his needs. And unfortunate, this kind
of person may not get appointment in the government if his party won at the end of the day as a
result of which he will conclude to resume to his primary occupation but lack of patronage will
make him to belong to unemployed category of people in Nigeria and funny enough this kind of
people will mostly make activities targeting at empowering the people not to yield contemplated
result because to some of them is their own ‘dividends of democracy’.

Propaganda Policy
The term propaganda policies appear to this present writer and for the purpose of this arena as
deceptive policy aimed at influencing the people or policies presented in a manner of having good
impact on people whereas full of deception and no effects on people than suffering. For the purpose
of empowering the people through avoiding propaganda policies, Nigeria Government should be
sincere about her policy which must be targeting on empowering the people by formulate and
implement policy that will have positive effects on people and desisting from policy that will have
negative impact on Nigerians. It is on this basis I’m criticising intending ‘deregulation’ policy of
President Musa Yar’ Adua/Goodluck Jonathan administration on petroleum product which cause
recent fuel scarcity in Nigeria, the little that were available at different Petrol Station were at high
price which as a matter of facts affects the means of people’s livelihood. People were stranded at
bus-stops, some major Cities particular at Abeokuta the Capital City of Ogun State appear as if some
days curfew were just bring to an end while the little transports service that were available were at
high price which as a matter of facts affects self employed people’s business activities mostly.
Anthony Maduagwu {2000} stated thus about some previous economic empowerment activities in
Nigeria: . . . like everything, Nigerian, it fizzled out and died. There is a believe that one of the
major reasons for the failure of all these agricultural/poverty reduction programmes was that
they were based on "faulty philosophy". The belief is that food programmes such as the General
Gowon's National Accelerated Food Production Programme; the General Obasanjo's Operation
Feed the Nation; the Shehu Shagari's Green Revolution, and the General Buhari's Go Back to
Land Programme "failed because of the far - fetched objectives of making farmers out of all
Nigerians, and that no country attains self - sufficiency in food by seeking to turn all its
citizens in to farmers, that farming should be left for those whose business it is to farm". I
found it crucial at this stage to inform our Leaders to desist from attitudinal practice of tagging
discharging their duty as “dividend of democracy” because be democratic or military government,
discharging such duty is the responsibility of the Nigeria Government as well as civil right of every
Citizen. No wonder our people have been familiarised themselves with the slogan ‘People Deceiving
People’. And I must confess to you that granting loan and operating hire purchase programme is
not the duty of Nigeria Government, instead her duty is to create enabling environment through
formulation and implementation of policies that will aids Organised Private Sector Operators and
                                                  [6]
specialised Civil Society Organisations {CSOS} to strive while tax payer money is strictly meant for
government business that is the main reason why I’m not surprise when Alhaji Shuaibu Aro {2010}
stated thus in his granted interview with Wale Idowu and Soji Amosu from Ogun Mobiliser
Newspaper thus: Sincerely, I don’t believe this kind of project should be handled by government . . .
Government are expected to concentrate on government business such as provisioning of good roads,
water e. t.c. The job of government is to set the rules, create conducive atmosphere for business to
thrive. Then are Organisations licensed to do this kind of thing. It is not the job of government to sell
motor-cycles or give loans. There are conventional commercial banks, Co-operative Societies through
which the people can secure loan. So, it is not the duty of government to do all these. Government only
needs to regulate, set the standard and monitor and to ensure private bodies meet up to expectations.

Good Governance
The word ‘governance’ is conceptualised as the processes and systems by which a government
manages the resources of a society to address socio-economic and political challenges in the polity.
To Daniel Kaufmann, governance embodies “the traditions and institutions by which authority in a
country is exercised for the common good” {Igho Natufe, 2006} while good governance appear to
this present writer as a system by which society’s resources is been manage transparently with
accountability as well as given room for popular participation in government among others by
responsible leader. The ability of the Nigeria government to discharge her duty transparently and
accountably to her people as well as given room for people’s participation to the extent of showing
good leadership which is desperately needed in Nigeria will go a long way to ensure realistic
economic empowerment of Nigerians. Corroborating this Chief (Dr) Alex Ekwueme {2005} in
conceding with Professor Ignatius Ayua’s word stated that “Nigeria is in dire need of good
governance and responsible leadership . . . especially concerning poverty eradication and
improvement in the standard of living of the people. . . and no matter how ingeniously devised, will be
jeopardised ". Also Chinua Achebe {1985} rightly observed that “the problem with Nigeria is simply
and squarely a failure of leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character.
There is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land or climate or water or air or anything else. The
Nigeria’s problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise to the responsibility; to the
challenge of personal example which are the hallmark of true leadership”. In doing this, government
should be sincere about developmental project that will be put in place rather than playing politics.

Corruption
The term corruption is incapable of precise definition but is synonymous to the following extortion,
exploitation, fraudulency, venality, misrepresentation, dishonesty, profiteering, nepotism, breach of
trust, malfeasance, bribery, crookedness, shady deal, jobbery, shuffle, racket {Webster’s NewWorld
Thesaurus: 156}. In Nigeria, the success of most policies and programmes targeting on empowering
the people were been hindrance by corrupt attitudes of the Stakeholders who have been using the
opportunity to enriched themselves instead of implementing the policy and programmes before
them and to worst the situation, most of the government’s organised empowerment programmes
always result to breeding of new set of elite in Nigeria. Some of our Leaders sometimes direct their
policies and programmes towards empowering the people because it is the best avenue to enrich
them.

People’s Perception
 Prior to this era, Nigerians have been engaging in series of activities courtesy of empowering
themselves which is not 100% successful because of high cost of living but the intervention of
Nigerian Government, Organised Private Sector Operators and some Civil Societies Organisation
{CSOS} which would have mediate the situation were frustrated by some of the beneficiaries
perception and conducts toward the programme. To some of them it is their own share of

                                                   [7]
government’s revenue that were been single-handedly embezzled by the people in the government
while some of them particularly politicians see it as their own ‘dividend of democracy’, and some
see it as gift while some quietly understand the nature of the programme but deliberately refused
to reciprocate as expected of them e. t. c. To worst the situation, people’s ‘I don’t care’ attitude
towards public utilities cause continuous deterioration of those facilities coupled with the facts that
most of them are prone to vandalisation which is contributing in great respect to unrealistic nature
of economic empowerment in Nigeria. It is on this basis I’m calling on every Nigerians to be duty
bound as watchdogs of each other over public utilities in other to aids adequate development. No
wonder Bauer {1972} stated some years back that “. . . Economic achievement has depended, and it
still does depend, on people’s own faculties, motivations and ways of life. On their institutions and their
rulers. In short, economic achievement depends on the conduct of people, including governments . . . .”

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The attention of Nigerian Government was suddenly brought to the needs to empower her people
for the purpose of eradicating poverty that is dwelling among them as a result of which series of
efforts were puts in place which were complemented by the efforts of Organised Private Sector
Operators and some Civil Society Organisations {CSOS} in which Nigerians have been making
judicious use of it but if the resultant effects is properly graded, is nothing but back to square one
because the resultant effect is not corresponds with inputted resources which is based on lacked of
some facts that the present writer were privilege to briefly discussed and I must confess that my
observation is not based on Nigerian Politician grades which is to boost their different political
ambition. It is not that all stakeholders cannot reciprocally discharge their different duty as briefly
highlighted here but some of them will consider it as difficult task. Putting Nigeria Government vis-
a-vis railway transport and electricity into consideration, selfish interest of our modern elite that
were in government directly or indirectly will definitely serve as an obstacle towards using it to
empower the people. If Nigerian Railway Corporation is awaked efficiently and effectively, people’s
demand for tanker and trailer for conveying goods will drastically reduce which will definitely
affect the income of those Elites that have tankers and trailers. Likewise if will have stable
electricity in Nigeria, diesel, petrol and generating plants demand in Nigeria will definitely reduce
which will also affects the income of those people that were their dealers. The implication of the
above painted scenario is that these sets of people will not fold their arm watching, they will not
bother to go extra mile to get what they want. I will implore you not to mistakenly compare that
some Country of the world have all this in place and the situation is not really different from ours
and even worse than ours, but if our past is put into consideration coupled with the facts that
Nigerians have special trait which make it different from other Nation of the world to the extent
that our people are making judicious use of the creating opportunity to empower themselves makes
us different.

REFERENCE
Mr. Adeseyi Sijuwade {2010} “Railway will return to full operations in December – NRC”, available
   at       official      homepage          of       Punch        Nigeria         Newspaper         at
   <http://www.punchng.com/Articl.aspx?theartic= Art201010081594276.mht> accessed on 8th
   of October 2010
Akanmidu Raphael. A {2004} “Poverty alleviation programmes and the politics of ethical despair in
   Nigeria”, being seventieth inaugural lecture delivered at University of Ilorin on 26th of February
Alhaji Shuaibu Aro; Ogun Mobiliser, Monthly publication of National Orientation Agency {NOA},
   Ogun State Directorate Vol. 1 No.1 July 2010 at page 3
Alhaji Shuaibu Aro {2009}; The President-General/CEO Arocom Group of Company in his keynote
   address delivered during flagging-Off of the “AROCOM ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
   PROGRAMME” on Wednesday 15th of April at page 4
                                                    [8]
Alhaji Shuaibu Aro {2009}; The President-General/CEO Arocom Group of Company Observation
   during “Arocom Economic Empowerment Programme” one day Workshop on Saturday 10th of
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Anthony     Maduagwu      {2000}    “Alleviating   poverty    in     Nigeria”    available   at
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