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					Fruits, Vegetables at Retail
           availability of fresh and frozen fruits, vegetables varies
           with store size, location, and ownership as shown by survey
                                                                                                                   Jessie V. Coles and Marilyn Dunsing

The following article is the fourth of a series of        portions of stores offering both the fresh              All the larger stores-with seven or
reports of a survey of characteristics of and             and the frozen. Butte had the highest pro-           more equivalent full-time employees-
services offered by retail grocery stores in five
counties in California made cooperatively by the          portion for fresh and San Diego the high-            carried both fresh and frozen fruits and
Department of Home Economics, University of               est for frozen.                                      vegetables. Of those with 3-6 employees,
California,and the United States Department of               In Alameda and Los Angeles the pro-               89% to 100% offered fresh and 93% to
Agriculture under the authority of the Research           portions of stores in neighborhood-                  100% stocked frozen products. Of those
and Marketing Act as part of Western Regional             secondary shopping areas which carried               with one or two employees, 85% to 98%
Research Project WM-26.
                                                          fresh and the proportions of the stores              displayed fresh and 76% to 92% carried
From 94% to 99% of 1,028 represent-                       carrying frozen fruits and vegetables                frozen fruits and vegetables.
ative retail grocery stores surveyed in                   were higher-88%-96%-than           the pro-
Alameda, Butte, Fresno, Los Angeles, and                  portions of downtown stores-79%-
San Diego counties offered fresh or                       90%. In Butte, the proportions of stores             Sources
frozen-or both-fruits and vegetables                      offering fresh and of those offering frozen              In each county a high proportion of
to their customers.                                       products were higher in stores in the                the stores offering fresh fruits and vege-
   Fresh fruits and vegetables were avail-                downtown areas than in stores in neigh-              tables obtained them from only one
able slightly more frequently except in                   borhood-secondary areas. In Fresno, this             source. That same practice was followed
San Diego where 94% of the stores car-                    was true for frozen fruits and vegetables            by 98% of the stores in Alameda and
ried fresh and 96% carried frozen prod-                   but the reverse was true for the fresh               92% in Los Angeles. The next largest
ucts.                                                     products.                                            proportion was 86% in Fresno. Butte
   Both kinds of products were stocked                       Fresh fruits and vegetables were car-             with 74% and San Diego with 69% had
by 83% to 92% of the stores. Relatively                   ried somewhat more frequently than the               the lowest proportions.
small proportions of the stores in each                   frozen by the isolated stores. From 93%                  In San Diego, 28% of the stores carry-
county offered fresh products only or                     to 100% offered the fresh and from 74%               ing the fresh products and 24% in Butte
frozen products only. Neither fresh nor                   to 94% had the frozen.                               bought from two sources. In Fresno,
frozen was carried by 1%to 6% of the                         All the chain stores-two       or more            13%-and in the other counties, smaller
stores.                                                   units-carried frozen fruits and vege-                proportions-obtained      them from two
   In the two counties which had the                      tables. With the exception of one chain              sources. In San Diego 376, in Butte 2%
highest proportions of rural stores-                      in San Diego and one in Los Angeles                  and in the other counties less than 1%
Butte and Fresno-the rural stores car-                    all of them stocked fresh fruits and vege-           bought from three or more sources.
ried fresh fruits and vegetables more fre-                tables.                                                  Wholesale fruit and vegetable markets
quently than the frozen. Although all the                    The independent stores surveyed did               -and wholesalers not in organized mar-
rural stores in Butte had fresh fruits and                not carry fresh or frozen-or         both-           kets-were     the major sources for the
vegetables only 87% stocked the frozen.                   fruits and vegetables as frequently as did           stores. The relative importance of those
In Fresno 91% of the rural stores car-                    chain stores. Of the independents affili-            two sources varied among counties.
ried fresh but only 73% offered the                       ated with buying groups from 95% to                      In Alameda, Los Angeles, and San
frozen.                                                   100% carried fresh and the same propor-               Diego counties 48% to 50% of the stores
   In all five counties, from 90% to 99%                  tions carried frozen products. From 80%              carrying fruits and vegetables bought at
 of the urban stores stocked the fresh                    to 98% of the nonaffiliated independents             least some of them from wholesale mar-
products and from 88% to 96% had the                      stocked fresh and 74% to 93% had                      kets. In Fresno 74% and in Butte only
frozen. Los Angeles had the lowest pro-                   frozen fruits and vegetables.                         15% followed that practice.
                                                                                                                   Wholesalers outside the markets were
       Mojor Sources From Which Stores Carrying Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Obtained Them                       patronized by over 80% of the stores in
                      Location      Shopping area             Ownership           Number of employees
                                                                                                                Butte, by 40% in San Diego, 43% in
                                                                                                                Los Angeles, by 25% in Fresno and 28%
                    Rural Urban           Neigh-   Iso-      Independent          1      3      7      15
                                  :EzT ttli        lafed UnafRli- AfRli- Chain
                                                   store ated     ated
                                                                                 or
                                                                                  2
                                                                                        to
                                                                                        6
                                                                                                to
                                                                                                14
                                                                                                        or
                                                                                                       more
                                                                                                                in Alameda counties.
                                                                                                                   Two other sources were reported as
                                                                                                                rather important in several of the coun-
                                  A. Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Markets                                      ties. In Los Angeles 12% and in Alameda
Butte   . ..
        . . 35.5            .
                           65      .. .   1.
                                           23      2.
                                                    65     83
                                                          2.       25
                                                                    .     .. .   23.3    36
                                                                                          .     .. .    1.
                                                                                                         15
                                                                                                                13% of the stores carrying fresh fruits
Fresno  ... . .
             7.
              00           21
                          7.      6.
                                   32     7.
                                           67       25
                                                   7.     75.2    6.
                                                                   76     80.0    98
                                                                                 6.     80.0   7.
                                                                                                78       00
                                                                                                        8.
Son Diego  ..
            44.4           00
                          5.      5.
                                   00      22
                                          5.       3.
                                                    33    52.2    4.
                                                                   84     3.
                                                                           91    5.
                                                                                  13     63
                                                                                        4.      00
                                                                                               5.        44
                                                                                                        4.      and vegetables bought some from self-
Alameda   ...        +     06
                          5.       56
                                  5.      5.
                                           11        *     43
                                                          5.      5.
                                                                   79      76
                                                                          2.     5.
                                                                                  41     62
                                                                                        5.     35.3      73
                                                                                                        2.      owned warehouses. In Alameda 72% and
Lor Angeles. *             80
                          4.      5.
                                   45      77
                                          4.               06
                                                          4.      5.
                                                                   60      56
                                                                          4.     4.
                                                                                  79    4.
                                                                                         55    60.0      51
                                                                                                        4.      in Los Angeles 50% of the chain stores
                                     6. Fruit and Vegetable Wholesolers                                         followed that practice. On the other hand
Butte  .. . . . .
              5.
               48          92.2    02
                                  8.      8.
                                           95      6.
                                                    47     66.0    0.
                                                                  100     8.
                                                                           67     00
                                                                                 7.     96.4    0.
                                                                                               100       89
                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                only 35% of the chains in San Diego,
Fresno  .. . . .
              1.
               95           79
                           2.      68
                                  3.      2.
                                           32      2.
                                                    50      08
                                                           2.       53
                                                                   3.     4.
                                                                           00    2.
                                                                                  67    2.
                                                                                         44     2.
                                                                                                 22     2.
                                                                                                         00
Son Diego . . 27.0         4.
                            14    3.
                                   57     3.
                                           83      33.3     13
                                                           4.      45.2   2.
                                                                           61     97
                                                                                 3.      88
                                                                                        4.      3.
                                                                                                 12      22
                                                                                                        2.      13% in Butte and 10% in Fresno re-
Alameda     ... *          27.8   11.1    29.3       *      24
                                                           4.      15.8   .. .   38.8   18.8    .. .     9.1    ported that they obtained fresh fruits and
Lor Angeles.               42.7    03
                                  3.      43.8              08
                                                           6.     4.76     65
                                                                            .     48
                                                                                 5.      54
                                                                                        5.     20.0       .
                                                                                                         70    vegetables from self-owned warehouses.
    Number of rural and o isolated stores were too small to be of significonce.
                         f                                                                                               Concluded an next page

CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, APRIL, 1958                                                                                                                   15
                                                                                                                                                        Penalty lor private m e to avoid
                                                                                                                                                           payment of posuce, moo
                                                                                                                                                        University 01 Cdilorni. Collece
                                                                                                                                                        01 Amiculture. Agricultural Ex.
                                                                                                                                                        Wriment Station. Bcrkdq 4,
                                                                                                                                                                   Califorai.




          -now ready for distribution-
  Single copies of these publications-except the
Manualr--or a catalog of Agricultural Publications
may be obtained without charge from the local office
of the Farm Advisor or by addressing a request to:
Agricultural Publications, 22 Giannini Hall, University
of California, Berkeley 4.

THE U . C. SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING
H E A LTH Y CO N T A I N E R-G R O W N
PLANTS, edited by Kenneth F. Baker,
Man. 23 ($1.00).                           GRADING LAND FOR SURFACE IR-                                            ported that they bought, at least some,
CUCUMBER PRODUCTION IN CALI-               RIGATION, by James C . Marr, Cir. 438                                   direct from farms or from farmers’ mar-
FORNIA, by Glen N. Davis and Bernarr       (rev.).                                                                 kets. Over 18% of the stores in San
J . Hall, Man. 24 (25$).                   SUDANGRASS FOR HAY, PASTURE,                                            Diego and 13% in Fresno reported that
                                           SEED, by Luther G . Jones, John R.                                      practice.
RICE FERTILIZATION, by D. S. Mik- Gross, Milton D. Miller, and Maurice L.                                             As shown in the table on the preceding
kelsen, D. C . Finfrock, and M. D. Miller, Peterson, Cir. 462.                                                     page, the proportions of stores that pa-
Leaf. 96.                                                                                                          tronized wholesale fruit and vegetable
                                           FERTILIZERS AND COVERCROPS                                              markets did not vary significantly-in
WEED CONTROL IN RICE, by D. C . FOR CALIFORNIA ORCHARDS, by E .                                                    most counties-from one subclass to an-
Finfrock, K . L. Viste, W . A. Harvey, and L. Proebsting, Cir. 466.                                                other within the major classifications
M . D. Miller, Leaf. 97.                                                                                           based on location, shopping area, owner-
                                           AGRICULTURAL PUBLICATIONS,                                              ship, and number of equivalent full-time
STAKES AND MISTAKES I N COT- new catalog of agricultural publications.
TON, by Trimble R. Hedges, Leaf. 98.                                                                               employees. The same was true of the pro-
                                                                                          ~                ~
                                                                                                                   portions of stores buying produce from
ESTABLISHING A RICE STAND, b y                                                                                     fruit and vegetable wholesalers.
D. C. Finfrock and M . D . Miller, Leaf. 99.                                  RETAIL                                 Jessie V . Cobs is Professor of Family Eco-
SOIL MOISTURE TENSIOMETER, by                                     Continued from preceding page                    nomics, University of California, Berkeley.
S. J . Richards and R. M . Hagan, Leaf.                                                                              Marilyn Dunsing is Assistant Professor of
                                                              One fourth of the stores carrying fresh              Home Economics, University of California,
100.                                                       fruits and vegetables in Butte County re-               Davis.



                                                          DONATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH


                                                 10 Madrone logs, 2 chinkapin
                                                                                                                    ,
               Contributions to the University of California for research by the Division of Agricultural Sciences, accepted in February, 1958


     State Board of Forestry.
                                     BERKELEY
                                ................
                                                                                      U. S. Public Health Service (Continued)
                                                                                             For research on detection, identification, and differ-
                                                                                                                                                                                I
                                                    logs, 5 Calif. black oak                                           f
                                                                                               entiation of the virus o vesicular exanthema from
                                                    logs, 3 tanoak logs                        other vesicular disease viruses. . . .       . . . . . . .$5,486.00
                     For research in drying, mechanical tests,
                                and gluing studies                                                                      LOS ANGELES
     Stauffer Chemical Co. ......................      .10 gals. Trithion 4-EK
                         For walnut insect investigations                             Norman F. Simmonds. ..........................     .37camellia plants
                                                                                                    For propagation and rootstock studies
                                       DAVIS
     Abbott Laboratories ..................................             .$1,500.00                                       RIVERSIDE
                    For research on the effects of gibberellic acid                   Air Pollution Foundation, ...................1 Clayton Dynamometer
                                   on vegetable crops                                               To aid work on the relationship between air
     California Sugar Beet Processors. .........................         $1,000.00                            pollution and plant damage
                   T o establish a grant-in-aid for the study of the                  Allied Chemical & Dye Corporatio
                     relationship of the green peach aphid to the
                             serious virus yellows problem
                                                                                             General Chemical Division                                 ...... . . .$500.00
     California Tomato Growers Assoc., Inc.. ....................         $500.00                For research on hexachloroacetone to determine its
                                                                                                        effectiveness and safety for control of
                            For research in food technology                                                 bermudagrass in citrus orchards
     Golf Course Superintendents Assoc. of Northern California. . . . . .$250.00      R. W. Harris. .................................                  1 Harris float valve
                               For the turfgrass program                                              For testing pfe-production float controlled
     National Renderers Assoc.. . . . . . . . . . : ................... .$2,000.00                                  irrigation valves
                 For research on the evaluation of nutritional value                  MeadJohnson& Co......................................                        $150.00
                    of meat scraD and devising ways and means o    f
                                 improving its quality                                                For supplies for studies in plant pathology
     Sugar Research Foundation, Inc.                                                  Rohm & Haas Research Laboratories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        . .$3,000.00
            To study the use of sugar in nonsweet foods. ....... .$1,000.00                         For field testing of insecticides and fungic
            For project to determine the consumer .acceptance and
               preference for wines sweetened with sucrose. ....... $750.00                                              STATEWIDE
            For research on the role o the sweetener in food
                                              f
               preservation ..................................           $2,2 50.00   Bl&e, Moffitt & Towne. .............1 roll 16” glassine brushing paper
            For study on the effects of sweetness on the consumers                                                                         l
                                                                                                   For the Imperial Valley Field Station, E Centro
               acceptance of apricots, pears and peaches. ..........     $2,500.00    Dessert Seed Company, Inc.. .....................      Various onion seeds
     U. S. Public Health Service                                                                        For the Imperial Valley Field Station
            For research on the effect of modifying the genotyp                       The Dow Chemical Co. ....................         .ll gals. of weed killers
               on anatomical, physiological and biochemical ex-
               pression of muscular dystrophy. .................$37,369.00                          For experiments at the Hopland Field Station
                                                                                                                                                                                 1
16                                                                                      CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, APRIL, 1958

				
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