Fruits, Vegetables at Retail
availability of fresh and frozen fruits, vegetables varies
with store size, location, and ownership as shown by survey
Jessie V. Coles and Marilyn Dunsing
The following article is the fourth of a series of portions of stores offering both the fresh All the larger stores-with seven or
reports of a survey of characteristics of and and the frozen. Butte had the highest pro- more equivalent full-time employees-
services offered by retail grocery stores in five
counties in California made cooperatively by the portion for fresh and San Diego the high- carried both fresh and frozen fruits and
Department of Home Economics, University of est for frozen. vegetables. Of those with 3-6 employees,
California,and the United States Department of In Alameda and Los Angeles the pro- 89% to 100% offered fresh and 93% to
Agriculture under the authority of the Research portions of stores in neighborhood- 100% stocked frozen products. Of those
and Marketing Act as part of Western Regional secondary shopping areas which carried with one or two employees, 85% to 98%
Research Project WM-26.
fresh and the proportions of the stores displayed fresh and 76% to 92% carried
From 94% to 99% of 1,028 represent- carrying frozen fruits and vegetables frozen fruits and vegetables.
ative retail grocery stores surveyed in were higher-88%-96%-than the pro-
Alameda, Butte, Fresno, Los Angeles, and portions of downtown stores-79%-
San Diego counties offered fresh or 90%. In Butte, the proportions of stores Sources
frozen-or both-fruits and vegetables offering fresh and of those offering frozen In each county a high proportion of
to their customers. products were higher in stores in the the stores offering fresh fruits and vege-
Fresh fruits and vegetables were avail- downtown areas than in stores in neigh- tables obtained them from only one
able slightly more frequently except in borhood-secondary areas. In Fresno, this source. That same practice was followed
San Diego where 94% of the stores car- was true for frozen fruits and vegetables by 98% of the stores in Alameda and
ried fresh and 96% carried frozen prod- but the reverse was true for the fresh 92% in Los Angeles. The next largest
ucts. products. proportion was 86% in Fresno. Butte
Both kinds of products were stocked Fresh fruits and vegetables were car- with 74% and San Diego with 69% had
by 83% to 92% of the stores. Relatively ried somewhat more frequently than the the lowest proportions.
small proportions of the stores in each frozen by the isolated stores. From 93% In San Diego, 28% of the stores carry-
county offered fresh products only or to 100% offered the fresh and from 74% ing the fresh products and 24% in Butte
frozen products only. Neither fresh nor to 94% had the frozen. bought from two sources. In Fresno,
frozen was carried by 1%to 6% of the All the chain stores-two or more 13%-and in the other counties, smaller
stores. units-carried frozen fruits and vege- proportions-obtained them from two
In the two counties which had the tables. With the exception of one chain sources. In San Diego 376, in Butte 2%
highest proportions of rural stores- in San Diego and one in Los Angeles and in the other counties less than 1%
Butte and Fresno-the rural stores car- all of them stocked fresh fruits and vege- bought from three or more sources.
ried fresh fruits and vegetables more fre- tables. Wholesale fruit and vegetable markets
quently than the frozen. Although all the The independent stores surveyed did -and wholesalers not in organized mar-
rural stores in Butte had fresh fruits and not carry fresh or frozen-or both- kets-were the major sources for the
vegetables only 87% stocked the frozen. fruits and vegetables as frequently as did stores. The relative importance of those
In Fresno 91% of the rural stores car- chain stores. Of the independents affili- two sources varied among counties.
ried fresh but only 73% offered the ated with buying groups from 95% to In Alameda, Los Angeles, and San
frozen. 100% carried fresh and the same propor- Diego counties 48% to 50% of the stores
In all five counties, from 90% to 99% tions carried frozen products. From 80% carrying fruits and vegetables bought at
of the urban stores stocked the fresh to 98% of the nonaffiliated independents least some of them from wholesale mar-
products and from 88% to 96% had the stocked fresh and 74% to 93% had kets. In Fresno 74% and in Butte only
frozen. Los Angeles had the lowest pro- frozen fruits and vegetables. 15% followed that practice.
Wholesalers outside the markets were
Mojor Sources From Which Stores Carrying Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Obtained Them patronized by over 80% of the stores in
Location Shopping area Ownership Number of employees
Butte, by 40% in San Diego, 43% in
Los Angeles, by 25% in Fresno and 28%
Rural Urban Neigh- Iso- Independent 1 3 7 15
:EzT ttli lafed UnafRli- AfRli- Chain
store ated ated
in Alameda counties.
Two other sources were reported as
rather important in several of the coun-
A. Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Markets ties. In Los Angeles 12% and in Alameda
Butte . ..
. . 35.5 .
65 .. . 1.
. .. . 23.3 36
. .. . 1.
13% of the stores carrying fresh fruits
Fresno ... . .
7. 75.2 6.
76 80.0 98
6. 80.0 7.
Son Diego ..
33 52.2 4.
4. and vegetables bought some from self-
Alameda ... + 06
11 * 43
5. 35.3 73
2. owned warehouses. In Alameda 72% and
Lor Angeles. * 80
55 60.0 51
4. in Los Angeles 50% of the chain stores
6. Fruit and Vegetable Wholesolers followed that practice. On the other hand
Butte .. . . . .
48 92.2 02
47 66.0 0.
7. 96.4 0.
only 35% of the chains in San Diego,
Fresno .. . . .
Son Diego . . 27.0 4.
83 33.3 13
4. 45.2 2.
2. 13% in Butte and 10% in Fresno re-
Alameda ... * 27.8 11.1 29.3 * 24
4. 15.8 .. . 38.8 18.8 .. . 9.1 ported that they obtained fresh fruits and
Lor Angeles. 42.7 03
3. 43.8 08
6. 4.76 65
5. 20.0 .
70 vegetables from self-owned warehouses.
Number of rural and o isolated stores were too small to be of significonce.
f Concluded an next page
CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, APRIL, 1958 15
Penalty lor private m e to avoid
payment of posuce, moo
University 01 Cdilorni. Collece
01 Amiculture. Agricultural Ex.
Wriment Station. Bcrkdq 4,
-now ready for distribution-
Single copies of these publications-except the
Manualr--or a catalog of Agricultural Publications
may be obtained without charge from the local office
of the Farm Advisor or by addressing a request to:
Agricultural Publications, 22 Giannini Hall, University
of California, Berkeley 4.
THE U . C. SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING
H E A LTH Y CO N T A I N E R-G R O W N
PLANTS, edited by Kenneth F. Baker,
Man. 23 ($1.00). GRADING LAND FOR SURFACE IR- ported that they bought, at least some,
CUCUMBER PRODUCTION IN CALI- RIGATION, by James C . Marr, Cir. 438 direct from farms or from farmers’ mar-
FORNIA, by Glen N. Davis and Bernarr (rev.). kets. Over 18% of the stores in San
J . Hall, Man. 24 (25$). SUDANGRASS FOR HAY, PASTURE, Diego and 13% in Fresno reported that
SEED, by Luther G . Jones, John R. practice.
RICE FERTILIZATION, by D. S. Mik- Gross, Milton D. Miller, and Maurice L. As shown in the table on the preceding
kelsen, D. C . Finfrock, and M. D. Miller, Peterson, Cir. 462. page, the proportions of stores that pa-
Leaf. 96. tronized wholesale fruit and vegetable
FERTILIZERS AND COVERCROPS markets did not vary significantly-in
WEED CONTROL IN RICE, by D. C . FOR CALIFORNIA ORCHARDS, by E . most counties-from one subclass to an-
Finfrock, K . L. Viste, W . A. Harvey, and L. Proebsting, Cir. 466. other within the major classifications
M . D. Miller, Leaf. 97. based on location, shopping area, owner-
AGRICULTURAL PUBLICATIONS, ship, and number of equivalent full-time
STAKES AND MISTAKES I N COT- new catalog of agricultural publications.
TON, by Trimble R. Hedges, Leaf. 98. employees. The same was true of the pro-
portions of stores buying produce from
ESTABLISHING A RICE STAND, b y fruit and vegetable wholesalers.
D. C. Finfrock and M . D . Miller, Leaf. 99. RETAIL Jessie V . Cobs is Professor of Family Eco-
SOIL MOISTURE TENSIOMETER, by Continued from preceding page nomics, University of California, Berkeley.
S. J . Richards and R. M . Hagan, Leaf. Marilyn Dunsing is Assistant Professor of
One fourth of the stores carrying fresh Home Economics, University of California,
100. fruits and vegetables in Butte County re- Davis.
DONATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
10 Madrone logs, 2 chinkapin
Contributions to the University of California for research by the Division of Agricultural Sciences, accepted in February, 1958
State Board of Forestry.
U. S. Public Health Service (Continued)
For research on detection, identification, and differ-
logs, 5 Calif. black oak f
entiation of the virus o vesicular exanthema from
logs, 3 tanoak logs other vesicular disease viruses. . . . . . . . . . .$5,486.00
For research in drying, mechanical tests,
and gluing studies LOS ANGELES
Stauffer Chemical Co. ...................... .10 gals. Trithion 4-EK
For walnut insect investigations Norman F. Simmonds. .......................... .37camellia plants
For propagation and rootstock studies
Abbott Laboratories .................................. .$1,500.00 RIVERSIDE
For research on the effects of gibberellic acid Air Pollution Foundation, ...................1 Clayton Dynamometer
on vegetable crops To aid work on the relationship between air
California Sugar Beet Processors. ......................... $1,000.00 pollution and plant damage
T o establish a grant-in-aid for the study of the Allied Chemical & Dye Corporatio
relationship of the green peach aphid to the
serious virus yellows problem
General Chemical Division ...... . . .$500.00
California Tomato Growers Assoc., Inc.. .................... $500.00 For research on hexachloroacetone to determine its
effectiveness and safety for control of
For research in food technology bermudagrass in citrus orchards
Golf Course Superintendents Assoc. of Northern California. . . . . .$250.00 R. W. Harris. ................................. 1 Harris float valve
For the turfgrass program For testing pfe-production float controlled
National Renderers Assoc.. . . . . . . . . . : ................... .$2,000.00 irrigation valves
For research on the evaluation of nutritional value MeadJohnson& Co...................................... $150.00
of meat scraD and devising ways and means o f
improving its quality For supplies for studies in plant pathology
Sugar Research Foundation, Inc. Rohm & Haas Research Laboratories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$3,000.00
To study the use of sugar in nonsweet foods. ....... .$1,000.00 For field testing of insecticides and fungic
For project to determine the consumer .acceptance and
preference for wines sweetened with sucrose. ....... $750.00 STATEWIDE
For research on the role o the sweetener in food
preservation .................................. $2,2 50.00 Bl&e, Moffitt & Towne. .............1 roll 16” glassine brushing paper
For study on the effects of sweetness on the consumers l
For the Imperial Valley Field Station, E Centro
acceptance of apricots, pears and peaches. .......... $2,500.00 Dessert Seed Company, Inc.. ..................... Various onion seeds
U. S. Public Health Service For the Imperial Valley Field Station
For research on the effect of modifying the genotyp The Dow Chemical Co. .................... .ll gals. of weed killers
on anatomical, physiological and biochemical ex-
pression of muscular dystrophy. .................$37,369.00 For experiments at the Hopland Field Station
16 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, APRIL, 1958