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THE IMPACT OF HOUSING DEMOLITION AND FORCE EVICTION ON PROPERTYRENTAL VALUES IN ABUJA, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY (FCT), NIGERIA: ACASE STUDY OF SABON LUGBE

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When Sabon-Lugbe- an informal settlement- was demolished in 2009, the affected people majorly relocated to the nearby FHA (Federal Housing Authority) Estate, Lugbe, this scenario of unprecedented population upsurge distorted the normal property market conditions. The demand for accommodation surpassed that of available housing supply in the area. Real estate supply being an inelastic one necessitated the owners of few available residential and commercial accommodations to increase the rental values. This work assesses the impact of the Sabon-Lugbe demolition on the rental value of residential and commercial properties in FHA housing estate Lugbe, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

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									Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management                  Volume 3, December 2011

                                        © 2011 Cenresin Publications
                                           www.cenresinpub.org

   THE IMPACT OF HOUSING DEMOLITION AND FORCE EVICTION ON PROPERTY
   RENTAL VALUES IN ABUJA, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY (FCT), NIGERIA: A
                       CASE STUDY OF SABON LUGBE

                                          Salau L. Tunde
                                Department of Estate Management
                             Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi, Nigeria
                                     Email: ltsalau@fptb.edu.ng

ABSTRACT
When Sabon-Lugbe- an informal settlement- was demolished in 2009, the affected people
majorly relocated to the nearby FHA (Federal Housing Authority) Estate, Lugbe, this scenario
of unprecedented population upsurge distorted the normal property market conditions. The
demand for accommodation surpassed that of available housing supply in the area. Real
estate supply being an inelastic one necessitated the owners of few available residential and
commercial accommodations to increase the rental values. This work assesses the impact of
the Sabon-Lugbe demolition on the rental value of residential and commercial properties in
FHA housing estate Lugbe, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The study utilized 122
retrieved questionnaires from the evictees and it reveals that the housing demolition and
forced eviction at Sabon-Lugbe village, Abuja brought about the residential property annual
rental trends of 9333.33, 82333.3 and 67333.3 for 1 bedroom, 2 bedroom and 3 bedroom
flats respectively in 2009-2010. Also, change in annual rental trend of commercial property of
17933.3 and 36000 were experienced in the study area for lock-up shops and office spaces
due to high demand brought about by population upsurge from Sabon-Lugbe evictees. The
paper suggests that enough notice be given to the potential evictees before final demolition
and also private investors should be involved in the provision of mass housing and
infrastructural development in the FHA, Estate, Lugbe, Abuja, FCT Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Housing Demolition, Rental Values, Residential property, Commercial property,
Forced eviction.

INTRODUCTION
Federal Capital Territory was created in 1976 by Decree No. 6 of the same year. Due to
huge migration of people from various parts of Nigeria and beyond, land value and housing
rental value have increased. This has made living within the urban centre by the low income
earners very difficult. Majority of this class of populace seeks accommodation at the
periphery of the city of which Sabon Lugbe Village is inclusive. Sabon Lugbe is a sub-urban
centre at the outskirt of Abuja city along Airport road. Due to its proximity to Abuja city
centre, being serviced by a well tarred dual-carriage way (Airport Road), its closeness to
Federal Housing Authority (FHA) Housing Estate, Lugbe, low property rental value and easy
access to informal land etc., all contributed to the reasons while poor inhabitants prefer this
squatter settlement. In 2006, Development control Department of Federal Capital
Development Authority (FCDA) issued Quit Notice and carried out building enumeration of
the area for demolition. However, not until March 2009, before the real demolition of the
structure was carried out. This impromptus demolition and eviction brought about a mass
                                                 79
The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in    Salau L. Tunde
Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe


influx of people into and subsequent accommodation seeking in the nearby FHA Housing
Estate in Lugbe. This increase in demand for housing brought about unprecedented change
in rental trend in the neighborhood. This paper examines the impact of the forced eviction
and demolition, with its subsequent population increase on the residential rental value in
Lugbe, Abuja Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

LITERATURE REVIEW
The review of the literature for this study is based on forced eviction and housing demolition,
population and rental values.

FORCED EVICTION AND HOUSING DEMOLITION
Eviction is defined as an involuntary or forceful removal of people and property from their
homes by whatever means. (Agbola and Junaidu, 1997). Eviction may be induced by
natural factors or disasters (e.g. fire outbreaks, floods – as experienced recently in Pakistan;
earthquakes as in Kobe, Japan; Tornadoes, as it happened in Florida, U.S.A. e.t.c.), wars or
colonization. This type of eviction is known as voluntary movement or population transfer.
However, forced eviction is usually an officially sanctioned act which has many harmful
consequences for the affected person or group. Schechla (1994) opines that it is sometimes
violent and socially, economically or radically discriminatory in nature. Forced eviction started
in the United Kingdom in the early nineteen century to reduce overcrowding and to clear
informal settlements. Agbola and Junaidu, (1997) emphasis how it has become a common
mean by which land occupied predominantly by low-income groups is cleared for
redevelopment. Environment and Urbanization (1994) concludes that millions of people are
forcibly evicted from their homes annually in urban areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Sculler and Calson (1981) assert that forced eviction and relocation have been known to
inflict serious adverse consequences on the people concern. They are of the opinion that
forced resettlement is the worst thing you can be done to a people next to killing them.
Urban dislocation is likely to create social and psychological problems for the affected
evictee. Dislocation as observed by Fried (1963) may lead to personal suffering. Smith
(1986) and Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (1989) identify that most of those people who
were evicted in Seoul, South Korea between 1960 and 1990 could not afford houses in the
redeveloped areas and were forced to pay higher prices for smaller spaces in the nearby
neighborhoods. The dislocation that accompanied eviction in Tel-Aviv brought about broken
community ties, family life suffering, high cost of job accessibility, distortion in children
schooling e.t.c. (Asian Coalition for Housing Right, 1989). Housing and housing related
matters were considered as the topmost problems being encountered by evictees of Maroko
demolition in Lagos State in 1990. About 21% of these people considered high rent as the
major housing problem. (Agbola and Jinadu, 1997).

POPULATION AND RENTAL VALUE
Housing is one of basic necessities of life. An increasing in population means an increasing
demand for housing. Nigeria with population of about 140 Million, with an annual increase of

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Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management               Volume 3, December 2011


2.5% relates to more demand for accommodation, and where such demand could not be
readily met or supplied, the value of the available ones increases. Increase in population of
an area brings about increase in rental value. Demolition of housing units means reduction in
available accommodation or decrease in supply. And decrease in supply, in an economic term
always leads to increase in price i.e. increase in rental value. There are many ways by which
population of an area can be increased, which include, natural birth, reduction in death rate,
early marriage, migration etc. Migration of people into on area may be induced by pull or
push factor. Pull factors relates to favorable conditions or situation which give an area a
comparative advantage over another neighborhood, hence, attracting people therein e.g.
good infrastructural facilities, availability of job, etc. Push factor relates to unfavorable
conditions which have been making the inhabitants of an area to relocate or leaving such
area e.g. natural disasters, forced eviction, diseases, lack of infrastructural facilities etc.
Rental value is defined as the periodic payment made by an occupier to a property owner for
the use or enjoyment of property owner’s accommodation. (Salau and Shitta-Gbeko, 2004).
The rental payment may be made annually bi-annually, quarterly, monthly etc. An increase in
population of an area being induced by any means brings about increase in rental value.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF ABUJA AND SATELLITE SETTLEMENTS
Federal government of Nigeria, having realized the inadequacies of Lagos as the nation’s
capital, decided in 1976 to establish a new Federal Capital in a location described by Late
General Murtala as a place which possesses easy accessibility from all parts of the country by
road, rail and air which would facilitate the administration of the country. He further stressed
that the new capital shall serve as a symbol of Nigerian unity and greatness and from the
view point of national security, be less vulnerable to external aggression, as it would be
practically immune to sea – borne attack. Abuja a city of about 8,000 square kilometers in
the central part of the country was selected as the new capital city. The few local inhabitants
in the area, which needed to be moved out of the territory for planning purposes, would be
resettled outside the area in places of their choice at Government expenses (Mabogunje,
1977). FCT Act was enacted in 1976; it vests the entire 8, 0000 square kilometers of the FCT
land area in the Federal Government of Nigeria. The Master plan of Abuja listed 40 villages
that would be relocated at the initial stage and additional 85 villages would have to be
relocated as the city expends to the 3.1 million ultimate populations. (IPA, 1979; Jubril,
2006)

GOVERNMENT POLICY CHANGES
Four major Government policy changes were observed within the FCT between 1976 and
2003. This includes:
   • The First Policy Change-1978
      The decision to relocate all the inhabitants of Abuja was reversed by this first policy
      change. The reason for this was that the population of the city was about 316,000
      which were underestimated as between 25,000-50,000. This brought the
      compensation payable to the local inhabitants to about 1.8 Billion naira. Government


                                                81
The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in        Salau L. Tunde
Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe


        decided to spend the money on infrastructural development rather than compensation
        as stated by General Obasanjo on July 13th, 1978
    •   The Second Policy Change –1992
        This is known as integration policy. This allows those that ready to remain in the FCT
        to be integrated therein. E.g. Garki village within Garki II District of the City in phase I
        was allowed to remain.
    •   The Third Policy Change –1999
        This brought the reversal of integration policy. Jabi, Kado, Gwarinpa and other villages
        within phase II of the city were slated for resettlement outside of FCC at Jibi
        Resettlement Town. This was subsequently occupied by men of Nigerian Police Force
        in 2003.
    •   The Fourth Policy Change –2003
        This is known as restoration policy embarked upon aiming at the complete restoration
        of original Abuja Master Plan. This involves the complete resettlement of all areas
        hitherto earmarked for resettlement by the plan.

THE IMPACTs OF THESE POLICY CHANGES ON SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS AND
HOUSING DEMOLITION
The inconsistency in government policy with regard to resettlement in FCT brought about the
springing up of squatter settlements within the FCT. However, section 44 (2) of the FCT
Development Control Regulations states that it shall be unlawful to commence the excavation
or the construction of any building or other structures without the permit from Development
Control Department. Because development control was inadequate to timely enforce this
legal provision, illegal developments within the territory were rampant. Early movement of
government functions from Lagos to Abuja in 1982/1983 instead of 1986 initial planned also
led to the emergence of number of shanty-towns and squatter settlements that were rapidly
developed, generally unplanned, overcrowded and lacking basic amenities and infrastructure
(Jubril, 2006).

TABLE 1: LIST OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS WITHIN THE FCT.
 ID            NAME                 TYPE                         AREA HA      DISTRICT
      1.       BAKASI MARKET        MARKET                       20.7         CENTRAL AREA
      2.       ZONE 3               MECHANICS                    5.9          WUSE I
      3.       GARKI                VILLAGE/MARKETS              19.0         GARKI II
      4.       GUZAPE               VILLAGE                      225.8        GUZAPE
      5.       GARKI VILLAGE        MARKET                       14.7         GUDU
      6.       APO                  VILLAGE/MARKETS              46.8         DURUMI, GUDU
      7.       DURUMI               SQUATTER                     32.3         DURUMI
      8.       MABUSHI              SQUATTER/MARKET              15.5         MABUSHI
      9.       KATAMPE              VILLAGE                      13.9         KATAMPE
      10.      GADUWA               VILLAGE                      9.4          GADUWA
      11.      DUTSE                SQUATTER                     189.0        DUTSE
      12.      DUTSE                VILLAGE                      21.1         DUTSE
      13.      WUMBA                VILLAGE                      5.3          WUMBA

                                                    82
Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management             Volume 3, December 2011


     14.      MADA                SQUATTER                  165.4    OUTSIDE FCC
     15.      KURBO               SQUATTER/MARKET           54.5     OUTSIDE FCC
     16.      KUCHIGORO           OLD VILLAGE               3.7      KUKWABA
     17.      KUCHIGORO           SQUATTER                  59.9     KUKWABA
     18.      KARMAJIJI           SQUATTER                  37.9     KUKWABA
     19.      WUYE                SQUATTER                  2.4      WUYE
     20.      JABI                SQUATTER                  14.0     JABI
     21.      JABI                SQUATTER                  4.3      JABI
     22.      JABI/DAKIBIYU       SQUATTER                  51.6     JABI/DAKIBIYU
     23.      UTAKO               SQUATTER                  11.9     UTAKO
     24.      KARMO               SQUATTER                  524.0    KARMO
     25.      GWARINPA            SQUATTER                  408.0    GWARINPA I
     26.      DAPE                SQUATTER                  455.0    DAPE
              TOTAL                                         2412
SOURCE: ABUJA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (AGIS), 2004

CAUSES OF SQUATTER SETTLMENTS WITHIN FCT
The following reasons are adduced as the reasons for the springing up of squatter
settlements within the FCT
(a) Government Policy Changes.
The inconsistency in government policy makes many to believe that government was not
serious with the issue of resettlements.
(b) Lack of low-cost Housing:
The available government houses have been occupied. The private developers are interested
in the development of mansions for high income earners in order to maximize profit.
(c) Low compensation Payable:
Nigerian law only makes provision for compensation payable on unexhausted improvements
and economic trees under the heads of claims. Ground rent payable in year of acquisition is
considered as compensation on bare land. People resort to selling their lands at a much
higher value to individuals and other private concerns.
(d) Ignorance
Majority of people are of ignorance of the fact that FCT landmass is vest in the government
of the Federation. Also that alienation of customary holding is not to be done without the
consent of the Authority. This breach of law leads to the flourishing of a vibrant illegal land
market, which was perceived to be the easiest way to land acquisition by squatters.
Traditional rulers perceived the local land to be their ancestral land and found it more
expedient and lucrative to sell it out rightly without resorting to government regulatory
bodies. Slow processes of obtaining government title to land, building plan approval etc, and
being very expensive makes a lot of squatters to resort to faster ways of obtaining illegal and
informal land and development of unplanned and squatter settlements.
(e) High Population
The massive influx of people into territory coupled with weak development control apparatus,
contributed to the shortages of houses and subsequent growth of squatter settlements.
(f) Weak Mortgage Institution.
                                                 83
The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in   Salau L. Tunde
Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe


Lastly, lack of well organized mortgage institutions debar private developers in obtaining
long-term housing loan for low-income group in the society

REASONS FOR DEMOLITION OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENT IN FCT
These are the reasons why government embarks on demolition of squatter settlements within
Federal Capital Territory (FCT).
   1.     Distortion of Original Master Plan
          The existence of the settlements within the city area and its environs constitutes a
          serious distortion of the original Master Plan of the city and that of the Regional
          Development Plans of the FCT.
   2.     Crime
          Squatter settlements have become a breeding ground for unscrupulous elements
          leading to increasing crime rate within the city and it’s environ.
   3.     Low Revenue Generation
          Government has been losing a lot of revenue because nobody is actually in charge
          of squatter settlements. Revenue is neither generated nor collected by either the
          FCT administration or the Municipal Councils in these settlements leading to
          dwindling revenue generation.
   4.     Health Hazard
          Existence of these squatter settlements poses serious health hazards not only to
          the people residing within the settlements, but to other inhabitants of the FCT
          because of the squalid conditions.
   5.     Display of Commitment by the Government.
          It is very evident that, for government to be taken serious, it has to turn the
          current situation around for good. Since year 2003, the FCT administration has
          concluded to return the city to the original provisions of the Master Plan by the
          demolition of these squatter settlements. (Ago and Jibril, 1999; Ayileka and Kalgo,
          2001; Jibril, 2006; 1990 and 2000).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research work covers Sabon-Lugbe village demolition, eviction and relocation and its
effect on the rental value. The population size for the study is about 2050 people relocated to
FHA, Lugbe. The data was obtained from Resettlement Department of Federal Capital
Development Authority (FCDA), Abuja. The sample size is 20% of the total population size
which is about 400. This constituted the total number of questionnaires distributed. However,
due to the problems of identification of the affected persons in their current abode, only 122
questionnaires were being retrieved. The analysis of which is displayed below. Trend Analysis
was used to graphically show and statistically analyze the annual rental values trend of both
the residential and commercial properties. This is shown in the appendix.




                                                    84
Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management              Volume 3, December 2011


DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
TABLE 2: Questionnaires Distribution and Retrieval in the Study Area
  S/NO QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER
     1.   Distribution         400
     2.   Retrieved            122
Source: Field Survey, April, 2011

Table 2 above shows that, out of 400 questionnaires distributed, 122 were successfully
completed and retrieved. This constitutes 30.5% of the total questionnaires distributed.
ATBLE 3: SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS
 SEX                     RESPONDENT                   PERCENTAGE
 MALE                    88                           72%
 FEMALE                  34                           28%
 TOTAL                   122                          100%
Source: Field Survey, April, 2011
Table 3 above reveals that majority (about 72%) of residents are male, while about 28% are
female.

TABLE 4: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS
 AGE                     RESPONDENT                   PERCENTAGE
 DISTRIBUTION
 Below 20                18                           14.7%
 21-40                   56                           46.0%
 41-60                   33                           27.0%
 Above 60                15                           12.3%
     TOTAL               122                          100%
Source: Field Survey, April, 2011
Table 4 displays the age distribution of the respondents. Majority (46%) of the respondents
are within the age bracket 21-40 years old while age bracket below 20 years, 41-60 years
and above 60 years constitute about 15%, 27% and 12% respectively.

TABLE 5: IMPACT OF DEMOLITION ON RENTAL VALUE IN THE STUDY
 IMPACT           ON     RESPONDENT                   PERCENTAGE
 RENT
 Yes                     98                           80
 No                      24                           20
     TOTAL               122                          100%
Source: Field Survey, April, 2011




                                                 85
The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in          Salau L. Tunde
Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe




]Table 5 shows the responses of the affected people in the demolition exercise with respect
to the impact of the displacement on the property rental values in FHA housing Estate,
Lugbe. Majority about 80% of the respondents are of the opinion that the housing demolition
and forced eviction have serious impact on the property rental values in the study area.,
however, about 20% of the respondents says that the demolition has no impact on the
property rental value.

TABLE 6: RENTAL VALUE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTEIES IN THE STUDY AREA BEFORE AND AFTER
THE DEMOLITION.
 TYPES                  2005                       2006       2007       2008       2009    2010
 1 BEDROOM              60,000                     65,000     75,000     85,000     100,000 220,000
 2 BEDROOM              135,000                    140,000 170,000 165,000 180,000 300,000
    3BEDROOM            180,000                    200,000 210,000 220,000 250,000 550,000
Source: Field Survey, April, 2011

TABLE 7: RENTAL VALUE OF COMMERCIAL PROPERTY IN THE STUDY AREA BEFORE AND AFTER
THE DEMOLITION.
 TYPES              2005                    2006     2007      2008     2009       2010

 LOCK-UP SHOP       50,000                  60,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 120,000
 OFFICE             65,000                  70,000 75,000 80,000 90,000 160,000
 (4MX4M)

Source: Field Survey, August, 2010

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
The study reveals the following findings
1.    Majority (46%) of the affected persons in the housing demolition and the forced
      eviction of Sabon-Lugbe village were between 21-40 years of age.
2.    About 80% of the respondents are of the opinion that the housing demolition
      contributed to the change in rental trend in FHA Housing, Lugbe, Abuja, FCT. This
      happens because of population influx into the area from Sabon-Lugbe squatter
      settlements during the demolition exercise of March, 2009.
3.    The residential property annual rental trends changed in 2009-2010 from normal trend
      to 9333.33, 82333.3 and 67333.3 for 1 bedroom, 2 bedroom and 3 bedroom flats
                                                    86
 Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management              Volume 3, December 2011

       respectively in FHA Housing, Lugbe. This was due to the population increase in the
       study area brought about by the housing demolition and forced eviction in Sabon-
       Lugbe village, Abuja, FCT in March, 2009. (See Appendix)
4.     Change in annual rental trend of commercial property of 17933.3 and 36000 were
       experienced in the study area due to high demand brought about by population
       upsurge from Sabon-Lugbe evictees. (See Appendix)


RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations are hereby made based on the findings of the research
      study.
(1)   Government should as a matter of urgency creates a prompt awareness for people
      whose landed properties were to be affected by the demolition in the federal capital
      territory.
(2)   The areas being demolished and cleared should be assumed immediately and
      development should be started by the acquiring authority in order to avoid re-entry by
      squatters.
(3)   More commitment and seriousness should be displayed by government through
      consistent and well directed policy implementation.
(4)   Complete demolition and clearance should be embarked upon by government rather
      than selective demolition as the indigenes whose houses were spared are harboring
      the squatters whose properties were demolished.
(5)   More satellite towns should be established by government through the Public Private
      Partnership (PPP) in the areas of infrastructural provision and housing construction.
(6)   Development Control Department of FCDA should be strengthened strategically and
      materially in order to perform its functions effectively.
(7)   Enough notice should be given to the prospective evictees before forced eviction and
      housing demolition is carried out in the future this shall reduce the socio-psychological
      trauma being experienced by the affected people..
(8)   More amenities should be provided in FHA Lugbe Housing Estate to supplement the
      increased population demand currently experienced in the study area.
(9)   The current dualization of the airport road together with Airport-Gwarinpa Housing
      Estate linkage road currently being embarked upon by Federal Government is a right
      step in the right direction to solve traffic hold-upon currently experienced by the FHA,
      Lugbe inhabitants along airport road.
(10) Government should continue to pursue the realization of original Abuja Master Plan in
      order for the Federal Capital City to be a role model for all the other state capitals in
      Nigeria and be competing with other federal capital cities of the developed worlds.




                                                87
 The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in   Salau L. Tunde
 Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe.


 CONCLUSION
 The housing demolition and forced eviction of the Sabon-Lugbe village in Abuja brought
  about untold hardship on the affected persons.
 The forced eviction brought about population influx into FHA Housing Estate, Lugbe and has
 actually affected the housing demand in the area. The rental value doubled within a year of
 demolition and brought about unexpected pressure on the available infrastructural facilities in
 the area e.g. the traffic congestion, water, electricity etc government needs to be more
 consistent in her policy execution with regard to ensuring that the original Abuja Master Plan
 is actually followed. Private sector and all necessary stakeholders need to be involved in the
 implementation of the Abuja Master plan.

 REFERENCES
 Agbola, T, and Jinadu (1997):” Forced Eviction and Forced Relocation in Nigeria: The
 Experience of those Evicted from Maroko in 1990”. Environment and Urbanization, Vol.
 9,       No      2.       Pages     271-286        download      on    line     from
 http://eau.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/9/2/27 on 11/01/2011

 Ago, U.S and Jibril, I.U et al (Editors) (1999): Report of the Ministerial Committee for
 The Appraisal of Physical Planning and Development Issues in the FCT, Abuja MFCT/FCDA

 Ayileka, O. and Kalgo, M.S.U. Editors (2001): “The Review of Abuja Master Plan” Proceedings
 of an International Workshop for the Review of the Abuja Master Plan held in Abuja
 November, 29th – December, 2nd (1999). MFCT, Abuja, Nigeria

 Asian Coalition for housing Rights (1989): “Evictions in Seoul, South Korea”, Environment
 and Urbanization Vol. 1, No. 1, April, Pages 89-94.


Audefroy, J. (1994); “Eviction Trends Worldwide and the role of Local Authorities in Implement
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Chartterjee, L. (1983); “Migration, Housing and Equity in Developing Countries” Regional
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 Ephraim, Y. Y. et al (1979); “Reactions to rehousing; Loss of Community or frustrations”.
Urban Studies Vol. 16, No. 7 pages 133-138.

 Fried, M. (1963): “Grieving for a Lost home”. In Duhl, L. (Editor) (1963), The Urban
 Condition, Basic Books, New York.

Jibril, U.I (2006): “Resettlement Issues, Squatter Settlements and Problems of Law
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  Conference March 8-11.

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Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management             Volume 3, December 2011


IPA (1979): The Master Plan for Abuja the New Federal Capital of Nigeria FCDA.

Jibril, I.U. (2000): Policy Changes on Resettlement and Law Administration in Abuja. Nigeria’s
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Jibril, I.U. (1990): “Resettlement Problems in Usman Town of Nigeria’s New Federal Capital
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Scudder, T and E. Colson (1981); “From Welfare to Development; a ConceptualFramework for
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Smith, D.W. (1976): “Urban Renewal in an Asian context: A Case study of Hong Kong”,
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Salau, L.T and T. Shittu-Gbeko (2004): Principles of Introductory Valuation.
       Abike Press, Saki, Nigeria.




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The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in          Salau L. Tunde
Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe.


APPENDIX

           Trend in Residential Rental Value in the Study Area-1 bedroom flat

                                              Linear Trend Model
                                            Yt = 9333.33 + 26142.9*t

           220000                                                                             Actual
                                                                                              Fits
                                                                                              Forecasts
                                                                                              Actual
                                                                                              Fits
      values                                                                                  Forecasts


           120000




                                                                                      MAPE:                  27
                                                                                      MAD:                27238
            20000                                                                     MSD:             1.02E+09

                        2005 2006        2007     2008     2009    2010    2011    2012
                                                    Year




                                                    90
Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management                     Volume 3, December 2011


        Trend in Residential Rental Value in the Study Area-2 bedroom flat

                                      Linear Trend Model
                                    Yt = 82333.3 + 27428.6*t

        300000                                                                    Actual
                                                                                  Fits
                                                                                  Forecasts
                                                                                  Actual
                                                                                  Fits
                                                                                  Forecasts
   values
        200000




                                                                             MAPE:         14
                                                                             MAD:        27048
        100000                                                               MSD:     9.95E+08
                   2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
                                          Year




                                                91
The Impact of Housing Demolition and Force Eviction on Property Rental Values in                                Salau L. Tunde
Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria: A Case Study of Sabon Lugbe.


                   Trend in Residential Rental Value in the Study Area-3 bedroom flat
                                                 Linear Trend Model
                                            Yt = 67333.3 + 57428.6*t
                   600000                                                                           Actual
                                                                                                    Fits
                                                                                                    Forecasts
                   500000
                                                                                                    Actual
                                                                                                    Fits
                                                                                                    Forecasts
                   400000
      values




                   300000


                   200000
                                                                                            MAPE:                  26
                                                                                            MAD:                70381
                   100000                                                                   MSD:             6.69E+09

                            2005   2006   2007      2008      2009     2010   2011   2012

                                                      Time


                   Trend in Residential Rental Value in the Study Area-Lock up Shop
                                                 Linear Trend Model
                                            Yt = 17933.3 + 12542.9*t

                                                                                                    Actual
                                                                                                    Fits
                                                                                                    Forecasts
                   100000
                                                                                                    Actual
                                                                                                    Fits
                                                                                                    Forecasts
      v a lu e s




                    50000



                                                                                            MAPE:                 156
                                                                                            MAD:                21105
                       0                                                                    MSD:             6.61E+08

                            2005   2006   2007      2008      2009     2010   2011   2012
                                                      year


                                                              92
Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management                   Volume 3, December 2011



       Trend in Commercial Rental Value in the Study Area-Offices(4mx4m)
                                      Linear Trend Model
                                    Yt = 36000 + 15428.6*t

                                                                                Actual
        150000                                                                  Fits
                                                                                Forecasts
                                                                                Actual
                                                                                Fits
                                                                                Forecasts
    values
        100000




                                                                        MAPE:             17
                                                                        MAD:            16048
         50000                                                          MSD:         3.47E+08
                   2005   2006   2007   2008    2009   2010   2011   2012
                                          Year




                                                93

								
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