chapter 23 by 4ibl3Fk

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 125

									Essentials of Fire Fighting and
 Fire Department Operations,
          5th Edition
Chapter 23 — Operations at Haz
         Mat Incidents
         Firefighter I
Chapter 23 Lesson Goal

• After completing this lesson, the
 student shall be able to summarize the
 basic operations at haz mat and
 terrorist incidents and perform
 emergency decontamination and
 defensive procedures following the
 policies and procedures set forth by the
 authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).
                  Firefighter I
                     23–1
Specific Objectives

 1. Summarize incident priorities for all
    haz mat and terrorist incidents.
 2. Discuss the management structure at
    haz mat or terrorist incidents.
 3. Describe the problem-solving stages
    at haz mat and terrorist incidents.

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–2
Specific Objectives

 4. Explain how the strategic goal of
    isolation and scene control is
    achieved.
 5. Explain how the strategic goal of
    notification is achieved.


                                        (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–3
Specific Objectives

 6. Explain how the strategic goal of
    ensuring the safety of responders and
    the public is achieved.
 7. Summarize general guidelines for
    decontamination operations.
 8. Describe the three types of
    decontamination.
                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–4
Specific Objectives

 9. Discuss implementing
    decontamination.
10. Discuss rescue at haz mat incidents.
11. Explain how the strategic goal of spill
    control and confinement is achieved.


                                       (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–5
Specific Objectives

12. Discuss crime scene management and
    evidence preservation.
13. Explain actions taken during the
    recovery and termination phase of a
    haz mat or terrorist incident.
14. Perform emergency decontamination.
    (Skill Sheet 23-I-1)
                                   (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–6
Specific Objectives

15. Perform defensive control functions –
    Absorption. (Skill Sheet 23-I-2)
16. Perform defensive control functions –
    Diking. (Skill Sheet 23-I-3)
17. Perform defensive control functions –
    Damming. (Skill Sheet 23-I-4)

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–7
Specific Objectives

18. Perform defensive control functions –
    Diversion. (Skill Sheet 23-I-5)
19. Perform defensive control functions –
    Retention. (Skill Sheet 23-I-6)



                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–8
Specific Objectives

20. Perform defensive control functions –
    Dilution. (Skill Sheet 23-I-7)
21. Perform defensive control functions –
    Vapor dispersion. (Skill Sheet 23-I-8)




                 Firefighter I
                    23–9
Incident Priorities

• Life safety
• Incident stabilization
• Protection of property




                 Firefighter I
                    23–10
Management Structure

• Firefighters will initiate/operate within
  their standard incident command
  system at haz mat incidents; may be
  some differences from other incidents
• Firefighters must operate in accordance
  with predetermined procedures

                                         (Continued)


                   Firefighter I
                      23–11
Management Structure

• According to 29 CFR 1910.120,
 Hazardous Waste Operations and
 Emergency Response, all organizations
 that respond to haz mat incidents are
 required to have an emergency
 response plan



                Firefighter I
                   23–12
Four Elements of Problem-
Solving, Decision-Making Models

• Information gathering, input, analysis
  stage
• Processing and/or planning stage
• Implementation or output stage
• Review or evaluation stage



                 Firefighter I
                    23–13
Analyzing the Situation




           Courtesy of Tom Clawson, Technical Resources Group, Inc.

• Size-up
• Incident levels
                            Firefighter I
                               23–14
Planning Appropriate Response

• Strategic goals and tactical objectives
• Modes of operation
• Incident action plans




                  Firefighter I
                     23–15
Implementing the IAP

• After strategic goals have been selected
  and IAP formulate, the IC can
  implement the plan
• Strategic goals are met by achieving
  tactical objectives
• Tactical objectives accomplished or
  conducted by performing specific tasks

                 Firefighter I
                    23–16
Reviewing or Evaluating
Progress

• Final aspect of problem-solving process
• If IAP is effective, IC should receive
 favorable progress and incident should
 begin to stabilize



                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–17
Reviewing or Evaluating
Progress

• If mitigation efforts failing or situation
  getting worse, plan must be
  reevaluated and possibly revised
• Plan must be reevaluated as new
  information becomes available/
  circumstances change

                                          (Continued)


                   Firefighter I
                      23–18
Reviewing or Evaluating
Progress

• If initial plan not working, must be
 changed by selecting new strategies or
 changing tactics used to achieve




                  Firefighter I
                     23–19
Isolation and Scene Control

• One of primary strategic goals at haz
  mat incidents; one of most important
  means by which responders can ensure
  safety of themselves/others
• Separating people from potential source
  of harm necessary to protect life safety
  of all
                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–20
Isolation and Scene Control

• Necessary to prevent spread of
  hazardous materials through cross
  contamination
• Isolation involves physically
  securing/maintaining emergency scene
  by establishing isolation perimeters and
  denying entry to unauthorized persons

                 Firefighter I
                    23–21
Isolation Perimeter

• Boundary established to prevent
  access by public and unauthorized
  persons
• May be established before the type of
  incident/attack is positively identified


                                      (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–22
Isolation Perimeter

• If incident is inside a building, isolation
  perimeter might be set at outside
  entrance, accomplished by posting
  personnel to deny entry



                                          (Continued)


                   Firefighter I
                      23–23
Isolation Perimeter

• If incident is outside,
  perimeter might be
  set at surrounding
  intersections with
  response vehicles/law
  enforcement officers
  diverting traffic and
  pedestrians                      (Continued)


                   Firefighter I
                      23–24
Isolation Perimeter

• Isolation perimeter can be
 expanded/reduced as needed; used to
 control both access and egress from
 scene



                                  (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–25
Isolation Perimeter

• Law enforcement officers are often
  used to establish and maintain isolation
  perimeters
• Once hazard-control zones are
  established, isolation perimeter is
  generally considered to be boundary
  between public and cold (safe) zone

                 Firefighter I
                    23–26
Hazard-Control Zones




            Firefighter I
               23–27
Additional Zones

•   Additional areas may be required
•   Decontamination zone
•   Area of safe refuge
•   Staging area
•   Rehabilitation area
•   Triage/treatment area


                   Firefighter I
                      23–28
Notification Process

• Emergency response plans must
  ensure responders understand their
  role in notification processes and
  predetermined procedures



                                   (Continued)


               Firefighter I
                  23–29
Notification Process

             • Notification may be as
                simple as dialing 9-1-
                1 (in North America)
                to report an incident
                and get additional
                help dispatched

                                   (Continued)


             Firefighter I
                23–30
Notification Process

• Strategic goal of notification may also
 include such items as incident-level
 identification and public emergency
 information/notification



                                        (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–31
Notification Process

• Better to dispatch more resources than
 necessary in an initial response to
 ensure appropriate weight of attack to
 combat incident conditions




                 Firefighter I
                    23–32
Other Agencies

• Notification involves contacting law
  enforcement whenever a terrorist or
  criminal incident is suspected
• Notify other agencies that an incident
  has occurred


                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–33
Other Agencies

• Procedures will differ between military
  and civilian agencies as well as from
  country to country
• Always follow SOPs/OIs and emergency
  response plans for notification
  procedures



                  Firefighter I
                     23–34
Process for Notification

• Because some haz mat incidents and
   terrorist attacks have potential to
   overwhelm local responders, it is
   important to know how to request
   additional resources


                                         (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–35
Process for Notification

• Process should be spelled out through
 local, district, regional, state, national
 emergency response plans




                                         (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–36
Process for Notification

• In the U.S., notification process is
  spelled out in National Response Plan
  (NRP); all local, state, federal
  emergency response plans must
  comply with these provisions


                                         (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–37
Process for Notification

• Local emergency response plan (LERP)
 should be first resource a responder in
 U.S. should turn to if they need to
 request outside assistance




                Firefighter I
                   23–38
Protection

• Overall goal of ensuring safety of
  responders and public
• Includes measures taken to protect
  property and environment
• Accomplished through various tactics



                  Firefighter I
                     23–39
Protection of Responders

• First priority at any
    incident
•   Accountability systems
•   Buddy systems
•   Evacuation/escape
    procedures
•   Safety Officers

                   Firefighter I
                      23–40
Protection of the Public

• Includes isolating area and denying
  entry, conducting rescues, performing
  mass decontamination, providing
  emergency medical care/first aid
• Evacuation
• Sheltering in place
• Protecting/defending in place

                 Firefighter I
                    23–41
Decontamination Operations

• Performed at haz mat incidents to
  remove hazardous materials from
  victims, PPE, tools, equipment,
  anything else that has been
  contaminated
• Done to reduce contamination to a
  level that is no longer harmful
                                      (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–42
Decontamination Operations

• Prevent harmful
  exposures and reduce or
  eliminate spread of
  contaminants outside hot
  zone
• Provides victims with
  psychological
  reassurance
                Firefighter I
                   23–43
Determining Factors for Type of
Decontamination Operation

•   Size of incident
•   Type of hazardous materials involved
•   Weather
•   Personnel available
•   Variety of other factors



                   Firefighter I
                      23–44
Decontamination Rules

• Basic principles
  – Get it off
  – Keep it off
  – Contain it
• Other decon rules



                     Firefighter I
                        23–45
Emergency Decontamination

• Removing contamination on individuals
 in potentially life-threatening situation
 with or without formal establishment of
 decontamination corridor



                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–46
Emergency Decontamination




• Can consist of anything from removing
 contaminated clothing to flushing a
 person with water
                Firefighter I
                   23–47
Emergency Decon —
Implementation

• Goal
• May be necessary for victims and
  rescuers
• Victims may need immediate medical
  treatment
• Several situations in which it may be
  needed
                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–48
Emergency Decon —
Implementation

• Quick fix
• Removal of all contaminants may not
  occur
• Can harm environment
• Procedures may differ depending on
  circumstances/hazards present


                Firefighter I
                   23–49
Mass Decontamination




• Conducting rapid decontamination of
 multiple people at one time
                                    (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–50
Mass Decontamination

• May be conducted with or without
 formal decon corridor; usually involves
 removing clothing and flushing
 individuals with large quantities of
 water




                Firefighter I
                   23–51
Mass Decon — Implementation

• Mass decon is physical process of
 rapidly reducing/removing contaminants
 from multiple persons in potentially life-
 threatening situations, with or without
 formal establishment of decon corridor


                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–52
Mass Decon — Implementation

• Initiated when number of victims/time
  constraints do not allow establishment
  of in-depth decontamination process
• Availability of ideal solutions in
  sufficient quantities cannot always be
  insured

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–53
Mass Decon — Implementation

• Can be most readily/effectively
  established with simple water shower
  system
• Recommended that all victims
  undergoing mass decon remove
  underclothing at least down to
  undergarments
                                    (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–54
Mass Decon — Implementation

• To prioritize, responders
  must consider factors
  related to medical
  triage/decontamination
• Triage
• Ambulatory victims
• Nonambulatory victims

                  Firefighter I
                     23–55
Technical Decontamination

• Using chemical/physical methods to
  thoroughly remove contaminants from
  responders/their equipment
• May also be used on incident victims in
  non-life-threatening situations


                                       (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–56
Technical Decontamination

• Normally conducted within formal decon
  line
• Type/scope determined by
  contaminants




                Firefighter I
                   23–57
Technical Decon —
Implementation

•   Absorption
•   Adsorption
•   Brushing and scraping
•   Chemical degradation
•   Dilution
•   Neutralization
                                  (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–58
Technical Decon —
Implementation

•   Sanitation, disinfection, sterilization
•   Solidification
•   Vacuuming
•   Washing
•   Evaporation
•   Isolation and disposal


                     Firefighter I
                        23–59
Decon Implementation
Considerations

• Appropriate site must be selected
• Number of stations/setup of corridor or
  line must be decided
• Methods for collecting evidence must be
  determined
• Termination procedures must be
  followed

                 Firefighter I
                    23–60
Site Selection Factors

•   Accessibility
•   Terrain/surface material
•   Lighting/electrical supply
•   Drains/waterways
•   Water supply
•   Weather


                    Firefighter I
                       23–61
Decon Corridor Layout

• Establish decontamination corridor
  before performing any work in hot
  zone
• First responders are often involved
  with setting up and working in
  decontamination corridor

                                        (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–62
Decon Corridor Layout




                            (Continued)


            Firefighter I
               23–63
Decon Corridor Layout

• Types of decontamination corridors vary
  as to numbers of sections or steps used
  in decontamination process
• Emergency responders must
  understand process and be trained in
  setting up type of decontamination
  required by different materials
                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–64
Decon Corridor Layout

• Decontamination corridor may be
  identified with barrier tape, safety
  cones, other items that are visually
  recognizable
• How firefighters are protected when
  working in the decontamination area
  depends on hazards of the material

                 Firefighter I
                    23–65
Cold Weather Decon

• Conducting wet
  decon operations
  in freezing weather
  can be difficult to
  execute safely
• Run-off water can quickly turn to ice

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–66
Cold Weather Decon

• If pre-warmed water is not available,
  susceptible individuals can suffer cold
  shock or hypothermia
• If temperatures are 64 degrees or
  lower, consideration should be given to
  protecting victims from cold



                 Firefighter I
                    23–67
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents

• Due to potential of extreme hazards at
   haz mat incidents and defensive
   nature of actions at Operations Level,
   rescue can be a difficult strategy to
   implement for firefighters, particularly
   in initial stages of a response

                                       (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–68
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents

• Search and rescue attempts must be
 made within framework of incident
 action plan with appropriate PPE,
 backup personnel, other safety
 considerations in place


                                     (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–69
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents

• In many emergency incidents, rescue of
 victims is IC’s first priority, but it is
 important to balance vulnerability of
 firefighters against lives of victims



                                             (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–70
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents

• Hesitation to rush into a situation to
  assist casualties may directly conflict
  with fire fighting strategic priority of
  rescue first as well as with many
  firefighters’ natural desire to help
  victims as quickly as possible

                                           (Continued)


                   Firefighter I
                      23–71
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents

• Because of dangers presented by
 hazardous materials, responders who
 rush to the rescue may quickly require
 the need to be rescued themselves




                Firefighter I
                   23–72
Factors to Consider

• IC makes decisions about rescue
  based on a variety of factors at
  incident
• Several factors affect the ability of
  personnel to perform a rescue
• Decisions about rescue may differ
  depending on country and jurisdiction
                                    (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–73
Factors to Consider

• Responders must understand what
 actions are appropriate for them given
 their SOPs, training, available equipment
 and resources



                                     (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–74
Factors to Consider

• Without coming in contact with the
 hazardous material, Operations Level
 firefighters may perform a limited
 number of tasks with appropriate PPE




                  Firefighter I
                     23–75
Spill Control and Confinement




• Strategic goal of spill control involves
   controlling product that has already
   been released from its container (Continued)
                  Firefighter I
                     23–76
Spill Control and Confinement

• Spill control minimizes amount of
 contact product makes with people,
 property, environment by limiting or
 confining the dispersion and/or
 reducing the amount of harm caused by
 contact with the material

                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–77
Spill Control and Confinement

• Tactics and tasks relating to spill control
  are determined by material involved
  and type of dispersion; generally
  defensive in nature



                                        (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–78
Spill Control and Confinement

• Main priority of spill control is
  confinement and prevention of further
  contamination or contact with
  hazardous material




                   Firefighter I
                      23–79
Spill Control and Confinement

• Firefighters trained to the Operations
 Level may perform spill-control activities
 as long as they do not come in contact
 with the product or have appropriate
 training and PPE


                                       (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–80
Spill Control and Confinement

• Spill control is a defensive operation
  with most important issue being safety
  of the firefighters performing these
  actions



                                           (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–81
Spill Control and Confinement

• Spills may involve gases, liquids, solids,
  and the product involved may be
  released into the air, into water, onto a
  surface such as ground or a bench top




                  Firefighter I
                     23–82
Spill Control and Confinement
Tactics

• Hazardous materials may be confined
   by building dams or dikes near source,
   catching material in another container,
   directing flow to a remote location for
   collection


                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–83
Spill Control and Confinement
Tactics

• Before using equipment to confine
 spilled materials, ICs need to seek
 advice from technical sources to
 determine if spilled materials will
 adversely affect the equipment


                                       (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–84
Spill Control and Confinement
Tactics

• Confinement is not restricted to
 controlling liquids; dusts, vapors, and
 gases can also be confined




                 Firefighter I
                    23–85
Absorption

• Physical and/or chemical event
  occurring during contact between
  materials that have an attraction for
  each other
• Results in one material being retained
  in other

                                    (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–86
Absorption

• Some materials typically used as
  absorbents are sawdust, clays,
  charcoal, polyolefin-type fibers
• Absorbent is spread directly onto
  hazardous material or in location where
  material is expected to flow

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–87
Absorption




• After use, absorbents must be treated
 and disposed of as hazardous materials
 themselves because they retain the
 properties of materials they absorb
                 Firefighter I
                    23–88
Blanketing/Covering

• Involves blanketing or covering
  surface of spill to prevent dispersion
  of materials such as powders or dusts
• Blanketing or covering of solids can be
  done with tarps, plastic sheeting,
  salvage covers, other materials

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–89
Blanketing/Covering

• Blanketing of liquids is essentially same
  as vapor suppression
• Operations-Level responders may or
  may not be allowed to perform
  blanketing/
  covering actions



                  Firefighter I
                     23–90
Dam, Dike, Diversion, Retention

• Ways to confine a hazardous material
• Actions are taken to control flow of
   liquid hazardous materials away from
   point of discharge



                                    (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                   23–91
Dam, Dike, Diversion, Retention

• Firefighters can use available earthen
 materials or materials carried on their
 response vehicles to construct curbs
 that direct or divert the flow away from
 gutters, drains, storm sewers, flood-
 control channels, outfalls



                 Firefighter I
                    23–92
Dilution

• Application of water to a water-soluble
  material to reduce hazard
• Dilution of liquid materials rarely has
  practical applications at haz mat
  incidents in terms of spill control;
  dilution is often used during
  decontamination operations
                                       (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                     23–93
Dilution

• Amount of water needed to reach an
 effective dilution increases overall
 volume and creates a runoff problem




                Firefighter I
                   23–94
Dissolution

• Process of dissolving a gas in water
• Tactic can only be used on such
   water-soluble gases as anhydrous
   ammonia or chlorine; generally
   conducted by applying fog stream to a
   breach in container or onto spill



                 Firefighter I
                    23–95
Vapor Dispersion

• Action taken to direct or influence
  course of airborne hazardous
  materials
• Pressurized streams of water from
  hoselines or unattended master
  streams may be used to help disperse
  vapors
                                        (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–96
Vapor Dispersion




• Streams create turbulence, which
 increases rate of mixing with air and
 reduces concentration of hazardous
 material
                 Firefighter I
                    23–97
Vapor Suppression

• Action taken to reduce emission of
  vapors at a haz mat spill
• Fire fighting foams are effective on
  spills of flammable and combustible
  liquids if foam concentrate is
  compatible with material

                                       (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–98
Vapor Suppression

• Water-miscible (capable of being
 mixed) materials destroy regular fire
 fighting foams; require an alcohol-
 resistant foam agent



                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                    23–99
Vapor Suppression

• Required application rate for applying
 foam to control an unignited liquid spill
 is substantially less than that required
 to extinguish a spill fire




                 Firefighter I
                   23–100
Ventilation

• Involves controlling movement of air
  by natural or mechanical means
• Used to remove and/or disperse
  harmful airborne particles, vapors,
  gases when spills occur inside
  structures

                                        (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–101
Ventilation

• Same ventilation techniques used for
 smoke removal can be used for haz mat
 incidents




                 Firefighter I
                   23–102
Leak Control and Containment

• A leak involves the physical breach in
  a container through which product is
  escaping
• Goal of leak control is to stop or limit
  escape or contain release either in
  original container or by transferring to
  a new one
                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–103
Leak Control and Containment

• Type of container involved, type of
  breach, properties of material
  determine tactics and tasks relating to
  leak control
• Leak control and containment are
  generally considered offensive actions

                                        (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                    23–104
Leak Control and Containment




• Offensive actions not attempted by
  personnel trained below the Technician
  Level with two exceptions
• Leak control dictates that personnel
  enter the hot zone, which puts them at
  great risk
                 Firefighter I
                   23–105
Crime Scene Management and
Evidence Preservation

• Framework for a response to a
   terrorist or criminal incident is
   essentially same as that used for a
   response to any other hazardous
   materials incident


                                         (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–106
Crime Scene Management and
Evidence Preservation

• Because a crime is involved, law
  enforcement organizations must be
  notified and included in response
• Notifying law enforcement ensures
  proper state/province and
  federal/national agencies respond to
  the incident

                 Firefighter I
                   23–107
Recovery and Termination Phase

• Occurs when IC determines all victims
  have been accounted for and all
  hazards have been controlled
• Components of recovery/termination
• Incident Termination Checklist
• Decontamination/disposal issues


                 Firefighter I
                   23–108
On-Scene Debriefing

• Conducted in the form of a group
  discussion; gathers information from
  all operating personnel
• Obtain information from responders



                                     (Continued)


                Firefighter I
                  23–109
On-Scene Debriefing

• One very important step in this process
 — Provide information to personnel
 concerning signs and symptoms of
 overexposure to the hazardous
 materials




                 Firefighter I
                   23–110
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique

• Provides responding agencies
  opportunity to evaluate, review, refine
  issues
• Can be used to evaluate effectiveness
  of their response, identify problem
  areas, correct deficiencies

                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–111
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique

• Information can be used to modify and
  improve operations at future similar
  incidents
• IC responsible for assigning someone to
  write a post-incident report and provide
  it to health and safety officer and chief
  of the agency
                                       (Continued)


                  Firefighter I
                    23–112
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique

• Once all the necessary interviews have
 been made and documents gathered, a
 post-incident analysis should be
 scheduled for all agencies involved in
 incident


                                     (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–113
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique

• Formal analysis of incident will be based
 on information gathered for post-
 incident analysis




                  Firefighter I
                    23–114
Summary

• For firefighters, hazardous materials
   incidents are similar in many ways to
   other emergencies to which they
   respond. The same universal priorities
   apply: life safety, incident
   stabilization, and property
   conservation; and an incident
   management system is needed. (Continued)
                 Firefighter I
                   23–115
Summary

• However, there are also some major
 differences compared to structure fires,
 for example. In a structure fire, as long
 as firefighters are located outside of the
 collapse zone, they are relatively safe.


                                       (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–116
Summary

• In a hazardous materials incident,
 personnel can be at risk a considerable
 distance from the point of release. One
 major difference between the property
 conservation priority at hazardous
 materials incidents is the increased
 need for environmental protection.
                                       (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–117
Summary

• There are also differences in the size-up
 process compared to structure fires.
 Since many hazardous materials are
 highly toxic and can be spread over a
 wide area, the initial identification of
 the materials involved may have to be
 done from a considerable distance
 away.                                   (Continued)


                   Firefighter I
                     23–118
Summary

• Finally, because of the highly toxic nature of
  some hazardous materials, fire officers and
  their crews may be untrained and
  unequipped to mitigate a hazardous materials
  release. In these cases, they must establish
  and maintain a safe perimeter around the
  incident scene and call for hazardous
  materials specialists who are trained and
  equipped to handle such incidents.        (Continued)


                     Firefighter I
                       23–119
Summary

• In support of these specialists,
 firefighters must provide fire protection,
 and be capable of assisting with
 containment efforts such as damming
 and diking, and setting up and
 operating decontamination stations.



                  Firefighter I
                    23–120
Review Questions

1. What are the three incident priorities
   at all haz mat and terrorist incidents?
2. What information should be gathered
   by first responders during the initial
   assessment of an incident?
3. Describe incident levels

                                      (Continued)


                 Firefighter I
                   23–121
Review Questions

4. What are hazard-control zones?
5. What factors must be addressed in
   large-scale evacuations?
6. Define the three types of
   contamination.

                                   (Continued)


               Firefighter I
                 23–122
Review Questions

7. What actions can Operations-Level
   firefighters perform during rescue
   operations?
8. List defensive confinement and spill
   control actions.




                Firefighter I
                  23–123
Review Questions

 9. Who must be notified and included in
    the response to a terrorist or criminal
    incident?
10. What information should be given to
    responders at an on-scene debriefing?




                 Firefighter I
                   23–124

								
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