Most textbooks are written and compiled in the same models and components or monotonous within
all units of a book. With style like this, there are many weaknesses found, though it also has advantages.
The advantages of this style are that students can quickly get used to understand and follow the
activities which are in that book. However, this benefit does not last long along with the increasing
meeting frequencies. First, students will get bored and lose of a challenge because every time the
meetings are conducted, they always face them with the same pattern and model.
The second weakness is the lack of need adjustments to the topic being discussed. The discussion topic
requires its own patterns as typical features. If all units are treated in the same activities or models, it
will narrow the discussion topic in each unit. What it is meant by the narrowing topic of discussion is the
nature of the context of discussion. For example, when a teacher discusses 'Jobs Description "and he
uses an activity like a guessing game, then this will be fun. But this is no longer fun when used in the
discussion topic of "Conversation on the phone".
Third, it is true that every unit in a teaching and textbook must have the same basic components and
teaching chronologies. However, it does not mean that there should be no variation or development in
it. Even, if there is no variation, boredom and lack of interest of students will continue to haunt
teachers. Most of every unit demands a brainstorming or warming up stage, but when it is treated in the
same way for all meetings or units, then it will not run properly. Thus, the need for variation in the
brainstorming or warming up stage is very needed. In addition, in each unit there are always listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. What will be the concerns for each unit is that they should be designed in
Here are the ways how to create various activities in listening:
1) finding and collecting all available activities,
2) looking back at the topic discussion,
3) choosing the activities suitable with the topic discussion.
For example: there are several pre-listening activities as follows:looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or
graphs, reviewing vocabulary or grammatical structures, reading something relevant, constructing
semantic webs (a graphic arrangement of concepts or words showing how they are related), predicting
the content of the listening text, make a list of possible problems that might have happened to him
before you start the listening, going over the directions or instructions for the activity performing guided
The next step is to look at the topic. Take for example, the topic is Talking on the phone, then the last
step is to choose the available appropriate activities with the topic. Looking at the list of the activities
above and considering the topic, it can be said that the appropriate activities that might best suit are
looking at pictures, reviewing vocabulary or grammatical structures, view films or photos.