ANCIENT WORLD: CIVILIZATIONS AND RELIGIONS (4000 B by NRacfNy

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                                                                                      CIVILIZATION 9
A. ANCIENT WORLD: CIVILIZATIONS AND RELIGIONS (4000 B.C. – 500 A.D.)

I. EARLY PEOPLES, RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS AND ANCIENT EMPIRES
    A. Early peoples
           1. hunters and gatherers
           2. adapt to environment – acquisition of food
           3. spiritual beliefs
           4. migration – cultural diffusion
    B. Neolithic Revolution: what climate changes led to its development?
           1. impact of agriculture
           2. permanent settlements
           3. new social classes
           4. new technology
    C. Rise of Civilizations: how are they connected to the agricultural revolution?
           1. characteristics of a civilization – basic features
           2. development of cities
           3. traditional economy
           4. polytheistic
           5. specialization and development of social classes
           6. art and architecture
           7. writing systems
    D. Compare and Contrast River Valley Civilizations: why did civilizations develop near rivers?
           1. Egypt/Nile River (Egyptian Civilization)
           2. Fertile Crescent (Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician, Assyrian, Perisan)
           3. Indus Valley/Indus River (Indus Valley Cities and Arayans)
           4. China/Huang He River (Shang and Chou Civilization)

        FOR EACH RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION KNOW THE FOLLOWING
              A. Geography: impact on development
              B. Economics: farming and irrigation > surplus > specialization > urbanization
              C. Political Systems: government
                                 1. purpose: why did the first governments arise?
                                 2. decision making: who made decisions?
                                 3. move toward comp[lex government systems
              D. Social Structures: social classes, status of women, slaves, etc.
              E. Religious Beliefs
              F. Achievements:
                                 1. writing system
                                 2. belief systems – polytheistic and myths
                                 3. early technology: irrigation, tools, weapons
                                 4. architecture
                                 5. legal systems: codified laws, etc.

                 BASIC QUESTIONS:          How did each empire rise?
                                           What were the achievements of each empire?
                                           How did the empire decline?.

VOCABULARY: EARLY PEOPLES AND RIVER CIVILIZATIONS

A. GENERAL TERMS                                            precipitation
history                                                     latitude and longituden
oral History                                                natural barriers
primary source                                              decade
secondary source                                            century
tertiary source                                             millennium
geography                                                   A.D. or C.E.
climate                                                     B.C. or B.C.E.
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                                                                        REVIEW SHEETS
                                                                        CIVILIZATION 9
indigenous                                      satrap
stereotype
ethnocentrism                                   D. INDUS RIVER VALLEY
eurocentric                                     subcontinent
cultural diffusiona                             Indus River
assimilation                                    Himalayas
acculturation                                   Khyber pass
demographic changes                             monsoons
                                                reincarnation
B. NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION AND RISE OF EARLY       moksha
CIVILIZATIONS                                   caste
evolution                                       untouchable
artifact                                        karma
archaeology                                     dharama
anthropology                                    nirvana
hunter-gatherer                                 edict
nomad                                           Vedics
migration                                       social equality
Ice Age
Agricultural Revolution (Neolithic Rev)         E. ANCIENT EGYPT
agrarian                                        Nile River
domestication                                   cataract
Bronze Age                                      delta
culture - cultural                              Sahara
    political                                   hieroglyphics
    economic                                    myths
    social                                      maat
civilization – characteristics of               scribe
    complex institutions                        dynasty
    specialization of work                      pyramid
    advances in technology                      pharaoh
    urbanization                                papyrus
    record-keeping                              Rosetta Stone
annual floods
irrigation                                      F. ANCIENT CHINA
city-state                                      Huang He River (River of Sorrows)
barter                                          Yangtze River
polytheism                                      Tibet
monotheism                                      Mongolia
priests                                         loess
social classes                                  oracle bones
social stratification                           dynastic cycle
infrastructure                                  mandate of heaven
                                                filial piety
C. MESOPOTAMIA/FERTILE CRESCENT                 Confucius
Mesopotamia                                     Taoists
Fertile Crescent                                Legalists
Tigris and Euphrates
arid
artisan
ziggurat
Summer
cuneiform
Babylon
Hammurabi’s Code
covenant
prophet
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