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Application of Asilomar Guidelines to Self-Replicating Machines

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					Application of Asilomar Guidelines to
     Self-Replicating Machines

                  5th Terasem Workshop
               on Geoethical Nanotechnology
                      2009 July 20th
                Terasem Island, Second Life



2009-July-20           martine4@gmail.com     1
           Presentation Structure
• Reconciling conflicts regarding self-
  replicating nanotechnology
• Apprehensions about gray goo
• Scientific ambitions in remaking life
• Applying practical biotechnology
  guidelines to artificial self-replication


2009-July-20      martine4@gmail.com          2
   The Self-Replicating Machines Conflict

• We need self-
  replicating
  machines for
  enhanced survival
• We are afraid that
  such machines
  will jeopardize our
  survival
2009-July-20     martine4@gmail.com         3
  Self-Replicating Nanotech Is
  Most Useful to Extended Life
Human
Body
Creates
50x106
Cells
Per
Second

2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com   4
Since Nature Needed
It, Nanotechnologists
Will Probably Need it




 2009-July-20           martine4@gmail.com   5
  Of Course Nature Also Gave
     Us Smallpox and HIV
  500 Million People
  Killed By Smallpox




      HIV Killes 250,000
      People MONTHLY

2009-July-20           martine4@gmail.com   6
           Presentation Structure
• Reconciling conflicts regarding self-
  replicating nanotechnology
• Apprehensions about gray goo
• Scientific ambitions in remaking life
• Applying practical biotechnology
  guidelines to artificial self-replication


2009-July-20      martine4@gmail.com          7
      Crichton Imagined Self-Replicating
      Nanobots Would Swarm Against Us




2009-July-20      martine4@gmail.com       8
     Self-Replication Scares Us
 “However, a determined and
 sophisticated group of
 terrorists or "non state entities"
 could potentially, with
 considerable difficulty,
 specifically engineer systems
 to become autonomous
 replicators able to proliferate in
 the natural environment, either
 as a nuisance, a specifically
 targeted weapon, or in the
 worst case, a weapon of mass
 destruction.”

2009-July-20                martine4@gmail.com   9
           Presentation Structure
• Reconciling conflicts regarding self-
  replicating nanotechnology
• Apprehensions about gray goo
• Scientific ambitions in remaking life
• Applying practical biotechnology
  guidelines to artificial self-replication


2009-July-20      martine4@gmail.com          10
       Uploaded Minds Will Want
           Nanotech Bodies
HEAVEN VIRUS              MIND CHILDREN




 2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com        11
  Vitrified Bodies May Need Self-
  Replicating Nanotech for Revival
MOLECULAR ASSEMBLY        v. BOLUS INJECTION(S)

                              When ALCOR
                                      Patients…




                          Can Trillions of Injected
                          Nanobots Handle It, Or Will
                          They Need Replicate?
 2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com                 12
Space Colonists May Need Self-Replicating
      Nanotech for World-Building

CIVILIZATION-READY             BUILD & THEY’LL COME




 2009-July-20        martine4@gmail.com           13
    Humanity Needs Self-Replicating
    Nanotech for Galactic Surveillance
BUILD A COPY. REPEAT.      FIND A GOOD PLANET




 2009-July-20    martine4@gmail.com             14
           Presentation Structure
• Reconciling conflicts regarding self-
  replicating nanotechnology
• Apprehensions about gray goo
• Scientific ambitions in remaking life
• Applying practical biotechnology
  guidelines to artificial self-replication


2009-July-20      martine4@gmail.com          15
    Very Similar Situation with
   Recombinant Biotechnology




2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com   16
 Huge Increase in Practicality
 By Permitting Self-Replication




2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com   17
    Apply ASILOMAR Rules of
   Recombinant DNA to Nano?




2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com   18
        The Asilomar Guidelines
                          • containment essential &
                            must match the risk
                          • use of biological barriers to
                            limit the spread e.g. host-
                            specific & nonsurvivable
                          • physical containment,
                          • good microbiological
                            practices & training
                          • no cloning of recombinant
                            DNAs derived from highly
                            pathogenic organisms,
                            containing toxin genes, or
                            making biohazards that
                            could not be contained
2009-July-20    martine4@gmail.com                          19
               Matching the Risk
rDNA HGH                      • Minimal and low risk
                                   – minimal if biohazards
                                     could be accurately
                                     assessed and were
                                     expected to be minimal.
                                   – Low risk if novel biotypes
                                     but not
                                         • change ecological
                                           behavior of the recipient
                                           species,
                                         • increase significantly its
                                           pathogenicity or
                                         • prevent treatments of
                                           any resulting infections.

2009-July-20        martine4@gmail.com                             20
       Minimal Risk Containment
                                •   Prokaryotes, bacteriophages
                                    and other plasmids,
                                    experiments could be performed
                                    in minimal risk containment
                                    facilities when the construction
                                    of recombinant DNA molecules
                                    and their propagation involved
                                    prokaryotic agents that were
                                    known to exchange genetic
                                    information naturally
                                •   Additionally, purified DNA from
                                    any source that performed
                                    known functions and was
Bacteriophage T4 infecting          judged to be non-toxic could be
                                    cloned with available vectors in
an e. coli host                     low risk containment facilities

 2009-July-20         martine4@gmail.com                          21
         Moderate and High Risk
                               – The moderate risk level
                                 of containment if
                                 significant potential for
                                 pathogenicity or
                                 ecological disruption.
                               – High-risk containment if a
                                 serious biohazard to
                                 laboratory personnel or
                                 to the public.
                               – DNAs of species that
                                 result in new metabolic
                                 pathways in species, use
                                 moderate or high-risk
                                 containment

2009-July-20    martine4@gmail.com                       22
  Asilomar Guidance Relevant
         to Bio-Nano


          Nano-neuron

    Unless the organism made a dangerous product,
    recombinant DNAs from cold-blooded vertebrates
    and all other lower eukaryotes could be constructed
    and propagated with the safest vector-host system
    available in low risk containment facilities.
2009-July-20            martine4@gmail.com                23
      Self-Replicating Nanotech Are Like
        Asilomar Low-Risk Examples
                            • A mech analog of a rDNA
                            • Not banned if not toxic
                            • “Low-Risk” because novel
                              biotype but doesn’t change
                              ecology or  pathogenicity
                            • Changing the nature of an
                              uninhabited world doesn’t
                              count as changing ecology
                            • Not “Minimum Risk” because
                              unnatural replication method
                            • Not “Moderate” or “High”
                              Risk since not high potential
                              for pathogenicity, ecological
                              harm or biohazard
2009-July-20      martine4@gmail.com                     24
        So, What Rules Needed for Self-
            Replicating Nanobots?
                             • Use of biological
                               barriers to limit harm
                             • Biological nanobots
                               should fail-safe disable
                               in atmosphere
                             • Robotic nanobots
                               should fail-safe disable
                               in biochemistry
                             • Planetary nanobots
                               should fail-safe disable
                               by - gravitaxis

2009-July-20       martine4@gmail.com                 25
            Autonomous v.
    Non-Autonomous Self-Replication
                         • Non-Autonomous Self-
                           Replication Is Feasible
                           When Real-Time Human
                           Control Exists
                         • Autonomous Self-Replication
                           Is Needed for Galactic
                           Missions
                         • Line Between Non-
                           Autonomous and
                           Autonomous Very Blurry
                           When AI Agents Assist
                           Humans In Effecting Control

2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com                   26
           Dr. O’Neill: Less Than
        500K Years to Colonize Galaxy
My concept of such a probe is that it would go to another star
system, neighboring the original one. It would use the asteroidal
material available there. In a period of a few years, it would
replicate itself. It would then leave one of itself at that star and
move off to the next star and so on. As it went, it would establish
two-way communication, point-to-point, not a broadcast at all, but
from one of these replicator probes to the next. You can work out
the numbers, and it turns out that by any reasonable standards
such a probe system could cover essentially every star in the
galaxy within a time of no more than half a million years.



2009-July-20               martine4@gmail.com                          27
   O’Neill Galactic Colonization
• Clearly Requires Autonomous Self-
  Replication of Machines
• Why Not Include Uploaded Minds In
  Each Probe, Including Instructions for
  Creating Nano or Nano-Bio Bodies?
• Ergo, Galactic HUMAN Colonization
  Requires Autonomous Self-Replication

2009-July-20    martine4@gmail.com         28
Asilomar Will Need to be Segmented
      for Galactic Colonization
                         • Planetary Replicator
                           Probes Need to be Able
                           to Blast Off the Planet
                         • Robotic Nanobots Need
                           to Co-Exist in Nano-Bio
                           Bodies for Downloaded
                           Minds of Colonists
                         • Biological Nanobots
                           May Need to Survive ex
                           vivo for the Ecology

2009-July-20   martine4@gmail.com               29
               Bottom Line
                           • Asilomar is Common
                             Sense:
                              – Self-Replicating
                                Objects Should be
                                Contained from
                                Causing Harm While
                                Free to Do Good
                              – Each Case By Its
                                Specific Facts


2009-July-20     martine4@gmail.com              30
                Going Forward
• Self-Replicating
  Nanotech Covered by
  Asilomar Regime
     – Same Issues,
     – New Substrate
• Asilomar Regime Must
  Be Segmented for
  Galactic Colonization
• We Can Extend Our
  Lives with Nanotech
  Bodies, Nanomedicine
  & World-Building

2009-July-20           martine4@gmail.com   31

				
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