Social Movements, Development and ICTs by iV0ZpZ

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									SOCIAL MOVEMENTS,
DEVELOPMENT
AND ICTS
Communications Technology and Social Change in
Latin America

                Maria Garrido, PhD
          Center for Information & Society
              The Information School
THINK ABOUT PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
ALONG THREE LINES:


 For   Research

 ForSocial Networking | targeting socio economic
  and development activities/organizations

 ForConvergence among different technologies
  (SNS, cell phones, websites, twitter, etc.)
WHAT IS THIS TALK ABOUT?
ICTD WITH A SOCIAL MOVEMENTS TWIST

  How     civil society organizations are using ICTs as a
     tool to build networks, collaborate, and mobilize
     resources in pursuit of social goal.

    The contribution of social movements’ networks to
     promote economic and social development in
     marginalized communities in Latin America.
BUT FIRST A BIT OF CONTEXT…

       Globalization of the World Economy
         Information and knowledge become crucial components
          for economic growth and competitiveness
         Redistribution of power among states, markets, civil
          society, and supranational organizations (WTO, European
          Union, NAFTA, etc)

       Development, spread, and evolution of ICTs
         Enhanced opportunities for collaboration among different
          actors, specially, civil society organizations
         Bypassing, to some extent, traditional centers of power |
          Example: Mass media vs Community media
WHAT DOES GLOBALIZATION REALLY MEAN?
   Globalization is a cultural, social, economic and political
    phenomenon.
        Information technology has triggered the entrance of
         non-state actors in the International Arena.
        Empowerment of unrepresented groups that have found
         a space to channel their demands
        Giving people and civil society groups a common
         narrative for social change – not homogenous but
         common:
              United against the negative effects of economic globalization
                         from North to South from East to West
WHAT THEY ARE FIGHTING AGAINST?
   Widening gap between the rich and the poor
   The excesses of corporate power and financial institutions
   Neglect of small farmers and rural areas
   Undermining of labor rights
   Increase in military spending at the expense of social
    spending
   Discrimination of groups based on race, gender, economic
    status and sexual orientation
   Government repression (covert or overt)
   Against the detriment of the environment
WHAT IS THIS COMMON NARRATIVE
ABOUT?

   Berlin 1990 - Against the IMF and the World Bank

   Madrid 1994 – Against the IMF and the World Bank

   Seattle 1999 - Against the IMF, World Bank, and WTO

   Prague 2000 – Against all IMF, World Bank, and WTO

   Genoa 2001 – Against the IMF, World Bank, and WTO

   Different countries 2003 – Against the Iraq War

   Mexico City 2006 – Against the IMF, World Bank, and WTO
WHAT MAKES ICTS A POWERFUL TOOL
FOR SOCIAL MOVEMENTS?


   Allows the creation of decentralized networks
    for mobilization and collaboration

   Spreading of information at exponential levels

   Enable civil society actors to establish alliances
    beyond their borders

   Created social spaces where marginalized voices
    can be heard
THE ZAPATISTA MOVEMENT
  IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO
ORIGINS OF THE ZAPATISTA MOVEMENT

Some facts:
  o   The Zapatistas are a social movement that made their first
      appearance in the international media January 1st 1994 in
      the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  o   Indigenous peasant men and women of diverse Mayan
      origins who have lived in a stage of permanent poverty.

  o   The uprising highlighted the ability of a locally engendered
      social movement to gain support from countries across the
      globe.
WHERE IS CHIAPAS?
WHERE ARE THE ZAPATISTAS?
ZAPATISTAS AND ICTS:
“OUR WORD IS OUR WEAPON”

   Use of ICTs to build transnational alliances
   Build a solidarity network with actors from many
    different countries around the world
   Diverse groups from NGOs, grassroots organizations, and
    other social movements
   Diverse struggles: women rights, environment,
    alternative development, human rights, peace, corporate
    transparency
   ICTs (including cell phones) become one of the main tool
    to mobilize and coordinate efforts a multinational level |
    Not GLOBAL – But definitely TRANSNATIONAL
THE ZAPATISTA NETWORK:
WHO, HOW, WHEN, & FOR WHAT PURPOSE


   How do we map the Zapatista Network?

   Who are the actors?

   How do they collaborate, mobilize, act for
    together in pursuit of a common goal?

   For what purpose?

In short: Structure, Resources, and Context of Social
    movements networks
FIRST GOAL |
MAP THE ZAPATISTA NETWORK
Social Network Analysis
   Methodology to understand how people, their relationships, and roles
    in different social contexts or organization could shape their behavior
    and influence that of others.
   Three measurements: Centrality, Betweeness, Cluster analysis

Hyperlink Analysis | Or “You are what you link”
   Suggests that “social (or communication) structures on the web may
    be analyzed based on the hyperlinks among websites” (Park, 2003)
   It is based on the premise that the Internet’s increasing role in
    communication has been made possible by the continual change in
    the structure of the network of hyperlinks
   Links in a website are not neutral or accidental but they usually
    convey a social interaction among two individual
MAPPING THE ZAPATISTA NETWORK AS
REPRESENTED IN CYBERSPACE

   Tailored web crawler (Halavais, 2003)
   Snow ball from the Zapatista website www.ezln.org
   Data was a here was collected within a radius of two hyperlinks from
    the EZLN site in August 2004
   The criteria for selecting the sites that were crawled in the two radius
    of hyperlinked data were CSOs that were:
     1. Clearly non-commercial; 2.Non governmental/Non for profit; 3. Specified in
         their website a social mission; 4. Whose website had a unique domain

   673 domains formed the final list of CSOs connected to the Zapatista
    Movement.

   Arranged data in a matrix and ran clustering analysis using UCINET
    (Bogartti, et al)
THE ZAPATISTA NETWORK | STRUCTURE 2005
THE ZAPATISTA NETWORK | RESOURCES

 Network Ethnography | To understand the roles, the resources, and the
    contribution to advance development goals
 Some of the resources that flow in the network for Zapatista communities:
 A.   Community Investment – Resources to support health and education initiatives, water
      systems, electrical wiring, etc

 B.   Information Infrastructure - Training and equipment for building community media
      (radio – traditional and Internet-based, community news bulletins); 2) creating email
      distribution lists with information from the communities and for the communities in
      indigenous languages; and 3) developing ICT capacity in local organizations

 C.   Productive Processes – Helping communities to own their means of production by
      forming cooperatives of small producers, training cooperatives in techniques
      that are more efficient and environmentally sound, providing links for these
      products under ‘fair trade’ conditions in national and international markets
ENOUGH OF ME: LET’S TALK

   How do you see the role of social movements as
    actors in the development process?
   What challenges they encounter to promote “actual”
    social change?
   What contribution Web 2.0 tools can have for
    organizations working on development and social
    change?
       Mobilization
       Collaboration
       ICT convergence | AKA ICTs talking to each other
RESOURCES
   Zapatista Movement
       Enlace Zapatista | Official weblog
       Indymedia Center Chiapas | chiapas.indymedia.org
       Radio Insurgente | Zapatista community radio

   Network Visualization
       Payek
       GOVCOMORG | Issue network tool
       Kraplot | UCINET’s visualization tool

   Social network analysis software
       UCINET | Bogartti et al

								
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