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AFM applied to nanoelectronics_ the Grutter research group

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					Nanotechnology - the New Frontier

            Peter Grutter
         Physics Department
          McGill University

     www.physics.mcgill.ca/~peter
Science Fiction:




            7of 9 on Star Trek
 Field Ion Microscopy of tungsten tip
                    A. Schirmeisen,
                       G. Cross,
                      A. Stalder,
                       U. Durig
Imaging at 5.0 kV     P. Grutter
 Field Ion Microscopy of tungsten tip




Imaging at 5.0 kV
Manipulating at 6.0 kV
 Field Ion Microscopy of tungsten tip




Imaging at 5.0 kV
Manipulating at 6.0 kV
 Field Ion Microscopy of tungsten tip




Imaging at 5.0 kV
Manipulating at 6.0 kV
Single atom on tungsten tip




       Imaged at 2.1 KV
         The Impact of Nano

“If I were asked for an area of science and
engineering that will most likely produce the
breakthroughs of tomorrow, I would point to
nanoscale science and engineering.” (…)
“The total societal impact of
nanotechnology is expected to be much
greater than that of the silicon integrated
circuit because it is applicable in many
more fields than just electronics.”
Neal Lane, Assistant to former US President Clinton
for science and technology
How big is a nanometer?
nm
          Definition of Nanoscience

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology investigates
and applies phenomena, systems and
structures where:
1. At least one dimension lc is a few nm
2. The properties are qualitatively different
 because l < lc
Condition 2 distinguishes ‘nano’ from ‘micro’, macro-
molecular chemistry’ or ‘biology’
Sub-micron is not nano!

            ‘Nanotechnology on silicon
            products: Intel leads in
            production and research’
            (Wall Street Journal)
Moore’s Law
     Challenges and Opportunities for
           Semiconductor R&D
Production Year    1999    2002    2005   2008   2011    2014

DRAM half pitch    180nm

Overlay accuracy   65nm

Gate length        140nm

CD control         14nm 9nm

Oxide thickness    2nm     1.9nm
                                            Nature, 406, 1023 (2000)
     Challenges and Opportunities for
           Semiconductor R&D
Production Year    1999   2002    2005   2008   2011    2014

DRAM half pitch    180nm 130nm100nm 70nm 50nm 35nm

Overlay accuracy   65nm 45nm 35nm

Gate length        140nm 80nm 65nm 46nm 30nm 20nm

CD control         14nm 9nm

Oxide thickness    2nm    1.9nm
                                           Nature, 406, 1023 (2000)
     Challenges and Opportunities for
           Semiconductor R&D
Production Year    1999   2002   2005   2008   2011    2014

DRAM half pitch    180nm 130nm100nm 70nm 50nm 35nm

Overlay accuracy   65nm 45nm 35nm 25nm 20nm 15nm

Gate length        140nm 80nm 65nm 46nm 30nm 20nm

CD control         14nm 9nm      6nm    4nm    3nm     2nm

Oxide thickness    2nm    1.9nm 1.5nm 1.2nm 0.8nm 0.5nm
                                          Nature, 406, 1023 (2000)
What is Nanoelectronics?
             What is Electronics?
• By electronics we mean the handling of complicated
  electrical wave forms for communicating
  information, probing (such as in radar) and data
  processing.
• Data processing is the result of one complex stream
  of information interacting with another.
• This requires non-linear behavior, otherwise
  information just gets passed on from one place to the
  other.
                               (Landauer, Science 1968)
              Nanoelectronics
* Investigate those electronic properties of
small systems that are fundamentally different
because of size. Look for interesting non-
linearities.
* ‘Smallness’ depends on property and
temperature.
The relevant length scale for conductance (the
Fermi length) is 0.5nm for metals, 5nm for
semiconductors.
      Conductance Quantization
                              J.L. Pascual, Science 267, 1793 (1995)

                                Experiment
                                           Modelling




Conductance quantization in a 5 nm diameter wire during
                      elongation
         Nanoelectronics sub-fields

•   Molecular electronics
•   Spintronics
•   Quantum computing
•   ….
Storing information atom by atom

                Ultra high density
                  (Library of Congress
                  on a pin head)
                Ultra slow (needs life
                  time of universe to
                  write)
                Huge footprint
                      (UHV 4K STM)
                D. Eigler, IBM Almaden
Crossbar architecture
     Bio-chemical Sensors




 Lennox Group,
Chemistry, McGill
      Beware of
 PowerPoint Science
         or
Cartoon Engineering !!!
    Molecular electronics: the issues

• Contacts                • Crosstalk
• Structure-function        (interconnects)
  relationship between    • Architecture
  transport process and   • I-O with a trillion
  molecular structure       processors
• Dissipation             • Fault tolerance
                          • Manufacturing costs
Does atomic structure of the contact
              matter?
                        Mehrez, Wlasenko, et al.,
                        Phys. Rev. B 65, 195419 (2002)
                        (Guo Group, McGill Physics)
Electronic Properties of
Molecules: Requirements




        R. Reifenberger
Yan Sun
Anne-Sophie Lucier
Henrik Mortensen
Sascha Schaer
Yoichi Miyahara
Peter Grutter
(McGill Physics)
     STM of alkanethiols on Au(111)

                                             C8




                                                  C6/C8




M. Godin, P. Williams, P. Grutter
                                    Y. Sun
       C60 on Au(111)




J. Mativetsky, S. Burke, Y.Sun, S. Fostner,
         R. Hoffmann, P. Grutter
  Dynamics of tungsten tip:
30 frames per second field ion
      microscope movie




      Anne-Sophie Lucier
3D Reconstruction: the real thing




          W polycrystalline tip
     reconstruction software by M. Orchard-Webb
    F(z) and I(z) of
W(111) trimer on Au(111)




                       Schirmeisen et al,
                       NJP 2, 29.1 (2000)
              600 nm    C60 on KBr
                                       120 nm




Cleaved in air,
annealed in UHV
clean KBr              400 nm        with C60




S. Burke, J. Mativetsky, S.
Fostner, R. Hoffmann, P.
Grutter
     C60 islands on Au(111)




19    18      16      14      7
Magnetic reversal of microfabricated
        magnetic particles
Aim:
use coupled magnetic particles to
process and store information
                                    Ph.D. Thesis
Issue:                               of X. Zhu
switching field distribution
Magnetic reversal of microfabricated
        magnetic particles
Aim:
use coupled magnetic particles to
process and store information
                                    Ph.D. Thesis
Issue:                               of X. Zhu
switching field distribution
                            Quantum dots
                                           50 nm diameter InAs Qdots
                                            grown on 10 nm InP and a
                                                 2DEG InGaAs




Sample grown at NRC IMS
J. Lefebvre, P. Poole, R. Williams et al
J. Crystal Growth 234, 391 (2002)
Cryogenic MFM of
  Nb flux lattice




 Ph.D. Thesis of M. Roseman
                   Experimental Set-up
      Conductive AFM
           tip
                                            Bias
                                            Voltage
          Electric field


    InAs QD
    (2nd stack)
                           Tunnel barrier
                            10 nm InP
    InAs QD
    (1st stack)
                           Tunnel barrier
                            10 nm InP

InGaAs 2-DEG
                                              Sample B
First results of cryogenic electrostatic
     force spectroscopy on Qdots

                             double dot




                                  R. Stomp,
                            Y. Miyahara, P. Grutter
Contacting a nano-dot with a Au wire




                    M. Pumarol, Y. Miyahara
                    S. Studenkin (NRC IMS)
       Where will nano make an impact?
• Electronics and photonics
  – molecular electronics, spintronics
  – photonics
  – sensors
• Materials
  – ultra-fine powders, composites
  – harder, more corrosion resistant, dirt/bacteria repellent
  – green manufacturing, cost effective
• Bio-medical
  – emerging applications (materials, diagnostics, drug delivery...)
  – biomedical research tools (labeling, nanotools applied to biomed )
  – biotechnology applied to nanoscience & technology
New materials: non-permeable, self-
     cleaning, anti-septic,...
                   Air-D-Fense (InMat, New Jersey):
                   nanoclay/butyl thin film
                      3000 fold decreased permeability
                   Lotus leaf (artificial):
                   nm sized hydrophobic wax
                      size: water rolls (not slides) -> cleans
                      sol-gel based technique -> on market
                   Self-cleaning plastic, textiles:
                      CNT stabilized enzymes in polymer
                     Textiles with ‘Stain Defender’

                   Ceramic Coatings: (Inframat)
                   No barnacles on ship hulls: reduced drag
            Nano materials in labeling

                                 • High throughput
                                   multiplexed assays
                                   (‘nano bar code’)
                                 • Optical tracking on a
                                   cellular level with
                                   tagged CdSe quantum
Basis: size dependent emission     dots: which gene is
color of ZnS capped CdSe           active?
nano particles
Nanobiotechnology:
 the next ueber-hype ???
           NanoBioTechnology

• NOT more cleverly packed, sub-m arrays
• NOT microtechnology scaled to nano
• NOT macromolecular chemistry

• So - what is it ???
            Nanobiotechnology

• Emerging applications:
  – new drugs and drug delivery systems
  – new materials
• Biomedical research tools:
  – nano materials for labeling & diagnostics
  – tools of nanoscience applied to biomed
• Biotechnology applied to nanoscience &
  technology
    Nanobiotechnology - examples

• Emerging applications:
  – new drugs
  – new materials
• Biomedical research tools:
  – nano materials for labeling & diagnostics
  – tools of nanoscience applied to biomed
• Biotechnology applied to nanoscience &
  technology
Potential new drugs

         • Cyclic peptides assemble
           into hollow, nanometer
           sized pipes.
         • These tube forming rings
           punch holes into
           (negatively charged)
           microbe membranes
           (nanobiotics).
                Ghadri et al. Nature 412, 452
           (2001)
Potential new drugs & drug delivery
              systems
                  • Nanoshells of gold
                    (tagged if necessary)
                    can be heated from
                    outside of body by IR,
                    thus releasing drugs
                    locally and controlled
                  • Makes use of high
                    optical density of
                    agglomerates
    Nanobiotechnology - examples

• Emerging applications:
  – new drugs
  – new materials
• Biomedical research tools:
  – nano materials for labeling & diagnostics
  – tools of nanoscience applied to biomed
• Biotechnology applied to nanoscience &
  technology
Nano materials in screening

              • Polymer microspheres
                filled with different
                intensity ratios of color
                coding nanoparticles
              • Each sphere is tagged
                with a different receptor
                /ligand/antibody/DNA
                strand, ...
                Han et al.,
                     Nature Biotech 19, 631
                (2001)
    Nanobiotechnology - examples

• Emerging applications:
  – new drugs
  – new materials
• Biomedical research tools:
  – nano materials for labeling & diagnostics
  – tools of nanoscience applied to biomed
• Biotechnology applied to nanoscience &
  technology
           Live Cell Imaging:
• Smooth muscle cell from rat trachea.
• The contractile dynamics are relevant in the study of asthma.




     Time-lapse sequence after contraction stimulation (~20min/frame).
   Images are 50x50 mm.         B. Smith, B. Tolosko, J. Martin, P. Grutter
            DNA ‘unwinding’

                              AFM probe




                                   Au surface
Nature - DNA replication,   Experiment - AFM force
       polymerization             spectroscopy
                    DNA Intercalant Ethidium Bromide
                                                                    Duplex poly(dG-dC) with EB




                                         Fo rce [400 pN / div.]
                                                                                               b = 0.8 nm
                                                                                               L = 462 nm




                  A,G

                                T,C

                                                                           200        300        400          500

                                                                    Duplex poly(dG-dC)
                           EB                                                                    b = 0.8 nm
         T,C                                                                                     L = 778 nm




                                           Fo rce [400 pN / div.]
                  A,G
                                                                    Melting Transition ~ 300 pN

                                                                    B-S Transition ~ 70 pN




                                                                     300          450         600          750
                                                                                 Molecula r Extension [nm]

Anselmetti et. al. Single Mol. 1, 58 (2000)
Stimulation of Single Ligand-Gated Ion
               Channels




Natural Process:                 Experiment:
         Synaptic Transmission       Ligand-functionalized AFM tip

Goal: To study channel gating kinetics and binding forces,
   while maintaining precise control of agonist location.
    Nanobiotechnology - examples

• Emerging applications:
  – new drugs
  – new materials
• Biomedical research tools:
  – nano materials for labeling & diagnostics
  – tools of nanoscience applied to biomed
• Biotechnology applied to nanoscience &
  technology
Biotechnology applied to Nanoscience

                  • Better materials (e.g.
                    Abalone shell)
                  • Positioning of parts (e.g.
                    DNA scaffolding)
                  • Growing of wires,
                    magnetic particles, …
    Synthesis of Branched Metal-
          DNA conjugates
Branching scaffold units for the construction of
geometrically controlled nanostructures



           Oligonucleotide            +




                       F. Mathieu, H. Sleiman (Chemistry McGill)
             Nano Technology
Nanotechnology is at its infancy, still rather quite
                  primitive!
                 Nano Technology
    Nanotechnology is at its infancy, still rather quite
                      primitive!

                some of the issues:
•   Science!                    •Cost?
•   Scaling Laws?               •Systems integration?
•   Statistics?                 •Environmental impact?
•   Better function?            •Social acceptance?
•   Throughput?                 •Ethics?
 Nanoscience -> Nanotechnology
      crystal ball gazing!

New tools:          NOW
Nanomaterials:      0-5 years
Nanoelectronics:    15-20 years
Nanobio/nanomed:    20-30 years
     Nano: Renaissance Science

 size
          solid state physics
            & engineering
nm
nm                              biology


        chemistry
                                   time
                now!
Nanotools Facility
   Why will gray goo remain fiction?
• Contradicts many well-established laws of
  physics and chemistry:
  –   fat finger problem
  –   sticky finger problem
  –   stability problem (positional and chemical)
  –   (see R. Smalley, Sci. Amer. Sept 2001, p. 76)
• Challenges:
  – communication macro-nano
  – surface - volume effects

				
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posted:6/15/2012
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