Historical context: In the first half of the 1800s, the United States was divided into sections, based
on increased manufacturing in the northeast and continued agriculture in the south. The transportation
revolution connected the north and west. The issue of slavery further divided the nation when Missouri
applied for statehood. The Federalist Party faded and the Democratic Republican Party split into
separate parties. When Jackson came to the White House in 1829, he was the first president from the
new Democratic Party that appealed to many new voters. Historians disagree about Jackson’s legacy.
Task: Using the documents below to support your essay, respond to the following question:
Was Andrew Jackson a “Champion of the People” or “King Andrew”?
Doc 1 Hero of Two Wars: “Battle of New Orleans, 1815”and “The Seminole Wars, 1817”
1. What event does this document represent?
2. How does this cartoon characterize Jackson?
Doc 2a: Andrew Jackson’s First State of the Nation Address, 1829 (excerpt)
The duties of all public officers are, or at least admit of being made, so plain and simple that men of
intelligence may readily qualify themselves for their performance; and I can not but believe that more is
lost by the long continuance of men in office than is generally to be gained by their experience. I submit,
therefore, to your consideration whether the efficiency of the Government would not be promoted and
official industry and integrity better secured by a general extension of the law which limits appointments to
Doc 2b: Andrew Jackson’s First Inaugural Address, 1829 (excerpt)
“In the performance of a task thus generally delineated I shall endeavor to select men whose diligence
and talents will insure in their respective stations able and faithful cooperation, depending for the
advancement of the public service more on the integrity and zeal of the public officers than on their
1. What event do these documents represent?
2. What is Jackson’s opinion of the qualifications for public office?
Doc 3: Andrew Jackson's Veto Message. Washington, July 10, 1832
To the Senate:
”A bank of the United States is in many respects convenient for the Government and useful to the people.
Entertaining this opinion, and deeply impressed with the belief that some of the powers and privileges
possessed by the existing bank are unauthorized by the Constitution, subversive of the rights of the
States, and dangerous to the liberties of the people, I felt it my duty at an early period of my
Administration to call the attention of Congress to the practicability or organizing an institution combining
all its advantages and obviating these objections. I sincerely regret that in the act before me I can
perceive none of those modifications of the bank charter which are necessary, in my opinion, to make it
compatible with justice, with sound policy, or with the Constitution of our country”.
1. What issue is Jackson describing?
2. What is his justification for the bank?
Doc 4a: President Jackson’s 2 Annual Address, 1833
On December 6, 1830, President Andrew Jackson delivered his annual message to the United States
Congress. In his message, Jackson informs Congress of the progress made concerning Indian removal,
and explains the advantages of his policy for both the United States and the Native Americans .
“The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to the United States, to individual States, and
to the Indians themselves. The pecuniary advantages which it promises to the Government are the least
of its recommendations. It puts an end to all possible danger of collision between the authorities of the
General [National] and State Governments on account of the Indians. It will place a dense and civilized
population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters. By opening the whole
territory between Tennessee on the north and Louisiana on the south to the settlement of the whites it will
incalculably strengthen the southwestern frontier and render the adjacent States strong enough to repel
future invasions without remote aid. It will relieve the whole State of Mississippi and the western part of
Alabama of Indian occupancy, and enable those States to advance rapidly in population, wealth, and
power. It will separate the Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites; free them from the
power of the States; enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude
institutions; will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them
gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off
their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.”
Doc 4b: Supreme Court Case Worcester v. Georgia (1832, John Marshall).
It established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, i.e. the tribes were "distinct political communities,
having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive
Doc 4c: Map on Indian Removal from 1820 to 1840
1. What issue of the Jackson presidency is described in the documents above?
2. How does Jackson justify his actions?
Doc 5a: “South Carolina’s Exposition and Protest”(John C. Calhouns on the Tariff of 1828)
. . . [The Federal] Government is one of specific powers, and it can rightfully exercise only the powers
expressly granted, and those that may be "necessary and proper" to carry them into effect; all others
being reserved expressly to the States, or to the people. It results necessarily, that those who claim to
exercise a power under the Constitution, are bound to shew [sic], that it is expressly granted, or that it is
necessary and proper, as a means to some of the granted powers. The advocates of the Tariff have
offered no such proof. It is true, that the third [sic; eighth] section of the first article of the Constitution of
the United States authorizes Congress to lay and collect an impost duty, but it is granted as a tax power,
for the sole purpose of revenue; a power in its nature essentially different from that of imposing protective
or prohibitory duties. . . . The Constitution grants to Congress the power of imposing a duty on imports
for revenue; which power is abused by being converted into an instrument for rearing up the industry of
one section of the country on the ruins of another. The violation then consists in using a power, granted
for one object, to advance another, and that by the sacrifice of the original object. . . .”
Doc 5b: Andrew Jackson quoted in 1830
“If it be expected that the people of this country, reckless of their constitutional obligations, will prefer their
local interest to the principles of the Union, such expectations will in the end be disappointed; or, if it be
not so, then indeed has the world little to hope from the example of free government”.
Doc 5c: “The Force Bill”
1. What issue do the documents above describe?
2. How does Jackson respond to this issue?
Doc 6: “King Andrew the First” (Political cartoon, 1832)
1. What event does this document represent?
2. How does the cartoon characterize Jackson?