1 Peter Introduction to 1 Peter 1 Peter Authorship of 1 and 2 Peter Audience Introduction to letter 1 Peter: Author 1 Peter 1:1 “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ” 1 Peter 5:1 “I appeal as a fellow elder” 1 Peter: Author (cont'd) Attested by early church Irenaeus Clement Origen Cyprian Tertullian Not only quoted 1 Peter Actually attributed it to Peter 1 & 2 Peter: Author (cont'd) • 2 Peter was also quoted by early church • Not as often as 1 Peter • Example: Irenaeus, – Against Heresies, Book V – “a day of the Lord is as a thousand years.” – Phrased like 2 Pet 3:8, not like Psam 90:4 – Similar in Justin Martyr Dialogue • Also possible references by Polycarp, Clement, Ignatius, and others 1 & 2 Peter: Author (cont'd) Same author for 1 & 2 Peter Often challenged due to different styles 1 Peter polished and formal 2 Peter more brash and unpolished 1 Peter 5:12 With the help of Silas, whom I regard as a faithful brother, I have written to you briefly Gk Silvanus Silas also associated with Paul Assisted with 1 Peter, but not with 2 Peter 1 Peter: Paul and Silas Paul and Silas Paul's 2nd Missionary Journey AD 51-54 Silas a leader in Jerusalem (Acts 15:22) Silas a prophet (Acts 15:32) 1 Peter: Paul and Silas Silas Delivered letter from Jerusalem council (Acts 15) Accompanied Paul to many cities Syria, Cilisia, Derbe, Lystra, Phrygia, Galatia, Troas, Macedonia, Philippi (where he was jailed along with Paul), Thessalonica, Berea, and Corinth Helped Paul write 1 & 2 Thessalonians Greatly influenced by Paul 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • Eph 1:3 Praise be to • 1Pe 1:3 Praise be to the God and Father the God and Father of our Lord Jesus of our Lord Jesus Christ Christ! • Col 3:8 But now you • 1Pe 2:1 Therefore, must rid yourselves rid yourselves of all of all such things as malice and all deceit, these: anger, rage, hypocrisy, envy, and malice, slander, and slander of every filthy language from kind. your lips. 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • Eph 5:22 Wives, • 1Pe 3:1 Wives, in submit to your the same way be husbands as to submissive to the Lord. your husbands • 1Th 5:6 ...let us be • 1Pe 5:8 Be self- alert and self- controlled and controlled. alert. 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • 1Co 16:20 ...Greet • 1Pe 5:14 Greet one another with a one another with a holy kiss kiss of love. • Rom 8:18 ... the • 1Pe 5:1 ... the glory that will be glory to be revealed in us. revealed: 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • Rom 4:24 ...for us • 1Pe 1:21 ... you who believe in him believe in God, who raised Jesus who raised him our Lord from the from the dead … dead. • 1 Pe 2:13 Submit • Rom 13:1 yourselves for the Everyone must Lord's sake to submit himself to every authority the governing instituted among authorities... men 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • Rom 12:6-7 We have • 1Pe 4:10-11 Each one different gifts, according should use whatever gift to the grace given us. If he has received to serve a man's gift is others, faithfully prophesying, let him use administering God's it in proportion to his grace in its various faith. If it is serving, let forms. If anyone him serve; if it is speaks, he should do it teaching, let him teach; as one speaking the very words of God. If anyone serves, he should do it with the strength God provides... 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • 1Ti 2:9 I also want • 1Pe 3:3 Your women to dress beauty should not modestly, with come from decency and outward propriety, not with adornment, such braided hair or as braided hair gold or pearls or and the wearing of expensive clothes, gold jewelry and fine clothes. 1 Peter: Similar to Paul Style of 1 Peter similar to Paul • Introduces himself as apostle • Identifies audience (place, position in Christ) • Grace and peace • Lavish description of blessings in Christ • Calls them to live appropriately in response 1 Peter: Similar to Paul • 1 Peter – same message as Paul – Not two different gospels for Jew, Gentile • Writing influenced by Paul through Silas – Style – Content • Inspired by the same Spirit 1 & 2 Peter: Purpose Purpose of 1 Peter • 1Pe 5:12 With the help of Silas, whom I regard as a faithful brother, I have written to you briefly, encouraging you and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it. 1 & 2 Peter: Purpose Different purpose of 2 Peter • 2Pe 3:17 Therefore, dear friends, since you already know this, be on your guard so that you may not be carried away by the error of lawless men and fall from your secure position. 1 & 2 Peter: Differences Difference between 1 and 2 Peter • Silas not involved in 2 Peter – Different style • Different purpose 1 & 2 Peter: Author (cont'd) Internal evidence in 2 Peter • 2 Pet 1:1 Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ • Eyewitness of transfiguration (2 Pet 1:16- 18) • Wrote a previous letter (2 Pet 3:1) • Metaphoric reference to Noah and flood – (2 Pet 3:6, compare 1 Peter 3:20) 1 & 2 Peter: Author (conclusion) • Both claim to be written by Apostle Peter – No good reason to doubt. • Both teach consistent message – Grace – Appropriate response • Differences are reasonable – Silas involved in 1 Peter only – Different purpose 1 Peter: Audience • 1 Pet 1:1 … To God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia – Roman provinces in Asia Minor • (1Pe 1:2) who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood: 1 Peter: Living Hope 1Pe 1:3-5 Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade--kept in heaven for you, who through faith are shielded by God's power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time. 1 Peter: Rejoice in Trials 1Pe 1:6-7 In this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. These have come so that your faith--of greater worth than gold, which perishes even though refined by fire--may be proved genuine and may result in praise, glory and honor when Jesus Christ is revealed. 1 Peter: Love, Joy and Salvation 1Pe 1:8-9 Though you have not seen him, you love him; and even though you do not see him now, you believe in him and are filled with an inexpressible and glorious joy, for you are receiving the goal of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1 Peter: Prophets and Angels 1Pe 1:10-12 Concerning this salvation, the prophets, who spoke of the grace that was to come to you, searched intently and with the greatest care, trying to find out the time and circumstances to which the Spirit of Christ in them was pointing when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, when they spoke of the things that have now been told you by those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven. Even angels long to look into these things. 1 Peter: Class 1 Conclusion We have been chosen We have a great hope in our future inheritance We are protected by God while we wait Our faith is tested by suffering We are receiving a great salvation So, rejoice!
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