Struggle for Equality by T9kZ0cT

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									The Struggle
for Equality
  Path to Abolishing Slavery
• The Constitutional
  Convention would
  have failed without
  a compromise on
  slavery.
• Counted slaves as
  3/5ths of person
• Returned runaway
  slaves to their
  owners
  In the Constitution

What terms
are used to
describe
African
Americans?
The Framers Use
    terms like,
“All other persons
 and such people”
What was the
  Missouri
 Compromise
  of 1820
Divided new lands into
“slave” territories and
  “free” territories.
 Who was
Dred Scott?
  Dred Scott Case 1857
• A Slave from South
• Traveled and lived in North
  – Slavery was illegal in this territory
• After coming back to Missouri, Scott
  argued he should be free
• Court ruled that according to the
  Constitution – Slaves were property
13th Amendment 1865
      African Americans
Even though the Constitution
banned slavery, the struggle
for citizenship and the right
to vote had only just begun.
     14 th   Amendment - 1868
• Ensured Citizenship
  for Citizens
  Takes power away
  from states to
  grant citizenship

• Sometimes called
  the 2nd Bill of
  Rights
   Did the14 th

Amendment ensure
equal treatment of
African Americans?
   NO!

    Many
   states
created new
  ways to
 segregate.
What is suffrage?
The Right to VOTE
 The Path to Suffrage
• For African
  Americans
• For Women
• For Young Adults
     15 th   Amendment 1870
• States may not deny the vote to any
  person on the basis of “race, color, or
  previous condition of servitude”

• What did they forget????????
WOMEN!!!
   24 th   Amendment 1964
• Southern states were using a poll
  tax to prevent African Americans
  from voting.

 This amendment made poll taxes
 illegal
Women’s Suffrage
   Movement
   When the Constitution was
written, only white men had the
         right to vote.


Women also did not have many
other rights such as the right
   to own property or to be
  educated for certain jobs.
  As time passed, many people
   came to feel that this was
  unfair and that women should
 have the same rights as men in
           our country.

Women’s suffrage (right to vote)
became an organized movement in
1848 at a convention in New
York.
Women’s Suffrage Parade
   in New York City
           Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
born: 2/15/1820
From: Adams,MA

1871 Arrested for voting in a
presidential election

Her speech, “We, the people, not we,
the white male citizens, nor yet we, the
male citizens……..”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton

In 1851 Stanton met
Susan B. Anthony and for
the next fifty years they
worked together.
Stanton wrote and gave speeches
Anthony organized and campaigned to
achieve these goals.
           Lucretia Mott




Lucretia Mott helped to organize and call
together the first women's rights
convention in Seneca Falls, New York in
July of 1848.
     Seneca Falls Convention

• “We hold these
  truths to be self
  evident…..that all
  men AND WOMEN
  are created equal”

• 1848
     Sojourner Truth




Truth became a speaker on
women's rights issues after
attending a Women's Rights
    Convention in 1850.
    19th Amendment 1920

Finally after years of hard work,
women earned the right to vote
     26th Amendment 1971


      Lowered voting age
        from 21 to 18


If you are old enough to die for
  your country – you should be
          able to vote
14th Amendment’s principle of
   EQUAL PROTECTION
  • Equal Protection
     – Means that people must be
       treated fairly –
     – it does not mean that
     everyone must be treated in
     exactly the same way.
Can you give an example of
     Equal Protection?
The banks right to not have to give a loan to everyone
                  who applies for one.

                          BUT
            Can’t base it on race, gender, or age.
           Segregation
• Separation of blacks and whites in
  public places
• Laws of segregation were passed
  after 14th amendment granted
  citizenship

Did segregation violate the principle of
 equal protection under the law?
   Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

• Homer Plessy
• Refused to leave a
  “whites only” railroad
  car
• Court said that
  separate but equal
  standards did not
  violate the 14th
  amendment
      Thurgood Marshall 1950’s
• Can they really be
  equal and separate?

• NAACP (National
  Advancement of
  Colored People)

• First African
  American on
  Supreme Court
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
• Linda Brown
  – 7 blocks from white school
  – 21 blocks from African American school

• Supreme Court Case
• Separate facilities are inherently
  unequal
• – students made to feel inferior
• Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896
Brown v. Board of Education
      Affirmative Action
• Steps to counteract
  the effects of past
  racial
  discrimination and
  discrimination
  against women.
   – Colleges,
     businesses.
         University of
   California v. Bakke 1973
• Reverse Discrimination
• White applicant rejected
• Other racial and ethnic groups were
  admitted with lower GPAs, test
  scores and interview ratings.
• Stated race could be a factor when
  achieving a more diverse student
  body
Marchers protesting the Court's decision in Bakke.
            (AP/Wide World Photos)
  Grutter v. Bollinger 2003
• White female
  denied admission
  (same grounds as
  Bakke)
• Race or ethnicity is
  a legal and
  necessary tool for
  determining college
  admissions
                          Phillips Case

• Ida Phillips
   – Denied employment
     because of gender
   – “Do You Have Young
     Children?”
• Court ruled that
  company could not
  have “one hiring
  policy for women and
  another for men”
Citizens and the Constitution
• 13th, 14th, and 15th came about as a
  result of the Civil War

• The other changes were made
  through peaceful efforts of active
  CITIZENS

								
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