The Crime prevention and criminal justice reform

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					        What is the UNODC?


        The UNODC is The United Nations Office Against Drugs and Crime, it was created and
established in 1997 through a union between the Centre for International Crime Prevention and the
United Nations Drug Control Program. This framework has the main purpose, different from the
others, not just to raise awareness about the dangers of drug abuse, but to intensify international
action against drug trafficking and drug-related crime and production. In order to fight against of
what it was mentioned before, the UNODC carries out multiple types of initiatives depending on the
state’s needs, these initiatives might include alternative development projects, illicit crop monitoring
and anti-money laundering program etc.


        The UNODC assist Member States to strengthen the rule of law, this office promote stable
and viable criminal justice systems and combat the growing threats of transnational organized
crime and corruption, it also as its mentioned in the 3 pillars of the UNODC work programmed, the
office gather and share information to increase knowledge and understanding of drugs and crime
issues and launch national strategies for the ratification and implementation of               relevant
international treaties by adapting domestic legislation on drugs, crime and terrorism.


        In fact UNODC is supported by a large number of legal international mechanisms and
multiple UN standards and norms covering crime prevention and criminal justice such as:


                       The Crime prevention and criminal justice reform.
                       United Nations convention against corruption.
                       United Nations convention against transnational organized crime (which is
        the main international instrument to fight against organized crime, its also known as the
        “Palermo convention”, and its supported by 3 protocols: woman and children trafficking,
        trafficking in firearms and smuggling of migrants.
                       UNODC receives a tremendous support from the commission on narcotic
        drugs and from 3 international drug control treaties: UN convention against illicit traffic in
        narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances of 1988, the convention on narcotic drugs of
        1971 and the convention on psychotropic substances of 1971.
        In the Millennium Declaration, Member states resolved to intensify they efforts to combat
transnational crime in all its dimensions, stages and fronts.
          Drug trafficking and organized crime in Mexico: regional and global impacts.

        BACKGROUND:


        The global rise of illegal drug markets has increased the consumption of drugs. Global
consumption of opiates has increased 34.5%, cocaine 27 % and cannabis 8.5% from 1998 to
2008.1 It is also estimated that the number of people using amphetamine-type stimulants is going
to increase the number of opiate and cocaine users due to an increase in laboratories involved in
these types of stimulants. While consumption has decreased in the United States, the problem has
moved across the Atlantic where the number of cocaine users in Europe has doubled. 2


        This alarming increase in drug consumption has cause more awareness on inefficient and
negligent drug policies and pushed countries to develop programs against the production of illegal
drugs. “50 years after the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and 40 years after President
Nixon launched the US government’s war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global
drug control policies are urgently needed.”3


        Latin American produces and exports cocaine, marijuana, and heroin to the United States
and Europe. This rising drug trade has been directly linked to violent crimes such as murder and
fueled growing violence over land, transportation and businesses. Drug cartels are constantly
fighting over land for drug production and crime in Latin America claims more than 100,000 lives a
year.


        Governments have been unable to provide adequate safety to civilians because of several
failures in the judicial system. These countries tend to have poorly resourced criminal justice




1
 Call off the Global Drug War, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/17/opinion/17carter.
html

2
 World Drug Report 2010: drug use is shifting towards new drugs and new markets,
“http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2010/June/drug-use-is-shifting-towards-new-drugs-and-
newmarkets.html

3
 Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy
http://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/56924096?access_key=key-xoixompyejnky70a9mq14
          systems4, due to the lack of enforcement, criminal organizations and drug traffickers have
expanded their power.


          Sources commonly presents Mexico’s drug scene as a perfect copy of the Colombian model,
ignoring, among other points, that drug trafficking in Mexico began about sixty years before the
Colombians got an important share of the American drug market5. Violence in Mexico, including the
creation of drug cartels has gotten much worse since the election of Felipe Calderon and the fall of
the PRI in 2006. He has declared war against drugs, although we are struggling with a
contradiction: on one hand for example, In Amnesty International’s 2010 report, there have been
some 50,000 troops were engaged in law enforcement activities to improve public security and
combat organized crime and the drug cartels.


          But on the other hand a significant fact has been forgotten, How many people have died at
the hands of these elements? Again, the numbers vary with the sources you choose, but According
to media reports, more than 6,500 people were killed in violence related to organized crime.
Calderon’s plan of action was to put tens of thousands of soldiers to the duty of “war” against the
druglords, although killings kept getting more and more frequent since 2006 6. In conclusion
government’s strategies aren’t working.


          UN ACTIONS:


          There have been calls on drug policies based on methods to reduce crime and promote
economic and social development. The UNODC organized a Regional Experts Meeting in Costa Rica
in 2009 on priorities for action in Central America for the period 2009-2011. This meeting “proposes
the crease of a sustainable Network of Central American Anti-Organized Crime and Drug
Prosecution Units (OCN) in order to strengthen the prosecuting and investigating capacities of
Central American countries in handling complex and transnational cases involving drug trafficking



4
    The War on Drugs is a Failure, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123535114271444981.ht


5
  “Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment”, Abstract
http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm

6
    The War on Drugs is a Failure, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123535114271444981.ht
        as well as other forms of organized crime, and to enhance regional and inter-regional
                                         7
operational and judicial cooperation.”


        In June 2011 the self-appointed Global Commission on War Policy released a critical report
on the War on Drugs, declaring "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating
consequences for individuals and societies around the world...[therefore] fundamental reforms in
national and global drug control policies are urgently needed." The report also called for a new
approach to fight against drug production by targeting the drug cartels rather than the drug users.




7
 “Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean” http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drugtrafficking/mexico-
central-america-and-the-caribbean.html
                                         Points and Questions


   1. Besides immigration reforms, beside border control, do you consider that Mexico’s
         government need better support from other countries in order to establish a coherent
         strategy for border security?


   2. Should the Obama administration bear a responsibility to reduce the domestic consumption
         and control of arms sales?


   3. Research the: UNODC World Drug Report “provides a global overview of the illicit drug
         problem. Volume 1 of the report analyses illicit drug trends, while volume 2gives detailed
         statistics in areas such as production, seizures, prices and consumption.”


   4. What type of reform methods should Mexico aim at producers, traffickers, and consumers?


   5. How do neighboring countries seem to be affected by the production and transportation of
         illegal drugs?


   6. How adversely would the eradication impact the world economy and the economies of the
         drug producing countries specially Mexico?


   7. If the drug trade was on its way of being eradicated, what other methods of income can
         ex- drug traffickers and drug cartel members turn to?


Links:
        http://www.unodc.org/
        http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/about-unodc/index.html?ref=menutop
        http://www.unodc.org/documents/frontpage/MoS_book11_LORES.pdf
        ORGANIZED CRIME AND TERRORIST ACTIVITY IN MEXICO, 1999-2002,
         http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/OrgCrime_Mexico.pdf
        Call off the Global Drug War, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/17/opinion/17carter.html
   
                              Mexico: A Very Interesting Talk
        by General (ret.) Barry McCaffrey
        http://www.michaelyon-online.com/mexico-a-very-interesting-talk-by-general-ret.-barry-
        mccaffrey.htm
       World Drug Report 2010: drug use is shifting towards new drugs and new markets,
        “http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2010/June/drug-use-is-shifting-towards-new-
        drugs-and-newmarkets.html
       Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy
        http://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/56924096?access_key=key-xoixompyejnky70a9mq14
       The War on Drugs is a Failure, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123535114271444981.ht
       “Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean”
        http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drugtrafficking/mexico-central-america-and-the-
        caribbean.html
       “Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment”, Abstract
        http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm
       The War on Drugs is a Failure, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123535114271444981.ht
       The War on Drugs is a Failure, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123535114271444981.html
       The International War on Drugs http://www.cato.org/pubs/handbook/hb111/hb111-58.pdf
       In Mexico Drug War, Sorting Good Guys from Bad
        http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/02/world/americas/02mexico.html?ref=americas




                 Causes, effects and costs of human trafficking in South East Asia

        Defining the region

        It is very important to keep in mind that the UNODC does not take South East Asia as a
whole. The geographical division made by the Office, takes South Asia as a whole, and East Asia
and                       the Pacific as another region. For that
matter, “South East Asia” will be defined in the following map:




                                                                    (Source: Wikitravel.com)

          DEFINING HUMAN TRAFFICKING:

          According to Article 3, paragraph (a) of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Trafficking in Persons defines Trafficking in Persons as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer,
harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion,
of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the
giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over
another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the
exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or
services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.” 8




          Criminalization Of Human Trafficking
          The definition contained in article 3 of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol is meant to
provide consistency and consensus around the world on the phenomenon of trafficking in persons.
Article 5 therefore requires that the conduct set out in article 3 be criminalized in domestic
legislation. Domestic legislation does not need to follow the language of the Trafficking in Persons
Protocol precisely, but should be adapted in accordance with domestic legal systems to give effect
to the concepts contained in the Protocol.




8
    http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html
                                 In       addition      to     the
criminalization of trafficking, the Trafficking in Persons Protocol requires criminalization also of:

                 · Attempts to commit a trafficking offence

                 · Participation as an accomplice in such an offence

                 · Organizing or directing others to commit trafficking.

        National legislation should adopt the broad definition of trafficking prescribed in the
Protocol. The legislative definition should be dynamic and flexible so as to empower the legislative
framework to respond effectively to trafficking which:

                 · Occurs both across borders and within a country (not just cross-border)

                 · Is for a range of exploitative purposes (not just sexual exploitation)

                 · Victimizes children, women and men (Not just women, or adults, but also men
        and children)

                 · Takes place with or without the involvement of organized crime groups.




        The Regional UNODC Office for South Asia works in six countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. It was established in 1987 and is based in New Delhi, India.




                                        South Asia Regional Snapshot


        Total population: 1.5 billion
Population growth: 1.5%
Life expectancy at birth: 65 years
Female youth literacy: 74%
Number of people living with HIV/AIDS: 2.6 million
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49): 0.25 (2008)
2008 Gross National Income (GNI) per capita: US$ 986
           According to the recently published Human Development Report 2009, the human
development index (HDI) has been on a steady rise for countries in South Asia. With a gross
national income (GNI) per capita at US$ 986 in 2008, South Asia is home to 43.4 percent of the
world's poor living on less than US$ 1.25 a day. Since 1990 the region has experienced rapid
economic growth, averaging 5.4 percent a year. The region has reduced its US$ 1.25 a day poverty
rate by about 12 percent and increased its literacy rate especially among the girls in rural areas.


           The unevenness of this development and the economic slowdown have added to the
existing human security challenges. Statistics pertaining to illiteracy, gender discrimination,
government accountability and crime trends, indicate that citizens have limited access to the means
to securing everyday livelihoods.


           UNODC assists States in developing strategies to address crime, drugs and corruption, with
particular emphasis on assisting vulnerable groups. Within South Asia, individual countries cannot
grow in isolation from each other, and regional multilateral cooperation is required.9


IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS:

          Everything you need to know about Human Trafficking :
           http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/index.html?ref=menuside




          United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols
           Thereto
          http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index.html
          http://www.unodc.org/documents/southasia//Trainingmanuals/Protocol_on_Inter_State_Re
           scue_and_Post_Rescue_Activities.pdf
          http://www.unodc.org/documents/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf
          http://www.unodc.org/documents/southasia//Trainingmanuals/Compendium_of_Best_Pract
           ices_by_Law_Enforcement_Agencies_on_.pdf
          http://www.unodc.org/documents/southasia//Trainingmanuals/Training_Manual_-
           _Police.pdf




9
    All the information taken from the official UNODC website.
   http://www.unodc.org/documents/southasia//reports/LEGAL_AND_POLICY_REVIEW_huma
    n_trafficking_-_2011.pdf
          You can also take a look at http://www.humantrafficking.org/ where you Hill find
           information on each country separately.
          Combating trafficking in South East Asia
           http://www.unesco.org/most/migration/ctsea.pdf

          “ASEAN and the securitization of transnational crime in Southeast Asia”
           http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0951274032000085653


          “The sex sector: the economic and social bases of prostitution in South East Asia”
   http://books.google.com.co/books?hl=es&lr=&id=VFNKZbL1jWwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=h
    uman+trafficking+in+southeast+asia&ots=w7FZqfxjTg&sig=Sp1aZGl9E32puev2siCquFPljfY
    #v=onepage&q&f=false
       




          “The Rise in Human Trafficking and the Role of Organized Crime”




   http://www.demokratizatsiya.org/bin/pdf/DEM%2008-1%20Stoecker.PDF

				
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