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					      Curie Reduction on Liquid
      Effluent Releases at the PSEG
      Salem Generating Station

                   Presented by: Ron Werline
Author: Ron Werline - PSEG Nuclear LLC Radwaste Specialist
         Co-author: Kevin Davis - Duratek, Inc. TSR


June 24-26, 2002         RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem Nuclear Plant

                                 2 Unit Four Loop Westinghouse PWR
                                 Located on Artificial Island in
                                  Southern New Jersey, 45 miles
                                  Southeast of Philadelphia
                                 Each Unit rated at 1170 Mwe
                                 Commercial operation:
                                      Unit 1, December 1976
                                      Unit 2, May 1981
                                 Radwaste systems are common to
                                  both units




June 24-26, 2002   RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem Liquid Radwaste System

   Floor Drains
   Equipment Drains
   Lab Drains
   Containment Sumps and Drains
   Waste Hold-up Tanks (WHUT)
   Laundry/Hot Shower/Chemical Drain Tanks (LHS/CDT)
   Auxiliary Building Sump Tanks
   Chemical Volume & Control System Monitor Tanks
    (CVCSMT)

June 24-26, 2002     RETS/REMPS Workshop
Unit 1   Unit 2

CVCS
HUT
         CVCS
         HUT      Salem Waste Streams
CVCS     CVCS
HUT      HUT      65,000 Gallons each        Unit 1      Unit 2

CVCS     CVCS                                CVCS        CVCS
HUT      HUT                                  MT          MT

                       Duratek ALPS/A.I.M.
                                             CVCS        CVCS
         WH UT                                MT          MT
WH UT
                                              21,600 Gallons each


WH UT    WH UT

                  25,000 Gallons each
WM        WM
HUT       HUT
     Curie Reduction Effort

   1980’s                              1990’s
        Primary liquid                     Curie reduction plan
         Radwaste processing                 was set in motion with
         goal was centered on                the primary goal to
         cost reduction through              reduce curies released
         volume reduction                    from liquid waste by
                                             10% per year




June 24-26, 2002          RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Curie Reduction Effort (cont.)

 In 1998 Chemistry department took
  ownership of Radwaste from Operations
 Implemented a release limit of 1.43e-05
      Curie       reduction achievement
            1998 Curie goal of 0.50, actual released 0.43
            1999 Curie goal of 0.50, actual released 0.37

            2000 Curie goal of 0.12, actual released 0.10

            2001 Curie goal of 0.10, actual released 0.03


June 24-26, 2002           RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Past Liquid Effluent Releases

                                      Liquid Effluent Mixed Fission and Activation Products PWR Reactor (Curies)

                        8.00


                        7.00


                        6.00
      Curies (uCi/ml)




                        5.00


                        4.00


                        3.00


                        2.00


                        1.00


                        0.00
                               1990      1991    1992    1993    1994    1995    1996     1997    1998    1999     2000




June 24-26, 2002                                          RETS/REMPS Workshop
     ALPS/AIM System

   Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) with
    Advanced Injection Method (AIM) was installed
    in late January of 2001
   Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) Water
    was initially processed with Plant Evaporator
   Initially processed “Waste” Water (Floor Drains,
    Equipment Drains and Chemical/Laundry Drains)
        Eventually processed everything including CVCS water


June 24-26, 2002         RETS/REMPS Workshop
     ALPS/AIM Process

   Combination of filtration, ion exchange and
    chemical treatment technologies
   Establishes and maintains the most efficient
    chemical additive concentration
   Removal of soluble ionic species by standard and
    ion specific exchange media
   Removal of colloids by deep bed filtration and
    chemical addition

June 24-26, 2002     RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem’s ALPS Processing Area




June 24-26, 2002   RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem’s ALPS Processing Area




June 24-26, 2002   RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem Goals

 Total activity less than 0.10 curies released
  per year for both units combined
 Effluent Chromate less than 220 ppb
 Effluent Hydrazine less than 10 ppb
 Minimize waste generation based on
  influent conductivity
 No filter usage

June 24-26, 2002   RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem Challenges

   Minimizing Waste Generation
         Higher than typical PWR conductivity
         Lower than typical PWR curie release goal
         Processing all CVCS Hold-Up Tank Water
              Plant took Evaporators out of service in April 2001
        Maintain Waste Tanks less than 30 %
              Process rate is limited to 36-38 gpm by Plant’s pumps



June 24-26, 2002              RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem Challenges (cont.)

 90,000 gallons of high conductivity (up to
  8,000 uS/cm) service water
 No means for plant to segregate the waste
  streams
      Results     in inconsistent waste water parameters




June 24-26, 2002         RETS/REMPS Workshop
              Gallons Processed

                                           Gallons Processed 1/1/2001 - 4/30/2002
            300,000
                                        275,764

                                                                                                             253,778
            250,000


                                                                                                                                                     214,089
                                                                                                                                           207,604
                                                                                                                                                                         197,524
            200,000
                                                                                                                                                               174,779
                                                  161,553                                                              157,641
  Gallons




                                                            148,373
            150,000
                                                                                                                                 136,631
                                                                      121,701
                                                                                115,520
                                                                                                   105,171
            100,000            94,603


                                                                                          68,480


             50,000




                        0
                 0
                      Jan-01   Feb-01   Mar-01    Apr-01    May-01    Jun-01     Jul-01   Aug-01   Sep-01    Oct-01    Nov-01    Dec-01    Jan-02    Feb-02    Mar-02    Apr-02




June 24-26, 2002                                                       RETS/REMPS Workshop
               Solid Radwaste Produced

                                                   Solid Radwaste Produced 1/1/2001 - 4/30/2002
                           450
                                                    425


                           400



                           350



                           300
     Cubic Foot (Cu-Ft )
    3




                           250



                           200


                                                             150                                                            151                                          151
                           150


                                                                      100
                           100
                                                                                                                                                                75

                                                                                                          50
                            50
                                                                               25       25                                                             25

                                   0        0                                                     0                 0                 0        0
                             0
                                 Jan-01   Feb-01   Mar-01   Apr-01   May-01   Jun-01   Jul-01   Aug-01   Sep-01   Oct-01   Nov-01   Dec-01   Jan-02   Feb-02   Mar-02   Apr-02




June 24-26, 2002                                                               RETS/REMPS Workshop
         Conductivity vs. Waste Produced

                                                                Average Monthly Conductivity & Influent Curies vs. Monthly Waste Produced

                                                                             Feed Conductivity (uS/cm)   Total Waste Produced (FT3)    Influent Curies (Ci/ml)

                                                    1400                                                                                                                     16.00


                                                                                                                                                                             14.00
     Conductivity (uS/cm) & Waste Produced (FT 3)




                                                    1200


                                                                                                                                                                             12.00
                                                    1000




                                                                                                                                                                                     Influent Curies (Ci/ml)
                                                                                                                                                                             10.00
                                                    800

                                                                                                                                                                             8.00

                                                    600
                                                                                                                                                                             6.00

                                                    400
                                                                                                                                                                             4.00


                                                    200                                                                                                                      2.00


                                                      0                                                                                                                      0.00
                                                           Jan-01 Feb-01 Mar-01 Apr-01 May-01 Jun-01 Jul-01 Aug-01 Sep-01 Oct-01 Nov-01 Dec-01 Jan-02 Feb-02 Mar-02 Apr-02




June 24-26, 2002                                                                                RETS/REMPS Workshop
     ALPS Performance Data

   2001                                  2002 Thru April
        Curies Received 15.5398              Curies Received 35.8639
        Curies Released 0.0042423            Curies Released 0.0001854
        Average Monthly Gallons              Average Monthly Gallons
         149,019                               194,499
        Average Monthly                      Average Monthly
         Conductivity 392.2                    Conductivity 207.5
        Average Monthly pH 7.13              Average Monthly pH 6.87
        Average Monthly Flow                 Average Monthly Flow
         35.4 gpm                              37.5 gpm



June 24-26, 2002            RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem 2001 Accomplishments

 2001 total curie release of .0318 uCi/ml was
  lowest ever (Goal was 0.10)
 Salem removed evaporators from service
 Successfully processed 90,000 gallons of
  high conductivity service water
 Floor drain input control
 No filter usage (Goal was met)

June 24-26, 2002   RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Salem Accomplishments (cont.)

 Average total activity DF of 5,416
 Average Co58 DF of 2,257
 Average Cs137 DF of 5,758
 Zero water “re-processing”
      Minimizes     impact on Operations and Chemistry
         personnel
   Effluent Chromate and Hydrazine Goals
    were met
June 24-26, 2002        RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Process Partnership

   Communication/Teamwork
        Between Radwaste Supervisor and Vendor
   Chemistry Support
        Radiochemistry results as needed
        Standard chemistry analysis
   Rad Protection Support
        Coverage on all pertinent radiological activities
   Site Services Support

June 24-26, 2002           RETS/REMPS Workshop
     Summary

   ALPS/AIM System produces proven results
      Customer  satisfaction at an all time high
      Plant chemistry has improved since installation
      Freed up Operations & Chemistry personnel
      Reduced contaminated areas
              No System leaks
      Lowered       processing area dose


June 24-26, 2002           RETS/REMPS Workshop

				
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