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					                    FORE
EXCAVATION FOR NEW FORESTAIR AND
 RECORDING FOR NEW GARDEN GATE,
           COURT,
  4 CHAPEL COURT, JUSTICE STREET,
            ABERDEEN




CAMERON ARCHAEOLOGY
           2011
27 January 2011
 EXCAVATION FOR NEW FORESTAIR AND RECORDING
             FOR NEW GARDEN GATE,
   4 CHAPEL COURT, JUSTICE STREET, ABERDEEN



CONTENTS


1 INTRODUCTION                                                                              3

2 ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND                                                                 4

3 TRENCHES FOR NEW FORESTAIR                                                                7

4 RECORDING DURING CONSTRUCTION OF NEW GARDEN GATE                                          9

5 RECORDING INTERIOR OF BUILDING                                                            11

6 RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                           14

7 REFERENCES                                                                                14


ILLUSTRATIONS

Cover
Left              Trench 1 for forestair, facing north
Right             Garden wall section, facing south

Ill 1    Chapel Court location plan                                                         3
Ill 2    Plan showing Chapel Court and archaeological and historical sites                  5
Ill 3    Plan showing trenches dug for new forestair                                        7
Ill 4    South end Trench 1 showing foundation of standing building                         8
Ill 5    Trenches 1 and 2 for new forestair, facing NE                                      9
Ill 6    Location of breach of garden wall to form new entrance                             10
Ill 7    Section through garden wall during demolition                                      10
Ill 8    Location of new garden wall                                                        11
Ill 9    4 Chapel Court ground floor east wall, window                                      12
Ill 10   Chapel Court ground floor east wall south end, door                                12
Ill 11   4 Chapel Court, second floor                                                       13
Ill 12   4 Chapel Court, west wall                                                          13


4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)     Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology         2
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                     VAT registration no 990 4373 00
1        INTRODUCTION

This report covers the excavation of two trenches for a new forestair, breaching
of garden boundary wall and internal refitting at 4 Chapel Court, Justice Street,
AB11 5HX. The work was commissioned by Bennet Humphries, GPA
Humphries on behalf of Roman Catholic Diocese (Aberdeen). The work relates
to Aberdeen City Council planning application references A8/0817 & P091161.

The site is situated through a gated pend between 5-9 and 17-21 Justice Street.
Chapel Court is 8 x 13m (max) in size. St Peter's Roman Catholic Church
occupies the NW corner and the Presbytery House the NE corner. The east side
is occupied by church meeting rooms and it is these that are being altered during
the current works. The Church, Presbytery and several of the surrounding
buildings are Listed.




Ill 1 Chapel Court location plan




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        3
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
2        ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

This site is situated in a granite cobbled yard 8 x 13m (max) in size. No
excavation has taken place within this court but several archaeological sites are
known in the vicinity. There are no Scheduled Ancient Monuments in the
immediate area of the development.

To the east of the site the 'Market Stance' or 'Timmer Market' site was a car park
for much of the late 20th century. In 1983 a trench for a new main sewer, c 2m
deep, was cut across the car park between East North Street and Castle Street
but no archaeological remains were uncovered (NJ90NW 100; Murray 1982, 113;
Ill 2). The whole car park area is being redeveloped at the time of writing this
WSI and an archaeological evaluation and watching brief prior to this work
revealed a N-S cut at the west side of the site which was filled with redeposited
medieval garden soil and medieval pottery; other areas revealed cellared 19th-
century buildings (Murray 2009, 12; Ill 2). To the west of Chapel Court is Albion
Court, at the rear of 17-18 Castle Street. An archaeological excavation there
revealed a terrace of buildings originally constructed c 1650 and substantially
rebuilt c 1750.

The site of the Justice Port is thought to be located just to the south-east of the
current site (Ill 2). The Castlegate was in the unique position of having two of the
burgh's ports, which reflects the high status of the area. One was the Justice
Port, which may date from 1440, when there is a reference to its `edificacione'
which could be interpreted as either new building or rebuilding (Council Register
Volume IV, 1440, 208). The Justice port was also the called Robbers' gate
(Chartulary of St Nicholas, II, 153) and in at least one document, named as
Thieves Port (Chartulary of St Nicholas, II, 4 August 1538, 284, 1546). This was
because it was from this port that the condemned were led out from the Tolbooth
and along to nearby Gallowshill where public executions were carried out until
the mid-18th century. The Justice port survived until 1787 when it was
dismantled as part of a deal with a local resident to widen Justice Street and
allow him to build an outer stair (Aberdeen City Council SMR online).

The Knights Templar held land (NJ90NW 416) in the north-eastern corner of
Castle Street but there is no evidence that they had a convent or church
(Dennison and Stones, 1997, 69). A plaque exists at the north end of the east
wall of the presbytery.




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        4
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 2 Plan showing Chapel Court and archaeological and historical sites in the
vicinity

4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        5
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
St Peter's Roman Catholic Church (Ill 2) and Presbytery was built in 1803-4 by
James Massie, architect and joiner. It was the first permanent Catholic Church to
be erected in Aberdeen after the Reformation. The present building replaced a
1774 Catholic Church which was built on the site of the present presbytery with
the chapel on the ground floor and a house above. By the beginning of the 19th
century, the congregation had expanded and a new building was required. A new
church was erected on the site of the previous one and the old church altered to
become the current Presbytery. In 1860, after the opening of St Mary´s
Cathedral, Huntly Street the church closed, although No 2 Chapel Court was
used as a boys´ school and the Church was retained as its chapel. In 1862, a
Colony of Sisters arrived from Hammersmith to occupy the Presbytery and the
building is indicated on the 1st Edition Map (surveyed 1867) as a Home for the
Aged and Infirm. The church was closed again in 1872 and finally re-opened in
1880. The other buildings within the courtyard are good examples of local
traditional architecture from the early 19th century (Historic Scotland Listed
Building website).




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        6
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
3        TRENCHES FOR NEW FORESTAIR



Two trenches 0.4-0.5m deep, 0.3m wide and 5m long were excavated on 6
September 2010. Trench 1 was located next to the standing building (St Peter's
Church meeting rooms) and the foundation of this building was recorded in this
trench. It was one stone wide and excavated to a depth of one stone. Both
trenches contained services (water, gas, electricity) and mixed redeposited soils.
A small number of medieval pottery sherds were recovered from these soils. No
undisturbed archaeological deposits or features were uncovered.




Ill 3 Plan showing trenches dug for new forestair



4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        7
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 4 South end Trench 1 showing foundation of standing building




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        8
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 5 Trenches 1 and 2 for new forestair, facing NE

4        RECORDING DURING CONSTRUCTION OF NEW GARDEN GATE

A new access through the garden wall at the rear (north) of 4 Chapel Court was
created by demolishing a 4m section of the 0.55m thick wall. The N-S wall has
an outer stone facing on both west and east faces and a rubble core, all mortar
bonded. The top of the wall tapers to a width of one brick and there is a line of
bricks topped with cement along the top of the wall into which fragments of 18th-
19th-century broken glass have been set.

Glass, pottery and roof tiles found during the demolition of the wall suggest that
the wall was originally built in the 18th or 19th century. The wall was later
increased in height by 0.5m and a glass covered slope created on the east
(exterior) side.




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        9
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 6 Location of breach of garden wall to form new entrance




Ill 7 Section through garden wall during demolition

4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        10
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 8 Location of new garden wall


5        RECORDING INTERIOR OF BUILDING

Photographs were taken during the internal refit of 4 Chapel Court (Appendix 1).
Blocked doors, windows and fireplaces were photographed and are recorded in
archive. The building was originally two storeys and a further storey has been
added in brick forming an upper floor.




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        11
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 9 4 Chapel Court ground floor east wall, window to be opened to allow access
to Justice Lane.




Ill 10 Chapel Court ground floor east wall south end, door

4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        12
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Ill 11 4 Chapel Court, second floor added in brick after main building completed




Ill 12 4 Chapel Court, west wall showing original wall-head prior to brick second
floor extension

4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        13
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
6        RECOMMENDATIONS

No further archaeological work is required during this current development. The final
decision on the archaeological requirements at this site remains with Judith Stones,
Aberdeen City Council.

7        REFERENCES

    •    Aberdeen City Council SMR online (accessed 20 July 2010)
         http://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/xsm_SmrDetail.asp?id=2302.
    •    Chartulary of ST Nicholas, II.
    •    Chartulary of St Nicholas, II, 4 August 1538.
    •    Council Register Volume IV, 1440.
    •    Council Register Volume XXXII, 1587.
    •    Dennison, EP and Stones, J 1997 Historic Aberdeen: the archaeological
         implications of development. Edinburgh.
    •    Evans, D H 1986a 'Excavations at 18 Castle Street (Albion Court),
         Aberdeen', Post-Medieval Archaeology, 20, 271-95.
    •    Evans, D H 1986b 'Castle Street, buildings, kiln', Discovery and
         Excavation in Scotland.
    •    Historic Scotland Listed Building website (accessed 21 July 2010).
    •    Murray, HK and Murray, JC 2009 'Timmer Mart, East North Street,
         Aberdeen City (Aberdeen parish), evaluation and watching brief',
         Discovery and Excavation in Scotland, New, 10.
    •    Murray, H 1982 'East North Street/Castle Street 1981', in Murray, JC
         Excavations in the medieval burgh of Aberdeen 1973-81, Society of
         Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph No.2. Edinburgh.
    •    RCAHMS CANMORE website (accessed 20 July 2010
         http://jura.rcahms.gov.uk/PASTMAP.




Contractor:

Cameron Archaeology
45 View Terrace
Aberdeen
AB25 2RS
01224 643020
07581 181057
cameronarch@btinternet.com
www.cameronarchaeology.com


4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        14
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
APPENDIX 1

Forestair trench photographs




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        15
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Building interior photographs




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        16
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
General site photos




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        17
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
Gate formation, wall demolition




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)   Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology        18
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                   VAT registration no 990 4373 00
 PHOTO
 NO             DESCRIPTION                                                                         FACING
 BUILDING INTERIOR
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, window to be broken out forming window
 DSC 0510       into Justice Court                                                                  E
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, window to be broken out forming window
 DSC 0513       into Justice Court                                                                  E
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, window to be broken out forming window
 DSC 0518       into Justice Court                                                                  E
 DSC 0519       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, east wall                                             E

 DSC 0522       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, east wall showing blocked window (above)              E
 DSC 0525       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, east wall                                             E
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, east wall showing blocked window
 DSC 0528       converted into door                                                                 E
 DSC 0533       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, south wall                                            S
 DSC 0534       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, south wall                                            S
 DSC 0537       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, south wall west end showing fireplace                 S

 DSC 0542       4 Chapel Court, ground floor, south wall above fireplace showing 1st floor          S
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, west wall south end showing blocked
 DSC 0546       window                                                                              W
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, west wall south end showing blocked
 DSC 0550       window                                                                              W
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, west wall south end showing blocked
 DSC 0554       window                                                                              W
                4 Chapel Court, ground floor, west wall south end showing blocked
 DSC 0558       window                                                                              W
 DSC 0805       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south wall                                             S
 DSC 0806       4 Chapel Court, first floor, east wall                                              E
 DSC 0807       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south wall                                             S
 DSC 0808       4 Chapel Court, first floor, north wall                                             N
 DSC 0809       4 Chapel Court, first floor, west wall                                              SW
 DSC 0810       4 Chapel Court, first floor, west wall                                              SW
 DSC 0811       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south wall, west end                                   S
 DSC 0812       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south wall, west end                                   S
 DSC 0813       4 Chapel Court, first floor, window south end west wall                             SW
 DSC 0814       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south west corner                                      SW
 DSC 0815       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south west corner                                      SW
 DSC 0816       4 Chapel Court, first floor, south west corner                                      S

4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)         Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology            19
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                         VAT registration no 990 4373 00
 GATE
 DSC 0536       Garden wall, demolition started                                                E
 DSC 0547       Garden wall, demolition started                                                E
 DSC 0555       Garden wall, demolition started                                                S
 DSC 0568       Garden wall, from Justice Lane                                                 NNE
 DSC 0580       Garden wall, from Justice Lane                                                 NNE
 DSC 0581       Garden wall, partially demolished                                              S
 DSC 0590       Finds from garden wall
 DSC 0591       Broken glass set into top of wall                                              W
 DSC 0600       Garden wall, partially demolished                                              N
 DSCF8256       Wall pre demolition                                                            E
 DSCF8259       Broken glass set into top of wall                                              SW
 DSCF8260       Broken glass set into top of wall                                              SW
 DSCF8265       Broken glass set into top of wall                                              SW

 GENERAL PHOTOS
 DSC 0509  Chapel Court entrance from Justice Street                                           NW
 DSC 0510  Chapel Court entrance from Justice Street                                           NW
 DSC 0514  Chapel Court                                                                        NW
 DSC 0526  Chapel Court                                                                        NW
 DSC 0530  Chapel Court                                                                        N
 DSC 0531  Chapel Court                                                                        N
 DSC 0536  Chapel Court                                                                        W
 DSC 0537  Chapel Court                                                                        NW
 DSC 0538  Chapel Court                                                                        NNW
 DSC 0546  Chapel Court                                                                        N
 DSC 0547  Chapel Court                                                                        SE
 DSC 0553  Chapel Court                                                                        SE
 DSC 0554  Chapel Court                                                                        S
 DSC 0556  Chapel Court                                                                        SW
 DSC 0557  Peacock's Close showing St Peter's Church                                           SE
 DSC 0558  Peacock's Close showing St Peter's Church                                           SE
 DSC 0564  Peacock's Close showing St Peter's Church                                           SE
 DSC 0565  Peacock's Close showing St Peter's Church                                           SE
 DSC 0573  Peacock's Close showing St Peter's Church                                           SE
 DSC 0575  Peacock's Close showing St Peter's Church                                           SE
 DSC 0579  Chapel Court entrance from Justice Street                                           N

 TRENCH PHOTOS
 DSCF8554 Trench 1                                                                             NE
 DSCF8555 Trench 1                                                                             N
4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)    Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology         20
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                    VAT registration no 990 4373 00
 DSCF8556       Trench 1                                                                         NE
 DSCF8557       Trench 1                                                                         NE
 DSCF8558       Trench 1                                                                         NNE
 DSCF8559       Trench 1 (right) Trench 2 (left)                                                 N
 DSCF8560       Trench 1 (right) Trench 2 (left)                                                 N
 DSCF8561       Trench 1 (right) Trench 2 (left)                                                 NNW
 DSCF8562       Location showing 4 Chapel Court (background)                                     NE
 DSCF8563       Location showing 4 Chapel Court (background)                                     NE
 DSCF8564       Trench 1 (left) Trench 2 (right)                                                 SE
 DSCF8565       Trench 1 (left) Trench 2 (right)                                                 SE
 DSCF8566       Trench 1 (left) Trench 2 (right)                                                 SE
 DSCF8567       Trench 1 (background) Trench 2 (foreground)                                      E
 DSCF8568       Trench 1 (background) Trench 2 (foreground)                                      E
 DSCF8569       Trench 1 (background) Trench 2 (foreground)                                      E




4 Chapel Court, Aberdeen (site code CA0011-2010)      Alison Cameron, Cameron Archaeology         21
Company registration no 372223 (Scotland)                      VAT registration no 990 4373 00

				
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