Wheat Production Practices by xNZ8Qu

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									SCSC 306: Grain, Fiber, & Oilseed Crops




                       WHEAT
                      Production Practices


                        Wayne Smith
                  Professor, Cotton Breeding
                    Office: (979) 845-3450
                  Email: cwsmith@tamu.edu
SCSC 306: Wheat: Production practices


          Wheat Production Practices
     • Wheat is produced in        • Winter Wheat Central
       most U.S. States, but         and Eastern U.S.
       class of wheat varies       • Hard wheats are
       with regions                  grown in drier and
     • Spring Wheats are             more western regions
       grown where winters         • Soft wheats are
       are too cold for winter       common in the
       wheat survival (North         Eastern and Southern
       Central U.S.)                 U.S.
SCSC 306: Wheat: Production areas


              U.S. Wheat Production
     • U.S. wheat production        • Texas Production typical
     • Dryland Production             of Midwestern Wheat
                                      Production
     • Grazing of Winter Wheat         – Grazing common
       common in Tx, Ok                – Many planted acres not
     • Foliar Diseases limit             harvested
                                           •   Grazed out
       production in humid                 •   Drought
       environments                        •   Hail
     • Insects reduce yield and            •   Pests
       quality                         – Hard Red Winter
                                         Production
SCSC 306: Wheat: cultivar selection


                    Variety Selection
     • Important to grow Class        • Additional Factors
       common in region or
       identity preservation             – Height
                                            • Relationship with yield
     • Before cultivars are made
       available to producers,              • Planting depth
       millers have rated them as     • Maturity
       acceptable
     • Factors to Consider
                                      • Disease Resistance
        – Yield                       • Insect Resistance
        – Vernalization
        – Winterhardiness
SCSC 306: Wheat: cultivar selection


        Wheat Production: Cultivar Selection
     • Cultivars should have the
       correct vernalization
       requirement for a specific
       region
        – Too little will joint and
          freeze
        – Too much and it will not
          flower until it is too hot and
          dry for good production
                                           Winterhardiness – ability to survive
     • Winterhardiness is not              winter temperatures during
       related to vernalization            vegetative growth
     • Select cultivars with               Freeze Damage – damage due to
       suitable winterhardiness            freeze after reproductive growth in
       for region                          the spring
SCSC 306: Wheat: taller plants = higher yields?


          Wheat Production: Variety Height

     • No relationship
       between height and
       yield. Because of
       lodging problems,
       semi-dwarf cultivars
       are common.
     • Semi-dwarf cultivars
       have shorter coleoptile
       lengths which affect
       planting depth.
SCSC 306: Wheat: vernalization and cultivar maturity


               Wheat Production: Maturity

     • Maturity is related to vernalization requirement
         – Too early, subject to freezing
         – Too late, subject to heat and drought stress late season
     • Most wheat environments are limited by heat and
       drought
         – Early to mid-maturity cultivars
     • If not limited by environment
         – Fuller season cultivars
SCSC 306: Wheat: diseases


                     Wheat Diseases
     • Foliar Disease cause
       significant economic
       damage
        – Fungi
        – Viruses
     • Genetic resistance is the
       best method of control
     • Select cultivars based on
       resistance package for
       diseases common in
       production environment
SCSC 306: Wheat: insects


                Wheat – Insect Pests
     • Many insect pests of
       wheat, but only a few
       of consistent economic
       importance.
     • Manage with genetic
       resistance, cultural
       control
SCSC 306: Wheat: Abiotic stresses
            Wheat – Abiotic Stresses
     • Winterhardiness – significant
       variation
     • Heat tolerance – important in
       grain filling phase of growth
     • Drought tolerance – limited
       variation, plant compensates
       adjusting components of
       yield
     • Limiting factor in U.S. wheat
       production is length of grain
       fill duration
        – Limited by heat and drought

                                        Aluminum toxicity
SCSC 306: Wheat: Planting rate and date


             Planting Rates and Dates
     • Planting Depth is crucial
        – Better to plant dry and wait
          for rain than plant too deep
     • Plant early enough to
       establish strong root
       growth prior to cold
       weather
     • Planting Rates
        – Dependent on purpose and
          locations
        – Higher rainfall or grazing
          regions, higher rates of
          seeding (30 lbs – 120
          lbs/acre)
SCSC 306: Wheat: Generalized planting of winter wheat in U.S.
SCSC 306: Wheat: Generalized planting of spring wheat in U.S.
SCSC 306: Wheat: fertility


       Wheat – Fertility Requirements
  • N is a major nutrient
    which is consistently
    required in wheat
    production
  • P & K are important in
    certain soils
SCSC 306: Wheat: fertility


       Wheat – Fertility Requirements
  • Nitrogen crucial for wheat
    growth and yield
     – Split application
         • Fall – stand establishment
         • Spring – reproductive growth
     – Fertilization for protein content
       can be done, but management is
       crucial
  • P, K can impact growth if not
    provided in appropriate
    amounts.
SCSC 306: Wheat: water use



  • 23-24” water will
    make a good wheat
    crop
  • Majority of water
    needed in April-June
  • Well-timed for
    dryland production
    in the Central Great
    Plains
  • Yields are enhanced
    by longer grain fill
    period
SCSC 306: Wheat: water use




  • Maximum daily water-
    use in reproductive
    growth
  • Limiting factors in yield
     – Water
     – Temperature
     – Grain fill duration
  • Crucial periods
     – Fall establishment
     – Reproductive Phases
         • Compensation
SCSC 306: Wheat: forage


    • Grazing wheat as a winter
      pasture is common
        – Texas
        – Oklahoma
        – Southern Kansas
    • Less common North
    • Grazing does affect yield,
      but amount
        – Grazing Pressure
        – Time of Grazing
        – Time of Removal in Spring
SCSC 306: Wheat: forage

   • Plant at Higher         • Plant 2-3 weeks earlier
     Seeding Rates              – Stand establishment
   • Select cultivars with      – Allow drill rows to
     prostrate fall growth        cover ground before
     habit                        grazing
SCSC 306: Wheat: forage

                 Wheat as a Forage
    • For grain production
      removal time is crucial
    • Remove animals at First
      Hollow Stem or Jointing
SCSC 306: Wheat: production epilogue - freeze damage in winter wheat



            Freeze Damage in Wheat
  • Wheat is hardened for
    tolerance of freezing
    temperatures during the
    winter
  • Cold tolerance is rapidly
    lost once spring growth
    begins
  • Freezing Temperatures
    can cause significant
    damage.
SCSC 306: Wheat: production epilogue - freeze damage in winter wheat



  Freeze Damage in Wheat
SCSC 306: Wheat: production epilogue - freeze damage in winter wheat


            Freeze Damage in Wheat
                                   • Once wheat joints, it is
                                     susceptible to freeze
                                     damage
                                   • Extent of freeze damage
                                     influenced by
                                       – Timing, and duration
                                       – Growth Stage
                                   • Freeze damage causes
                                       – Yield reduction
                                       – Quality reduction
                                   • Plant varieties with later
                                     spring regrowth patterns

								
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