LAACS program aims to simplify access to non NAS software applications and reduce

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					                                                    ATO-P R&D

                        Human Factors Research and Engineering Group

                                  Human Factors Newsletter # 08- 01

                                    December 15 – January 11, 2008

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Articles in this newsletter:

   New Electronic Flight Data Interface Designs for Airport Traffic Control Towers: Initial
    Usability Test
   Human Factors in Logical Access and Authorization Service (LAACS)
   ATCS Selection
   Calendar

Technical Note: Truitt, T. R., & Muldoon, R. (2007). New Electronic Flight Data Interface
Designs for Airport Traffic Control Towers: Initial Usability Test (DOT/FAA/TC- 07/16).
Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration, William J. Hughes
Technical Center.

Executive Summary: Researchers from the Human Factors Team – Atlantic City have
developed two prototype Electronic Flight Data Interfaces (EFDIs) for handling electronic flight
data in Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs). The Integrated EFDI combines flight data with
a surface surveillance system. The Perceptual-Spatial (P-S) EFDI uses the same design
principles as the Integrated EFDI, but does not rely on surface surveillance. In addition, the P-S
EFDI may serve as a backup to the Integrated EFDI in case surface surveillance becomes
inoperable. The Federal Aviation Administration is interested in these new concepts because
they potentially provide a new means for ATCT controllers to manage flight data and share
information with other facilities. The EFDIs provide new tools and processes that should
improve efficiency and safety. However, because the EFDIs change the way that controllers
manage and interact with flight data, we must conduct usability testing to ensure that the EFDIs
are effective, easy to learn, and easy to use.

The current report describes the method and results from an initial usability test of the EFDIs.
The participants included current and supervisory ATCT controllers who worked in teams of two
(one local controller and one ground controller) to manage flight data with the EFDIs in a part-
task simulation. The participants completed a training protocol and practice scenarios before
engaging the test scenarios. Throughout the simulation, researchers observed the participants’
behavior and recorded audio/video data and EFDI interaction data. We used these data to
calculate error rates and to assess whether the participants’ performance changed after practice.
The researchers also collected subjective responses from the participants regarding the usability
of the EFDIs.

The results show that the participants were able to learn how to operate the EFDIs rather
quickly. However, they may not have had enough time to learn how to use the touch sensitive
displays reliably. For the Integrated EFDI, the participants had an error rate of 16% during the
practice and 12% during the test. For the P-S EFDI, the participants had an error rate of 7%
during the practice and 8% during the test. The relatively high error rates resulted from a few
EFDI actions that the participants had difficulty performing. Overall, the participants’ responses
to the EFDIs were favorable. The participants thought the EFDIs were well organized and easy
to use. They thought that the EFDIs required little effort, provided all of the necessary flight
data, and supported their awareness of the airport traffic situation. However, there were several
functions that were difficult to use, and this may have contributed to the participants’ concerns
that the EFDIs may cause too much “head down” time and may be labor intensive in some
situations. We make recommendations to improve the usability of the EFDIs by suggesting
changes for difficult-to-perform actions and by considering the participants’ suggestions for new

This research supports the Administrator’s Flight Plan Goal for Greater Capacity, Objective 1:
Increase capacity to meet projected demand.

Point of Contact: T. Truitt, ATO-P R&TD

Human Factors in LAACS: The ATO-P Human Factors Research and Engineering Group
participated in a series of demonstrations by six companies (IBM, Novell, CA, Oracle, Sun, and
Courion) during the period December 11-13, 2007 at the invitation of the FAA's Logical Access
and Authorization Service (LAACS) acquisition program office. The LAACS program aims to
simplify access to non-NAS software applications and reduce the need for multiple user
passwords. The purpose of the demonstrations was for the FAA program office to gain
familiarity with the security products of leading companies in the application of identity and
access management affecting the majority of non-NAS FAA software applications. Human
factors participation in these demonstrations helped identify human factors requirements for the
LAACS program, since the LAACS acquisition will have significant performance and human
resource impacts on users throughout the FAA. The vendors were required to demonstrate a
scenario in which a series of personnel identity management steps were conducted associated
with hiring an employee, separating an employee, changing an employee's name, merging
organization elements, etc. Portions of the demonstrations provided insight into the usability and
effectiveness of the human-system interface. The management team concluded that major
human-system costs/benefits and risks largely fall within the areas of hardware/software
structure and functionality, design implementation, and operation and support. Emphasizing this
point, four of the six vendors stated that "80% of the problem is in the implementation." The
team recommended that human factors expertise address the LAACS human-system integration
costs/benefits and risks as an integral part of the program. Human Factors consultation with the
LAACS program office continues. This activity supports the Administrator’s Flight Plan Goal
for Organizational Excellence, Objective 1: Make the organization more effective through
stronger leadership, increased commitment of individual workers to fulfill organization-wide
goals, and a better prepared, better trained, safer, diverse workforce. (Glen Hewitt, ATO-P

ATCS Selection: Dr. Ray King and Clara Williams (CAMI) traveled to the Eastern Region
Headquarters, Jamaica, NY to conduct assessments of candidates for Air Traffic Control
Specialist (ATCS) positions using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
tool. This trip culminated many years of CAMI research seeking a replacement for the 16
Personality Factor (16 PF) test for the psychological screening of ATCSs as part of their medical
examination. Now the FAA can administer the MMPI-2 at any FAA facility via the intranet
using CITRIX data communications tools. Scoring will be completed at a central location under
the supervision of a licensed psychologist. This research supports the Administrator’s Flight
Plan Goal for Organizational Excellence, Objective 1: Make the organization more effective
through stronger leadership, increased commitment of individual workers to fulfill organization-
wide goals, and a better prepared, better trained, safer, diverse workforce (R. King, CAMI)

                More information on human factors research can be found at
           the FAA Human Factors (ATOP-R&D) web site:

Terry Allard
FAA (ATO-P R&TD Human Factors and
 Engineering Group)

January 20-23, 2008 – ASHRAE Winter Meeting, New York City, NY

January 22-24, 2008 – AHR Expo, New York City, NY

January 23-25, 2008 – AHS Specialists Conference on Aeromechanics, San Francisco, CA

February 3-8, 2008 – 33rd Interdisciplinary Conference, Jackson Hole, WY

February 4-7, 2008 – SAE G-10, Melbourne, FL

February 12-13, 2008 – CBM Specialist’s Meeting, Huntsville, AL

February 12-13, 2008 - NextGen Conference on Integrating Weather, Airports and Air
Navigation Services, NTSB Conference Center, Wash, DC

February 12-14, 2008 – The World Air Cargo Event, Bahrain

February 20, 2008 – 14th Kellogg Technology Conference, Evanston, IL

February 19-20, 2008 – Human Performance in Helicopter Maintenance, Houston, TX

February 24-26, 2008 – Heli-Expo, Houston, TX

February 25-27, 2008 – IATA Ops Forum, Madrid, Spain

February 25-28, 2008 – NDIA 24th Annual Test & Evaluation Conference, Palm Springs, CA

February 27-28, 2008 – NBAA Leadership Conference, San Antonio, TX

February 27-28, 2008 – 48th Israel International Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Tel-Aviv,

February 27-29, 2008 - AUVSI Unmanned Systems Program Review 2008, Omni Shoreham,
Wash, DC

February 28, 2008 – JPDO “All Hands” Meeting, NASA Headquarters, Wash, DC

March 2-6, 2008 – IATA World Cargo Symposium, Rome, Italy

March 4, 2008 – FAA Budgetary Briefing to Industry, Wash, DC

March 5-6, 2008 – Avionics 2008, Amsterdam, Netherlands

March 6-8, 2008 – 7th Work, Stress and Health Conference, Wash, DC

March 8-12, 2008 – IEEE Virtual Realtiy 2008, Reno, NV

March 10-11, 2008 – 33rd Annual FAA Aviation Forecast Conference, Walter E. Washington
Convention Center, Wash, DC

March 10-12, 2008 – Flight Safety Foundation 20th Annual European Aviation Safety Seminar,
Bucharest, Romania

March 10-13, 2008 – NBAA 35th Annual International Operators Conference, San Antonio, TX

March 10-13, 2008 - Applied Ergonomics Conference and Expo 2008, Rosen Centre Hotel,
Orlando, Florida.
March 11-13, 2008 – ATC Global, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
March 12-15, 2008 - 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.,

March 13-15, 2008 – ARSA 2008 Annual Repair Symposium, Crystal City, VA

March 13-15, 2008 – Women in Aviation International 19th Annual Conference, San Diego, CA

March 16-18, 2008 – Air Cargo 2008, Orlando, FL

March 17-19, 2008 - 3rd IASTED International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
(IASTED-HCI 2008), Innsbruck, Austria.

March 17-20, 2008 – NATA FBO Leadership Conference, Dallas, TX

March 18-20, 2008 – PAMA Aviation Maintenance Symposium and Aviation Industry
Exposition, Dallas, TX

March 18-20, 2008 – Aviation Industry Expo, Dallas, TX

March 19-21, 2008 - ODAM 2008, Sao Paulo, Brazil.,

March 26-27, 2008 – ACI-NA Air Cargo Symposium, Los Angeles, CA

March 31-April 2, 2008 – SAFE Europe 15th Annual Symposium

April 1-2, 2008 – IATA “Wings of Change,” Santiago, Chile

April 3, 2008 - 2008 Florida Student Conference for Human Factors and Applied Psychology,
Daytona Beach, FL.

April 7-10, 2008 - 49th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and
Materials Conference 16th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference 10th AIAA Non-

Deterministic Approaches Conference 9th AIAA Gossamer Spacecraft Forum 4th AIAA
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Specialist Conference, Renaissance Hotel and
Convention Center, Schaumburg, IL

April 8-10, 2008 – Airport Expo 2008, Las Vegas, NV

April 8-11, 2008 - 8th International Symposium of the Australian Aviation Psychology
Association, Sydney, Australia

April 8-14, 2008 – Sun ‘n Fun, Lakeland, FL

April 13-18, 2008 – 17th Simulation Interoperability Workshop/Behavior Representation in
Modeling& Simulation, Westin Hotel, Providence, RI

April 14-17, 2008 – SAE World Congress, Detroit, MI

April 14-17, 2008 – AMC 2008, 59th Annual Meeting, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, OK

April 14-17, 2008 - 17th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation
(BRIMS), Providence, RI.

April 14-18, 2008 – DoD Enterprise Architecture, The Florida Hotel and Conference Center,
Orlando, FL

April 15-17, 2008 – 2008 MRO Conference and Exhibition, Ft. Lauderdale, FL

April 15-17, 2008 – Maintenance Management Conference, Daytona, FL

April 22-23, 2008 – IATA Aviation and Environment Summit 2008, Geneva, Switzerland

April 22-24, 2008 –World and Regional Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow, Orlando,

April 23-26, 2008 – Aircraft Electronics Association Convention, Wash, DC

April 28 – May 1, 2008 - 15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and
Technologies Conference, Dayton, OH

April 29-31, 2008 – 53rd NBAA Annual Corporate Aviation Safety Seminar, Palm Harbor, FL

April 29-May 1, 2008 – Flight Safety Foundation 53rd Annual Corporate Aviation Safety
Seminar, Palm Harbor, FL

April 29 – May 1, 2008 – AHS Forum 64, Montreal, Canada

May 5-8, 2008 – 2008 JSEM Conference & Exhibition, Colorado Convention Centre, Denver,

May 6-8, 2008 – CAD/PAD Technical Exchange Workshop

May 13-14, 2008 – Inside Aerospace—An International Forum for Aviation and Space Leaders,
Arlington, VA

May 9-14, 2008 – Vision Sciences Society Annual Meeting, Grande Hotel, Naples, FL

May 11-15, 2008 - 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association,
Boston, MA

May 12-15, 2008 – Aerospace Medical Association Aviation Physiology/Human Factors
Seminar, Boston, MA

May 20-22, 2008 - 8th Annual European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition (EBACE
2008), Geneva, Switzerland

May 27-28, 2008 – Shared Vision of Aviation Safety Conference, San Diego, CA

May 27-31, 2007 – 10th International Conference on Application of Advanced Technologies in
Transportation, Athens, Greece

June 1-4, 2008 – Third International Conference on Research in Air Transportation, Fairfax, VA . NOTE: Papers are due January 31, 2008.

June 9-12, 2008 - AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America 2008, San Diego Convention
Center, San Diego, CA

June 10, 2008 – ATCA Spring Scholarship Golf Tournament, Atlantic City, NJ

June 10, 2008 – ATCA/FAA/NASA Technical Symposium, Atlantic City, NJ

June 16-20, 2008 – UPA 2008: Experiencing Holistic Usability, Baltimore. MD

June 19-20, 2008 – Safety Survey in ATM Workshop, IANS, Luxembourg

June 20-25, 2008 – Third International Conference on Cognitive Science, Moscow, Russia

June 21-25, 2008 – ASHRAE Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT

June 29 – July 2, 2008 - XVIII World Congress of Safety and Health at Work, Seoul, Korea.

July 7-11, 2008 – 56th International Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine, Bangkok,

July 14-17, 2008 – 2nd International Conference on Applied Ergonomics, Las Vegas, NV

July 14-20, 2008 – Farnborough Air Show,

July 15-19, 2008 – INCOSE 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

July 20-25, 2008 – 29th International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, Germany

July 28-August 3, 2008 – EAA AirVenture, Oshkosh, WI

August 5-9, 2008 - North American Congress on Biomechanics, Ann Arbor, MI.
August 6-9, 2008 – The Ninety-Nines Annual Conference, Anchorage, AK http://www.ninety-

August 11-15, 2008 –SIG-GRAPH 2008, 35th International Conference on Computer Graphics
and Interactive Techniques, Los Angeles Convention Center, CA

August 14-17, 2008 – American Psychological Association Convention, Boston, MA

August 18-21, 2008 - AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit,
Honolulu, HI

August 18-21, 2008 – SAE Aviation Technology Conference, Century II Convention Center,
Wichita, KS

August 19-21, 2008 – PAMA 2008 Aviation Maintenance Conference, Century II
Convention Center, Wichita, KS

August 31 – September 4, 2008 – 4th International Conference on Traffic and Transport

September 10-12, 2008 - 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization
Conference, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

September 14-18, 2008 - The 26th Congress of the International Council of Aeronautical
Sciences including the 8th AIAA Aircraft Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference,
Egan Convention Center, Anchorage, AK

September 21-24, 2008 – Airports Council International Congress, Boston, MA

September 22-26, 2008 – Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting, New
York, NY

September 23, 2008 – Association for Aviation Psychology Annual Meeting, New York, NY

September 23-26, 2008 – FIATA World Congress, Vancouver, Canada

October 1-3, 2008 - International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics,
Toulouse, France

October 1-4, 2008 – Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Fall Meeting, Renaissance Grand
Hotel, St. Louis, MO

October 1-5, 2008 - Society for Physiology Research 48th Annual Meeting, Austin, TX

October 6-8, 2008 – NBAA 61st Annual Meeting and Convention, Orlando, FL

October 14-16, 2008 - SSTI 12th Annual Conference on Innovation, Cleveland, OH

October 15-18, 2008 - University Aviation Association Conference, Denver, CO

October 20-23, 2008 – NDIA 11th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Hyatt Regency
Islandia, San Diego, CA

October 27-30, 2008 – DoD Maintenance Symposium and Exhibition, Denver, CO

October 27-30, 2008 – Flight Safety Foundation 61st Annual International Air Safety Seminar,
Honolulu, HI

October 27-30, 2008 – 46th Annual SAFE Symposium,

November 2-5, 2008 – ATCA 53rd Annual Conference & Exposition, Wash., DC

November 4-6, 2008 – ACF 2008, Kuala Lumpur

November 6-8, 2008 - AOPA Expo, San Jose, CA

November 15-17, 2008 – Annual Meeting, Society for Judgment and Decision Making,
Chicago, IL

January 5-8, 2009 - 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including The New Horizons
Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, FL

January 11-15, 2009 – TRB 88th Annual Meeting, Wash, DC

May 3-7, 2009 – 80th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Los
Angeles, CA

May 27-29, 2009 - AHS 65th Annual Forum and Technology Display, Gaylord Texan Resort ,
Grapevine, Texas

August 10-13, 2009 – AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America 2009, Wash, DC

October 20-22, 2009 - NBAA 62nd Annual Meeting & Convention, Orlando, FL

Note: Calendar events in Italics are new since the last newsletter

Comments or questions regarding this newsletter?
Please contact Bill Berger at (334) 271-2928
or via e-mail at bill.ctr.berger


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