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					Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2010 – Briefing
April 2011

1 Summary
Introduction: Indices of Deprivation 2010

The Indices of Deprivation 2010 were published by Communities and Local
Government in March 2011. The purpose of the Indices is to identify small areas of
England which are experiencing multiple aspects of deprivation. It replaces the
Indices of Deprivation 2007 as the official measure of deprivation in England.

The Indices of Deprivation 2010 (ID2010) is the collective name for a group of 10
indices which all measure different aspects of deprivation. The most widely used of
these is the Index of Multiple Deprivation which is a combination of a number of the
other indices to give an overall score for the relative level of multiple deprivation
experienced in every neighbourhood in England.

The Indices of Deprivation is based on small geographical areas called lower level
Super Output Areas (LSOAs). Hackney has 137 LSOAs and each one will contain,
on average, 1,500 residents. The advantages of using LSOAs is that they are
consistent in population size (unlike wards) and are therefore easier to compare.
Their smaller geographical sizes also allow for a more detailed knowledge of
deprived areas.

The ID2010 contains seven domains which relate to income deprivation, employment
deprivation, health deprivation and disability, education skills and training deprivation,
barriers to housing and services, living environment deprivation, and crime. It uses
the same methodology as the earlier 2007 Indices of Deprivation.

For every SOA in England, the level of deprivation is measured by examining set
criteria for each of the seven domains. This results in a score for every individual
SOA, meaning they can be ranked nationally by how deprived they are, and also
mapped geographically. The following analysis breaks down the Indices of
Deprivation across different domains and across geographies to enable service
managers, partners and Councillors to access information at the level they require it.

This briefing provides information on the Indices of Deprivation, but should be used
together with other evidence to gain a full and rounded view of deprivation and
inequality in Hackney1. The information in this briefing, alongside numerous other
data and sources, will be used to update Hackney’s needs assessments and
incorporated into the single evidence base.

Deprivation in Hackney

   In 2010, Hackney's average score (based on SOAs) make it the second deprived
    local authority in England, second to Liverpool and ahead of Newham (3rd)
    Manchester (4th), Tower Hamlets (7th), and Islington (14th). This is the same



1
 Hackney has a range of evidence available through various needs assessments (including the Joint Strategic
Needs Assessment for Health and Social Care, the Children and Young People’s Needs Assessment, the Housing
Needs Assessment, etc, as well as several cross-cutting policy reviews).
    ranking as Hackney had in 2007.

   Overall, 42% of Hackney’s LSOAs are in the top 10% most deprived areas
    nationally, and 13% of Hackney’s LSOAs are in the top 5% most deprived areas
    nationally.

   There has been some reduction in deprivation compared to the 2007:

        o   57 of Hackney's 137 'lower super output areas' (LSOAs) are in the top
            10% most deprived nationally - a fall from 76 in 2007ID.

        o   This equates to 42% of Hackney's LSOAs which are in the top 10% most
            deprived nationally - a fall of 25% since 2007.

        o   18 of Hackney’s 137 LSOAs are in the top 5% most deprived nationally -
            a fall from 27 in 2007

        o   This equates to 13% of Hackney’s LSOAs which are in the top 5% most
            deprived nationally, - a fall of 33% since 2007

        o   There have been particular and marked improvements in the health,
            employment and crime domains, with only the housing and environment
            domains experiencing an increase in relative deprivation

   There are other measures of deprivation from the Indices of Deprivation, which
    may be quoted:

        o   Based on average ranking Hackney ranks as the most deprived LA in the
            Country

        o   Based on the percentage of "lower super output areas" (small area
            geographies) in the top 10% most deprived nationally, Hackney ranks as
            the sixth most deprived area nationally (after Liverpool, Middlesbrough,
            Manchester, Knowsley, Kingston Upon Hull)

   The findings from ID2010 must be put into context though:

        o   The data used to calculate the ID2010 is largely from 2008, meaning
            there is a significant time-lag. If more recent data was examined at a low
            area level we might expect a greater improvement in our ranking - based
            on large improvements locally, such as in employment and qualifications.

        o   The Indices of Deprivation is a comparator indication; it measures how
            much we have improved in comparison with other areas, not absolute
            improvements. The ID2010 shows a reduction in the number of deprived
            areas in Hackney but this is not reflected in rankings because other areas
            have also experienced reductions in deprivation.

Geographical Variation

In terms of geographical variation, there are particular concentrations of deprivation,

       In the south-western part of the borough around Shoreditch,
       To the south-east of the borough, around Hackney Wick and South Hackney
        In the areas to the north and west of Hackney Downs
        In the north-west corner of the borough, around Manor House and the border
         with Haringey

The map below shows how deprivation levels vary across the borough.

Map: Overall Deprivation Levels in Hackney




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
Variation Across Domains - Hackney Data

The table below shows the percentage change between 2007 and 2010 in the
number of Super Output Areas in Hackney in the worst five percent for the Index of
Multiple Deprivation, and each of the domains which contribute to it. The majority of
domains show an improvement, with a reduction in the number of LSOAs
experiencing high levels of deprivation.

Number of Hackney LSOAs in the Top 5% Most Deprived Nationally

Domain                      2007                       2010                      Change
IMD                         27                         18                        -33%
Income                      52                         34                        -35%
Employment                  7                          2                         -70%
Health                      5                          1                         -80%
Education                   0                          0                          0%
Housing                     103                        131                       +27%
Crime                       28                         12                         -57%
Environment                 36                         38                        +6%
IDACI                       53                         53                         0%
IDAOPI                      55                         54                        -2%

Note: IDACI = Indices of Deprivation Affecting Children Index; IDAOPI = Indices of Deprivation Affecting
Older People Index
Full details on the indicators which contribute to each of the indicators are available in appendix 1.

Headlines:

   Population change - A key determinant in many of the changes seen above is
    recent population change. Evidence suggests that there has been an inflow of
    households on higher incomes, in employment and not in receipt of income
    support. The resulting change in population both at Borough and SOA level is
    reflected in the IMD data.

   Improvement in services – Improvements in local services may also be a
    determinant factor in some of the changes set out above.

   Housing – There are 27% more Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% in England than
    in 2007. The likely cause for this is a rise in overcrowding, homelessness
    acceptances, and worsening affordability in Hackney.

   Crime – There are 57% less Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% in England than in
    2007. The evidence here supports other evidence that crime outcomes in
    Hackney have improved and are improving.
2 Full Analysis
2.1     Income

     The income domain is comprised of indicators relating to households on low
      incomes and means-tested benefit claimants

     34 of Hackney’s 137 LSOAs are in the top most 5% deprived nationally in the
      Income Domain. This is an improvement of 35% from 2007, when 52 were in the
      top most 5% deprived.

     Despite improvements in this domain, Hackney has a comparatively high
      deprivation score on the Income domain. This reflects the relatively high levels of
      means-tested benefit claimants in the borough.

     Income Deprivation is concentrated in specific locations in the borough, including
      parts of Hoxton, Chatham, Victoria, Hackney Downs, Kings Park and Dalston.
Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010


2.2     Employment Domain

     This is calculated using information on a range of different types of benefit
      claimants. It does not consider employment rates as these are unavailable at
      small area geographies.

     2 of Hackney’s 137 LSOAs are in the top most 5% deprived nationally in the
      Employment Domain. This is an improvement of 70% from 2007, when 7 were in
      the top most 5% deprived. Overall, Hackney performs strongly in the Employment
      Domain.
   As summarised in the headlines above, evidence suggests that there has been
    an inflow of households on higher incomes, in employment and not in receipt of
    income support. The resulting change in population both at Borough and SOA
    level is reflected in low levels of deprivation in Hackney’s Employment Domain.

   In terms of geographical variation, Employment deprivation tends to be higher in
    the south and central parts of the borough, Wick, Victoria, Hoxton, Chatham, and
    Hackney Downs, with some concentration in New River. Wards such as Lordship,
    Springfield, Cazenove and Stoke Newington have much lower levels of
    Employment deprivation.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.3     Health Domain

     The health domain is calculated using data on levels of illness and disability,
      morbidity, years of life lost and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders.

     None of Hackney’s LSOAs are in the top most 5% deprived nationally for the
      health domain, and only one is in the top most 10% deprived nationally. This is
      an improvement of 80% since 2007.

     This improvement is likely driven by improvements in both mortality (years of life
      lost) and other health indicators.

     In terms of geographical variation, the central and southern parts of the borough
      are more likely to suffer from health deprivation than the north of the borough.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.4     Education Domain

     The education domain is calculated using school attainment and absence levels,
      progression to post-16 and higher education and adult skills levels.

     The education domain is the one in which Hackney performs the strongest, with
      not one LSOA in the top 5% or 10% most deprived nationally, and only two
      LSOAs in the top 20% deprived nationally. This reflects the strong attainment of
      Hackney pupils in terms of both school assessment results and educational
      achievement and qualifications beyond the age of 16.

     The central and north-eastern parts of the borough show the lowest levels of
      education deprivation.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.5     Housing Domain

     This is calculated using number of overcrowded households, number of
      households accepted as homeless, proportion of households unable to afford
      homeownership and access to services like GP surgeries and schools.

     There are 27% more Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% in England than in 2007.
      These are concentrated mainly in the west, south-east and north-east of the
      Borough.

     The likely cause for this is change is a rise in overcrowding, homelessness
      acceptances, and worsening affordability.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.6     Crime domain

     This is calculated using recorded offences of violence, burglary, theft and criminal
      damage.

     There are 57% less Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% in England than in 2007.
      Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% are concentrated mainly in the south of the
      Borough.

     The positive change here supports evidence that in general crime outcomes in
      Hackney have improved and are improving.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.7     Living environment domain

     This is calculated using estimates of housing in poor condition, number of houses
      without central heating, estimates of air quality and number of road traffic
      accidents.

     There has been a small increase of 6% in number of Hackney SOAs in the worst
      5%. These are concentrated mainly in the south and north-east of the Borough.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.8     Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI)

     Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) is a subset of the income
      domain, and is calculated using the percentage of children living in income
      deprived families.

     The domain data suggests that there has been no change in the number of
      Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% since 2007.

     Concentrations occur in the south-east, south-west, north east and centrally.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
2.9     Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI)

     Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI) is a sub-set of the
      income domain, and is calculated using the percentage of older people living in
      income deprived households

     The domain data suggests there has been a 2% reduction in the number of
      Hackney SOAs in the worst 5% since 2007.

     Concentrations occur in the north-east, south, west, and centrally.




Source: Indices of Deprivation, CLG 2010
Appendix A – Indicator details and data sources (CLG, March 2011)

This annex provides numerator and denominator details for each of the 38 indicators
included in the Indices of Deprivation 2010. Unless otherwise stated, the data time
point is mid-2008 or as close as possible to this date. Where the denominator is
detailed as residential population, this includes the communal establishment
population, but excludes any prison population.

Income Deprivation Domain

1. Adults and children in Income Support families
Numerator: As described, 2008 (Department for Work and Pensions) Denominator
(for summed Income Domain indicators): Total resident population, 2008 (Office for
National Statistics population estimates)

2. Adults and children in income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance families
Numerator: As described, 2008 (Department for Work and Pensions) Denominator
(for summed Income Domain indicators): Total resident population, 2008 (Office for
National Statistics population estimates)

3. Adults and children in Pension Credit (Guarantee) families
Numerator: As described, 2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Income Domain indicators): Total resident population,
2008 (Office for National Statistics population estimates)

4. Adults and children in Child Tax Credit families (who are not claiming
Income Support, income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance or Pension Credit)
whose equivalised income (excluding housing benefits) is below 60% of the
median before housing costs
Numerator: As described, 2008 (HM Revenue and Customs)
Denominator (for summed Income Domain indicators): Total resident population,
2008 (Office for National Statistics population estimates)

5. Asylum seekers in England in receipt of subsistence support,
accommodation support, or both
Numerator: As described, 2008 (Home Office)
Denominator (for summed Income Domain indicators): Total resident population,
2008 (Office for National Statistics population estimates)


Employment Deprivation Domain

6. Claimants of Jobseeker’s Allowance (both contribution-based and income
based)
women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, averaged over four quarters
Numerator: As described, February 2008, May 2008, August 2008 and November
2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)

7. Claimants of Incapacity Benefit women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64,
averaged over four quarters
Numerator: As described, February 2008, May 2008, August 2008 and November
2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)

8. Claimants of Severe Disablement Allowance women aged 18-59 and men
aged 18-64, averaged over four quarters
Numerator: As described, February 2008, May 2008, August 2008 and November
2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)

9. Claimants of Employment and Support Allowance (those with a
contribution-based element) women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64
Numerator: As described, November 2008 only (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)

10. Participants in New Deal for the 18-24s who are not in receipt of
Jobseeker’s
Allowance, averaged over four quarters
Numerator: As described, February 2008, May 2008, August 2008 and November
2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)

11. Participants in New Deal for 25+ who are not in receipt of Jobseeker’s
Allowance, averaged over four quarters
Numerator: As described, February 2008, May 2008, August 2008 and November
2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)

12. Participants in New Deal for Lone Parents (after initial interview) aged 18
and over, averaged over four quarters
Numerator: As described, February 2008, May 2008, August 2008 and November
2008 (Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator (for summed Employment Domain indicators): Total resident
population for women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64, 2008 (Office for National
Statistics population estimates)


Health Deprivation and Disability Domain

13. Years of Potential Life Lost
Numerator: Mortality data in five year age-sex bands, 2004-2008 (Office for National
Statistics)
Denominator: Total resident population in five year age-sex bands, 2008 (Office for
National Statistics population estimates)
14. Comparative Illness and Disability Ratio
Numerator: Non-overlapping counts of people in receipt of Income Support,
Disability Premium, Attendance Allowance, Disability Living Allowance, Severe
Disablement Allowance, Incapacity Benefit in five year age-sex bands, 2008
(Department for Work and Pensions)
Denominator: Total resident population in five year age-sex bands, 2008 (Office for
National Statistics population estimates)

15. Acute morbidity
Numerator: Hospital spells starting with admission in an emergency in five year
age-sex bands, 2006-07 and 2007-08 (NHS Information Centre)
Denominator: Total resident population in five year age-sex bands, 2008 (Office for
National Statistics population estimates)

16. Mood or anxiety disorders
Measure of adults under 60 suffering from mood (affective), neurotic, stress-related
and somatoform disorders, based on prescribing data for 2005 (NHS Prescription
Services), hospital episodes data for 2006-07 and 2007-08 (NHS Information
Centre), suicide mortality data for 2004-2008 (Office for National Statistics) and
health benefits data for 2008 (Department for Work and Pensions).


Education Skills and Training Deprivation Domain

17. Key Stage 2 attainment
Numerator: Total score of pupils taking English, maths and science Key Stage 2
exams in maintained schools, 2006-07 and 2007-08 (Department for Education)
Denominator: Total number of Key Stage 2 subjects taken by pupils in maintained
schools, 2006-07 and 2007-08 (Department for Education)

18. Key Stage 3 attainment
Numerator: Total score of pupils taking English, maths and science Key Stage 3
exams in maintained schools, 2006-07 and 2007-08 (Department for Education)
Denominator: Total number of Key Stage 3 subjects taken by pupils in maintained
schools, 2006-07 and 2007-08 (Department for Education)

19. Key Stage 4 attainment
Numerator: Total capped (best 8) score of pupils taking Key Stage 4 in maintained
schools, 2006-07 and 2007-08 (Department for Education) Denominator: All pupils in
maintained schools who took Key Stage 4 exams, 2006‑07 and 2007-08
(Department for Education)

20. Secondary school absence
Numerator: Number of authorised and unauthorised absences from secondary
school, 2007-08 and 2008-09 (Department for Education) Denominator: Total
number of possible sessions, 2007-08 and 2008-09 (Department for Education)

21. Staying on in education post 16
Numerator: Young people aged 17 receiving Child Benefit in 2009 (HM Revenue and
Customs) Denominator: Young people aged 15 receiving Child Benefit in 2007 (HM
Revenue and Customs) The indicator is subtracted from 1 to produce the proportion
not staying in education

22. Entry to higher education
Numerator: Successful entrants under 21 to higher education, four year average
2005-06–2008-09 (Higher Education Statistics Agency) Denominator: Population
aged 14-17, 2001 (Census) The indicator is subtracted from 1 to produce the
proportion not entering higher education

23. Adult skills
Numerator: Adults aged 25-54 with no qualifications or with qualifications below
NVQ Level 2, 2001 (Census)
Denominator: All adults aged 25-54, 2001 (Census)


Barriers to Housing and Services Domain

24. Household overcrowding
Numerator: Overcrowded households, 2001 (Census)
Denominator: Total number of households, 2001 (Census)

25. Homelessness
Numerator: Number of accepted decisions for assistance under the homelessness
provisions of housing legislation, 2008-09 (Department for Communities and
Local Government)
Denominator: Household estimates, 2006 (Department for Communities and
Local Government)

26. Housing affordability
Modelled proportion of households unable to afford to enter owner occupation on
the basis of their income, estimated primarily from the Family Resources Survey and
Regulated Mortgage Survey, 2008 (estimates produced by Heriot-Watt University)

27. Road distance to a GP surgery
Population weighted mean of Output Area road distance score (the road distance
from the population weighted Output Area centroid to nearest GP premises), 2008
(NHS Connecting for Health)

28. Road distance to a supermarket or convenience store
Population weighted mean of Output Area road distance score (the road distance
from the populated weighted Output Area centroid to nearest supermarket or
convenience store), 2008 (MapInfo Ltd)

29. Road distance to a primary school
Population weighted mean of Output Area road distance score (the road distance
from the populated weighted Output Area centroid to nearest primary school), 2008
(Department for Education Edubase)

30. Road distance to a Post Office
Population weighted mean of Output Area road distance score (the road distance
from the populated weighted Output Area centroid to nearest Post Office), 2008
(Post Office Ltd)


Crime Domain

31. Violence
Numerator: 19 recorded crime offence types, April 2008–March 2009 (Police Force
data, constrained to Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership level data provided
by the Home Office)
Denominator: Resident population, 2008 (Office for National Statistics population
estimates), plus non-resident working population, 2001 (Census)

32. Burglary
Numerator: Four recorded crime offence types, April 2008–March 2009 (Police Force
data, constrained to Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership level data provided
by the Home Office)
Denominator: Total dwellings, 2001 (Census), plus business addresses (Ordnance
Survey Address Point database)

33. Theft
Numerator: Five recorded crime offence types, April 2008–March 2009 (Police Force
data, constrained to Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership level data provided
by the Home Office)
Denominator: Resident population, 2008 (Office for National Statistics population
estimates), plus non-resident working population, 2001 (Census)

34. Criminal damage
Numerator: 11 recorded crime offence types, April 2008–March 2009 (Police Force
data, constrained to Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership level data provided
by the Home Office)
Denominator: Resident population, 2008 (Office for National Statistics population
estimates), plus non-resident working population, 2001 (Census)


Living Environment Deprivation Domain

35. Housing in poor condition
Estimate of the probability that any given dwelling in the Output Area (aggregated
to LSOA level) fails to meet the decent standard, modelled primarily from the English
House Condition Survey, 2005 (estimates produced by the Building Research
Establishment Ltd)

36. Houses without central heating
Numerator: As described, 2001 (Census)
Denominator: Total number of households, 2001 (Census)

37. Air quality
Modelled estimates of air quality based on the concentration of four pollutants
(nitrogen dioxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide and particulates), 2008 (estimates
produced by Staffordshire University)

38. Road traffic accidents
Numerator: Injuries to pedestrians and cyclists caused by road traffic accidents,
2007-2009 (Department for Transport)
Denominator: Total resident population, 2008 (Office for National Statistics
population estimates), plus non-resident working population, 2001 (Census)

Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index

The Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) is a subset of the Income
Deprivation Domain of the IMD, and shows the percentage of children in each SOA
living in families that are income deprived. It includes the following indicators:
      Children aged 0-15 in households claiming Income Support
      Children aged 0-15 in households claiming Income-Based Job Seekers’
       Allowance
      Children aged 0-15 in households claiming Pension Credit (Guarantee)
      Children aged 0-15 in households claiming Working Tax or Child Tax Credit
       whose equivalised household income (excluding housing benefits) is below
       60 per cent of the median before housing costs
      Children aged 0-15 in households claiming Child Tax Credit (who are not
       eligible for Income Support, Income-Based Job Seeker’s Allowance, Pension
       Credit or Working Tax Credit) whose equivalised income (excluding housing
       benefits) is below 60 per cent of the median before housing costs
Income Deprivation Affecting Older People
The supplementary Income Deprivation Affecting Older People (IDAOP) Index has
been created as a subset of the Income Deprivation domain. It uses elements of the
following indicators in relation to those aged 60 and over:
      Those aged 60and over in Income Support Households
      Those aged 60and over in Income-Based JSA Households
      Those aged 60 and over in Pension Credit (Guarantee) Households
      Those aged 60 and over in those Working Tax Credit households where there
       are children in receipt of Child Tax Credit whose equivalised income
       (excluding housing benefits) is below 60 per cent of the median before
       housing costs
      Those aged 60and over in Child Tax Credit Households (who are not eligible
       for IS, Income-Based JSA, Pension Credit or Working Tax Credit) whose
       equivalised income (excluding housing benefits) is below 60 per cent of the
       median before housing costs
      National Asylum Support Service (NASS) supported asylum seekers in
       England in receipt of subsistence support, accommodation support, or both in
       relation to those aged 60 or over

				
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