Information About Wikipedia by vimal.arpit

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 4

These are the books for the children who wants to know about peoples and organizations such as Michael Jackson, Sachin Tendulkar and many more.....also want to know about Wikipedia. and many more

More Info
									Wikipedia (Listeni/?w?k?'pi?di?/ or Listeni/?w?ki'pi?di?/ WIK-i-PEE-dee-
?) is a free, collaboratively edited and multilingual Internet
encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Its 22
million articles (over 3.9 million in English alone) have been written
collaboratively by volunteers around the world. Almost all of its
articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site,[4] and it has
about 100,000 regularly active contributors.[5][6] As of June 2012, there
are editions of Wikipedia in 285 languages. It has become the largest and
most popular general reference work on the Internet,[7][8][9][10] ranking
sixth globally among all websites on Alexa and having an estimated 365
million readers worldwide.[7][11] It is estimated that Wikipedia receives
2.7 billion monthly pageviews from the United States alone.[12]

Wikipedia was launched in January 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry
Sanger.[13] Sanger coined the name Wikipedia,[14] which is a portmanteau
of wiki (a type of collaborative website, from the Hawaiian word wiki,
meaning "quick")[15] and encyclopedia. Wikipedia's departure from the
expert-driven style of encyclopedia building and the presence of a large
body of unacademic content have received extensive attention in print
media. In its 2006 Person of the Year article, Time magazine recognized
the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of
people around the world. It cited Wikipedia as an example, in addition to
YouTube, MySpace, and Facebook.[16] Wikipedia has also been praised as a
news source because of how quickly articles about recent events
appear.[17][18] Students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles
as an exercise in clearly and succinctly explaining difficult concepts to
an uninitiated audience.[19]

Although the policies of Wikipedia strongly espouse verifiability and a
neutral point of view, criticisms leveled at Wikipedia include
allegations about quality of writing,[20] inaccurate or inconsistent
information, and explicit content. Various experts (including Wales and
Jonathan Zittrain) have expressed concern over possible (intentional or
unintentional) biases.[21][22][23][24] These allegations are addressed by
various Wikipedia policies.

Other disparagers of Wikipedia simply point out vulnerabilities inherent
to any wiki that may be edited by anyone. These critics observe that much
weight is given to topics that more editors are likely to know about,
like popular culture,[25] and that the site is vulnerable to
vandalism,[26][27] though some studies indicate that vandalism is quickly
deleted. Critics point out that some articles contain unverified or
inconsistent information,[28] though a 2005 investigation in Nature
showed that the science articles they compared came close to the level of
accuracy of Encyclopædia Britannica and had a similar rate of "serious
errors".[29]
Contents

    1 History
    2 Nature
        2.1 Editing
        2.2 Organization of article pages
        2.3 Vandalism
        2.4 Rules and laws governing content and editor behavior
        2.5 Privacy
        2.6 Community
        2.7 Language editions
    3 Analysis of content
        3.1 Accuracy of content
        3.2 Quality of writing
        3.3 Coverage of topics and systemic bias
        3.4 Citing Wikipedia
        3.5 Explicit content
    4 Operation
        4.1 Wikimedia Foundation and the Wikimedia chapters
        4.2 Software and hardware
    5 Access to content
        5.1 Content licensing
        5.2 Methods of access
    6 Impact
        6.1 Sister projects - Wikimedia
        6.2 Impact on publishing
        6.3 Cultural significance
    7 Related projects
    8 Glossary
    9 See also
        9.1 Special searches
    10 References
    11 Further reading
        11.1 Academic studies
        11.2 Books
        11.3 Book reviews and other articles
        11.4 Learning resources
        11.5 Other media coverage
    12 External links

History
Main article: History of Wikipedia
Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with large
initial "N".
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project,
Nupedia.

Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online
English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by
experts and reviewed under a formal process. Nupedia was founded on March
9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, Inc, a web portal company. Its
main figures were the Bomis CEO Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief
for Nupedia and later Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its
own Nupedia Open Content License, switching to the GNU Free Documentation
License before Wikipedia's founding at the urging of Richard
Stallman.[30] Sanger and Wales founded Wikipedia.[31][32] While Wales is
credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable
encyclopedia,[33][34] Sanger is usually credited with the strategy of
using a wiki to reach that goal.[35] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed
on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for
Nupedia.[36] Wikipedia was formally launched on January 15, 2001, as a
single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[37] and announced
by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[33] Wikipedia's policy of "neutral
point-of-view"[38] was codified in its initial months, and was similar to
Nupedia's earlier "nonbiased" policy. Otherwise, there were relatively
few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia.[33]
Number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue)

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and
web search engine indexing. It grew to approximately 20,000 articles and
18 language editions by the end of 2001. By late 2002, it had reached 26
language editions, 46 by the end of 2003, and 161 by the final days of
2004.[39] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were
taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into
Wikipedia. English Wikipedia passed the two million-article mark on
September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled,
eclipsing even the 1407 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record
for exactly 600 years.[40]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in a perceived
English-centric[citation needed] Wikipedia, users of the Spanish
Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in
February 2002.[41] These moves encouraged Wales to announce that
Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and change Wikipedia's domain
from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[42]
Growth of the number of articles in the English Wikipedia (in blue)

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August
2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of articles and
of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[43] Around
1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2010 that
average was roughly 1,000.[44] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center
attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity
and resistance to change.[45] Others suggest that the growth is
flattening naturally because articles that could be called 'low-hanging
fruit' – topics that clearly merit an article – have already been created
and built up extensively.[46][47]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in
Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during
the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only
4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[48][49] The Wall Street
Journal reported that "unprecedented numbers of the millions of online
volunteers who write, edit and police [Wikipedia] are quitting". The
array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content
are among the reasons for this trend that are cited in the article.[50]
Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning
the methodology of the study.[51] Two years later, Wales acknowledged the
presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than
36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.[52] Nevertheless, in
the same interview he claimed the number of editors was "stable and
sustainable".

In January 2007, Wikipedia entered for the first time the top ten list of
the most popular websites in the United States, according to comScore
Networks Inc. With 42.9 million unique visitors, Wikipedia was ranked No.
9, surpassing the New York Times (#10) and Apple Inc. (#11). This marked
a significant increase over January 2006, when the rank was No. 33, with
Wikipedia receiving around 18.3 million unique visitors.[53] As of May
2012, Wikipedia is the sixth-most-popular website worldwide according to
Alexa Internet,[54] receiving more than 2.7 billion U.S. pageviews every
month,[12] out of a global monthly total of over 12 billion
pageviews.[55]
Wikipedia blackout protest against SOPA on January 18, 2012

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of
coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States
Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—
by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people
viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced Wikipedia
content.[57][58]

								
To top