Type 1 by KitA23


         LIN 3201
Articulation at two different places simultaneously

 May be essential to the nature of the sound itself
   [w] (voiced labial-velar approximant), [] (voiced labial-
    palatal approximant)

 Or environmental, resulting of the production of
  that sound in an environment of other sounds
   [k] rounder, with slight lip rounding, before [u]
The key to coarticulation is that…

We’ll be most concerned with
         the different types of

Essential Coarticulation
 In the nature of the sound itself…
  Type 1: Coordinate Structures
         Two equal articulations
        produced at the same time

 Type 2: Secondary Articulations
 One articulation is imposed onto another,
             with one articulation
          subordinate to the other
Coarticulation can involve two sounds of
      the same rank, (Coordinate)

         such as [kp] (2 stops)

   Or two sounds of different ranks

    such as [tw] (stop & approximant)
NOTE: On the Ranking of Consonant Strictures

           To talk about coarticulation,
        we must first talk about the “ranking”
               of consonant strictures.

      Rank is from most closed, most constricted
           to most open, least constricted

           Stop > Trill > Fricative >
            Approximant > Vowel
    TYPE 1 - Coordinate Structures OR
          Double Articulations
Equal sounds, of same rank (with same degree of stricture),
  produced at the same time
 Stop-stop
        [gb], [kp] (have tie bar underneath to connect them)
        West African languages; Sherbro [gbí] ‘all’

 Fricative-fricative
        [x] – written as []
        Exists in some dialects of Swedish: skjorta [ora] ‘shirt’
        Harder to produce because of maintenance of air, very rare

 Approximant-approximant
        More common
        English, [w]; French [] huit [it] ‘eight’
  TYPE 2 – Secondary Articulations

Imposition of one sound, of one rank,
  imposed on another;

Primary stricture usually has more stricture;
  secondary has less

Secondary stricture is usually an approximate
In other words…

The “primary” consonant being produced will
       generally be a stop or a fricative,
                [tj], [sj], [kw]

   while the “secondary” consonant being
  produced will be a sound with less stricture,
              like an approximant
                 [tj], [sj], [kw]
Major types of Secondary Coarticulation
           **All are transcribed with diacritics**

   Labialization – hold tongue at [w] while producing
    primary articulation; [w]
   Palatalization – hold tongue at [i] while producing
    primary articulation; [j]
   Velarization – hold tongue at velar approximant, []
    while producing primary articulation; []
   Pharyngealization – pushing back of tongue as
    downwards and as backwards as possible, as if
    “swallowing” while producing primary articulation; []
   Nasalization – generally coarticulation with vowels; made
    by sending air through nasal cavity while producing
    primary articulation; [~]
Keep in mind…
 Some of these distinctions can seem very subtle, or
  difficult to distinguish

 Sample from English:
   Palatalized [lj] vs. Velarized [l]
       Palatalized before [j], before vowels [lj]
          • [lji:f] ‘leaf’ [mlj n] ‘million’
       Velarized word medially and finally [l]
          • [fijl] ‘feel’
Sequence VS. Coarticulation

 Instead of being produced simultaneously,
          like coarticulated sounds,
        consist of two or more sounds
      produced right after one another
        that function as a single unit
                in that language
Types of Sequences
               Homorganic Sequences =
        produced with the same speech organs,
         i.e. at the same place of articulation

1.   Geminates – two identical or nearly identical consonant
          Italian [tt]; Arabic [tt] or [ll]

2.   Affricates – stop released as homorganic fricative (central
     or lateral)
          German [ts] in [tsajt] ‘time’
          Navajo [tsah] ‘needle’ and [tah] ‘ointment’
Types of Sequences, cont.
3. Plosion – stop released as lateral approximant or
   homorganic nasal, where that approximant or
   nasal generally functions as syllable nucleus;
   diacritic for syllable nucleus = []
      English nasal plosion: [bejk] ‘bacon’, [sdn]
      English lateral plosion: [ll] ‘little’, [ml]

4. Pre-nasalized Stops – nasal followed by
   homorganic stop
      [mb], [nd]

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