cst review 2010 by VzPbbBK9

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									CST & Final
  Review
CST and FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Directions: Both your final exam and the CST
(STAR) test are based on the California
Standards. There are five major categories and
they include: Investigation and Experimentation,
Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Ecology, and
Physiology. Each of the categories includes a
number of topics that you should know about. I
am including each of the California Standards and
questions that pertain to each. Answer them
completely using your notes and textbook as
resources.
1. What is a controlled experiment?
1. What is a controlled experiment?
  Controlled experiment– tests effect of a
   single variable while keeping all other
   variables the same
2. What is the difference between a hypothesis
and a theory?
2. What is the difference between a hypothesis
and a theory?
hypothesis– a possible explanation to a scientific
question. (an “educated guess” based on prior knowledge and
observations)



Theory– a well tested and supported hypothesis
(Cell theory, theory of Natural Selection, Atomic
theory)
Observation classified into two types:
  Quantitative– involve numbers, counting,
  measuring objects.
   Qualitative– involve characteristics that cannot
be easily measured or counted such as        color
or texture
3. When conducting experiments, sometimes the
results are not consistent and may yield results
that are obviously wrong. What might be some
typical sources of unavoidable errors?
3. When conducting experiments, sometimes the
results are not consistent and may yield results
that are obviously wrong. What might be some
typical sources of unavoidable errors?
•Human error (mistakes in conducting experiment)
•Small sample tested
•Contaminated sample
4. Why is the cell membrane referred to as being
semi-permeable?
4. Why is the cell membrane referred to as being
semi-permeable?
     Most membranes are selectively
     permeable (some materials can pass
     across membrane and others cannot) like
     “sieve”
5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a
mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed
of? (Draw a diagram and label)
5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a
mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed
of? (Draw a diagram and label)

                      Proteins act like passageways for
                      larger molecules to pass through
                      membrane
6. What is an enzyme and how does it speed up a
chemical reaction?
6. What is an enzyme and how does it speed up a
chemical reaction?
Enzymes– specialized proteins that act as
biological catalysts
(catalysts– a substance that speeds up rate of
chemical reaction by lowering a reactions
activation energy)
Enzymes are very specific


Name of enzyme derived
from reaction it catalyzes

Enzymes are not used up in a
chemical reaction.
7. What conditions affect the action of an enzyme
(name three things)
7. What conditions affect the action of an enzyme
(name three things)
•Temperature
•pH
•Presence of substrate
8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic
and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each
type)
8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic
and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each
type)
                       Prokaryotic cell- no
                       nucleus (bacteria)


                       Eucaryotic cell- has
                       nucleus
9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum
and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of
proteins?
9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum
and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of
proteins?
Endoplasmic Reticulum- cell’s internal transport
system (Rough ER- (has ribosomes attached)
and Smooth ER (no ribosomes)
Golgi Apparatus- “post office” of the cell
10. What is the role of mitochondria in the cell?
10. What is the role of mitochondria in the cell?
   Mitochondria- found in nearly all eukaryotic
   cells. Use energy from food to power growth,
   development and movement. Powerhouse of
   cell
11. What kind of cells might have a high number
of mitochondria?
11. What kind of cells might have a high number
of mitochondria?
Cells that need a lot of energy. Heart cells, sperm
cells, muscle cells, etc.
12. What are the four types of organic molecules
found in living things?
12. What are the four types of organic molecules
found in living things?
Four groups of organic compounds found in living
things (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids,
and proteins)
  Macromolecules formed by process called
  polymerization (large compounds built be
  joining together smaller ones)
  Monomers– smaller compounds
  Polymers– large molecules
13. Large macromolecules (polymers) are made
(synthesized) from smaller building blocks called
monomers. What are the building blocks for:
•Proteins-
•Carbohydrates-
•Nucleic Acids-
13. Large macromolecules (polymers) are made
(synthesized) from smaller building blocks called
monomers. What are the building blocks for:
•Proteins- amino acids
•Carbohydrates- glucose (single-sugar,
momosaccharide)
•Nucleic Acids- nucleotide
14. Proteins are all made from amino acids. What
makes one protein different from another?
14. Proteins are all made from amino acids. What
makes one protein different from another?
The number of amino acids and the sequence of
amino acids (like letters in an alphabet spelling
different words)
15. What effect does temperature have on
proteins?
15. What effect does temperature have on
proteins?
It changes the 3-dimensional structure of the
protein (this will also change the way the protein
functions)


Like when you cook a steak or eggs- it changes
the consistency. It may also stop the action of an
enzyme- snake venom
16. What organelle is responsible for
photosynthesis and what is the name of the
chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the
energy from sunlight?
16. What organelle is responsible for
photosynthesis and what is the name of the
chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the
energy from sunlight?
Chloroplasts- found in plants and some other
organisms (none found in animals and fungi)
                         Green pigment-
                         chlorophyll found in
                         photosynthetic
                         membranes
17. What is mitosis and what types of cells
undergo mitosis?
17. What is mitosis and what types of cells
undergo mitosis?
Division of cells forming two identical new
daughter cells (body cells) 2n → 2n

                            Part of Cell Cycle
                            PMAT (stages)
                            followed by cytokinesis
18. What is the difference between diploid cells
and haploid cells?
18. What is the difference between diploid cells
and haploid cells?
Diploid (2n)- two sets of chromosomes (normal
number in body cells)
Haploid (n)- half the number of chromosomes
(found in sex cells-gametes)
19. What process produces diploid cells and
which produces haploid cells?
19. What process produces diploid cells and
which produces haploid cells?
Mitosis- makes diploid cells 2n → 2n
Meiosis- makes haploid sex cells (gametes)
2n → n + n
20. What is meiosis and what does it result in?
20. What is meiosis and what does it result in?
Process of producing sex cells (gametes)
Results in four haploid (n) cells (sperm or egg)
21. Explain why this is a good representation of
fertilization: n + n =2n
21. Explain why this is a good representation of
fertilization: n + n =2n
Shows two haploid cells (gametes) coming
together to produce diploid (2n) cell-zygote

                   n + n =2n
22. What is meant be segregation when sex cells
(gametes) are produced?
22. What is meant be segregation when sex cells
(gametes) are produced?
Chromosomes segregate (separate) during
meiosis.
23. What is independent assortment?
23. What is independent assortment?

                         Each of the chromosome
                         pairs separate
                         independently of the
                         others (like flipping a coin
                         each time to determine
                         which one to use)
24. What is a mutation?
24. What is a mutation?
Any change in an organisms DNA. Happens
naturally and randomly
25. Mutations may or may not affect the
expression of a gene. Why?
25. Mutations may or may not affect the
expression of a gene. Why?
•It may not change the amino acid it codes for
(there are multiple combinations that code for
same amino acid)
•It may be a mutation in area of DNA that does not
code for proteins
26. What are sex chromosomes and what
combinations would result in a boy or a girl?
26. What are sex chromosomes and what
combinations would result in a boy or a girl?


            Girl = XX       Boy = XY




                         23rd pair of chromosomes
                         in humans
27. What occurs during:
•Replication-
•Transcription-
•Translation-
27. What occurs during:
•Replication- DNA making DNA
•Transcription- DNA making RNA
•Translation- RNA making Proteins
28. What are the differences between DNA and
RNA (name three)
28. What are the differences between DNA and
RNA (name three)

                            DNA          RNA
                          Sugar-        Sugar-
                        deoxyribose     ribose
                          Double        Single
                         stranded      stranded
                          ATCG          AUCG
29. What is a codon and how is it involved in
protein synthesis?
29. What is a codon and how is it involved in
protein synthesis?
                      3-letter code word on
                      mRNA that codes for a
                      particular amino acid
30. During replication, the DNA sequence of
GTTACGCAT would result in another strand have
a sequence of?
30. During replication, the DNA sequence of
GTTACGCAT would result in another strand have
a sequence of?

              GTTACGCAT
              CAATGCGTA
31. During transcription, the DNA sequence of
GTTACGCAT would result in a strand of RNA
having a sequence of?
31. During transcription, the DNA sequence of
GTTACGCAT would result in a strand of RNA
having a sequence of?

                 GTTACGCAT
                CAAUGCGUA
32. Use the table below to determine what amino
acid sequence the following strands of mRNA
would code for:
•GGCAUACCC-
•UUCCAGUUA-
•GCATTACGG-
32. Use the table below to determine what amino
acid sequence the following strands of mRNA
would code for:
•GGCAUACCC- Gly - Ile - Pro
•UUCCAGUUA- Phe - Stop - Leu
•GCAUUACGG- Ala - Leu - Arg
What about a DNA sequence of:
•GGCATACCC-
•UUCCAGTTA-
•GCATTACGG-
What about a DNA sequence of:
•GGCATACCC-
•CCGUAUGGG- Pro-Tyr-Pro


•UUCCAGTTA-
•AAGGUCAAU- Lys-Val-Asn


•GCATTACGG-
•CGUAAUGCC- Arg-Asn-Ala
33. What are the complementary bases in DNA
and in RNA?
•DNA-
•RNA-
33. What are the complementary bases in DNA
and in RNA?
•DNA- ATCG
•RNA- AUCG
34. Males are more likely to have a sex-linked trait
than females. Why?
34. Males are more likely to have a sex-linked trait
than females. Why?
Males only have a single X chromosome and will
have recessive disorder on X chromosome
automatically (do not have another X with a
possible normal gene to counteract)


XHXh & XHXh- normal          XhXh –disorder
XHY –normal                  XhY –disorder
35. Why can a women be a carrier of a sex-linked
genetic disorder but a male cannot?
35. Why can a women be a carrier of a sex-linked
genetic disorder but a male cannot?
Girls have 2 X chromosomes

XHXh- normal (carrier) carries the gene but
does not express it
35. What is crossing over? (Draw a diagram and
explain)
 35. What is crossing over? (Draw a diagram and
 explain)

Legs of chromosomes cross
over each other and
exchange parts of
themselves
36. Complete the following genetic cross and give
the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the
offspring: Tt x tt (draw punnett square and give
ratios)
    36. Complete the following genetic cross and give
    the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the
    offspring: Tt x tt (draw punnett square and give
    ratios)
                               Genotypic ratio- 1:1
            T          t       Phenotypic ratio- 1:1

t          Tt         tt

t          Tt         tt
37. Complete the following genetic cross and give
the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the
offspring: XXh x XhY (draw punnett square and
give ratios)
37. Complete the following genetic cross and give
the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the
offspring: XXh x XhY (draw punnett square and
give ratios)
                            Genotypic ratio-
         X          Xh      1:1:1:1
                            Phenotypic ratio-
Xh     XXh       XhXh       1:1:1:1
                            Female-normal
                            Female-disorder
Y                           Male-normal
       XY        XhY        Male-disorder
38. In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is
dominant and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is
recessive. What are the possible combinations of
genes in the offspring of two red-eyed
heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)
38. In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is
dominant and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is
recessive. What are the possible combinations of
genes in the offspring of two red-eyed
heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)
         R          r
                            Genotypic ratio- 1:2:1
                            Phenotypic ratio- 3:1
R      RR         Rr

r      Rr          rr
39. What is cloning?
39. What is cloning?

                       Cloning- a member of
                       a population of
                       genetically identical
                       cells produced from a
                       single cell
40. What does biodiversity mean?
40. What does biodiversity mean?
Biodiversity- the variation and frequency of
organisms within a given area
41. How do alterations in a habit affect the
biodiversity?
41. How do alterations in a habit affect the
biodiversity?
Normally decreases the diversity. Human
intervention, urbanization, habitat fragmentation
and distruction
42. What are biotic and abiotic factors that effect
an environment?
42. What are biotic and abiotic factors that effect
an environment?
                                Biotic- all the living
                                things in an
                                environment (plant,
                                animal, bacteria,
                                etc.)
                                Abiotic- non-living
                                factors including
                                temperature,
                                precipitation
                                (rainfall), soil type,
                                etc.
43. What are are the main trophic levels in a food
chain or web? (Draw and label a diagram)
43. What are are the main trophic levels in a food
chain or web? (Draw and label a diagram)

                        Trophic level- individual
                        level on food chain or food
                        web. Always starts with
                        producer (autotroph)
44. What is always forms the base of a food chain
or food web?
44. What is always forms the base of a food chain
or food web?




                           Always a producer
45. What are the four factors that affect a
population size?
45. What are the four factors that affect a
population size?
Birth rate
               INCREASES POPULATION SIZE
Immigration


Death rate
               DECREASES POPULATION SIZE
Emigration
46. What is ecological succession and what is the
difference between primary and secondary
succession?
 46. What is ecological succession and what is the
 difference between primary and secondary
 succession?
 Series of events an environment goes through to
 regrow after a disturbance

Primary- starts
with bare rock
Secondary- starts
with soil
47. What are biogeochemical cycles?
47. What are biogeochemical cycles?
cycling of nutrients (minerals and other chemicals)
that sustain life. Three main cycles
Carbon cycle-
Nitrogen cycle-
Water cycle-
Phosphorus cycle-
48. What are the two main processes that
contribute to the oxygen and carbon cycles?
48. What are the two main processes that
contribute to the oxygen and carbon cycles?
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
49. What is an energy pyramid and what percent
of energy is available to each succeeding trophic
level?
49. What is an energy pyramid and what percent
of energy is available to each succeeding trophic
level?
The movement of energy through an ecosystem.
Only 10% is available to each succeeding step
50. What is carrying capacity?
50. What is carrying capacity?
The maximum number of individuals an
ecosystem can support
51. How does the burning of fossil fuels and
deforestation effect the environment?
51. How does the burning of fossil fuels and
deforestation effect the environment?
Burning fossil fuels = more CO2 (product of
combustion)
Deforestation = more CO2 (trees not using CO2 for
photosynthesis)
52. Why are fungi and bacteria so important and
helpful in preventing the Earth from being covered
with dead organisms?
52. Why are fungi and bacteria so important and
helpful in preventing the Earth from being covered
with dead organisms?

                                They are
                                decomposers and
                                return nutrients to
                                the environment
53. What is natural selection and why does natural
selection act on phenotypes instead of
genotypes?
53. What is natural selection and why does natural
selection act on phenotypes instead of
genotypes?
Natural selection- process by which certain
heritable traits—those that make it more likely for
an organism to survive and successfully
reproduce —become more common in a
population over successive generations. It is a key
mechanism of evolution.
54. Define the following terms:
•Species-
•Population-
•Community-
•Biome-
54. Define the following terms:
•Species- individual type of organism
•Population- group of same species in area
•Community- groups of different population in
given area
•Biome- geographical region containing several
ecosystems that have same climate and dominant
communities (climax communities)
55. What type of traits might give an individual a
greater chance of surviving (fitness)?
55. What type of traits might give an individual a
greater chance of surviving (fitness)?
Those that make an organism more successful at
getting food, mating, camouflage, etc
56. What type of isolation might lead to the
development of a new species?
56. What type of isolation might lead to the
development of a new species?
Geographic isolation- mountain ranges, rivers,
oceans, etc.
Temporal isolation- timing of mating season
Behavioral isolation- different mating rituals


   All three increase the chances that isolated
   groups will grow increasingly different and
      eventually form a distinct new species
57. Define the following terms:
•Behavioral selection-
•Disruptive selection-
•Stabilizing selection-
•Directional selection-
57. Define the following terms:
•Behavioral selection-
•Disruptive selection-
•Stabilizing selection-
•Directional selection-
58. What is genetic drift and when might it occur?
58. What is genetic drift and when might it occur?
New population forms from small group of
founders that might have limited gene pool.
May form when small number of individuals
populate new island
59. What is homeostasis?
59. What is homeostasis?
Maintaining constant and stable internal
conditions despite changes in the outside
environment.


Works like a
thermostat
controlling room
temperature
60. How does a nerve impulse travel through the
nervous system (describe an electrochemical
impulse)
60. How does a nerve impulse travel through the
nervous system (describe an electrochemical
impulse)
                   Part electrical and part
                   chemical transmission of
                   signal.
61. What is a synapse and how does the impulse
travel across the synapse?
61. What is a synapse and how does the impulse
travel across the synapse?

Synapse- gap between
two neurons. Signal is
carried by chemicals
(neurotransmitters)
across the gap
62. What is a reflex arc?
62. What is a reflex arc?
                            Reflex arc- when nerve
                            impulse does not travel
                            all the way to the brain
                            first to respond to stimuli.
                            Can react faster
63. When you experience the “fight or flight”
response, your adrenal glands secrete the
hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?
63. When you experience the “fight or flight”
response, your adrenal glands secrete the
hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?
You can react faster. Increased heart and
breathing rate. Heightened senses
64. What is a hormone?
64. What is a hormone?
A chemical signal that is produced by endocrine
glands. Include testosterone, adrenaline, growth
hormone, etc.
65. What is your body’s first line of defense
against pathogens?
65. What is your body’s first line of defense
against pathogens?
sweat, skin, tears, mucus, stomach acid
66. How does the HIV virus reduce you ability to
fight off infections?
66. How does the HIV virus reduce you ability to
fight off infections?

                  The HIV virus attacks your
                  body’s immune system. You are
                  not able to fight off pathogens
HIV targets the immune system
    HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    Retrovirus (contains RNA) that attacks and
    weakens the immune system
Leads to “opportunistic” infections
HIV is transmitted by exchange of blood or other
body fluids
HIV reproduces in T-cells (cells that trigger
immune responses)
HIV leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome)
67. How does your circulatory and respiratory
systems work together to maintain homeostasis?
67. How does your circulatory and respiratory
systems work together to maintain homeostasis?

                 Respiratory system takes in
                 oxygen and releases carbon
                 dioxide that it takes from you
                 circulatory system.
68. What endocrine gland and hormone it
produces regulates metabolism?
68. What endocrine gland and hormone it
produces regulates metabolism?
Thyroid gland- The function of the thyroid gland
is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert
it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and
triiodothyronine (T3). Every cell in the body
depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of
their metabolism
69. What important function do your kidneys
perform to maintain homeostasis?
69. What important function do your kidneys
perform to maintain homeostasis?
Filter you blood and maintain fluid levels in
bloodstream (blood pressure) and levels of salts,
ph level, nitrogen wastes, etc.
Sends excess fluids to bladder to rid from body
70. How does a vaccine provide you with
immunity?
70. How does a vaccine provide you with
immunity?
Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity
     1. Vaccine- substance that contains antigen
     of a pathogen
     2. Causes immune system to produce
     memory cells
     3. You can make antibodies right away if
     infected
71. Where does chemical digestion of food begin?
71. Where does chemical digestion of food begin?
In your mouth
72. What type of pathogens do antibiotics work on
or not work on?
72. What type of pathogens do antibiotics work on
or not work on?
Bacteria or fungi, but NOT on viruses
73. What are your body’s non-specific defenses
against pathogens?
73. What are your body’s non-specific defenses
against pathogens?
Inflammatory response- characterized by
swelling, redness, pain, itching, and increased
warmth at affected site
Reacts to every pathogen the same way
74. What are your body’s specific defenses
against pathogens?
74. What are your body’s specific defenses
against pathogens?
Immune response is triggered when immune
system detects a pathogen (2 types of immune
response)
  •Cell-mediated immunity- when lymphocytes
  (not antibodies) themselves defend the body.
  •Humoral Immunity- also called antibody-
  mediated immunity
                   Antigens- protein markers on
                   surfaces of cells and viruses
                   that help immune system
                   identify a foreign cell or virus
75. What is an antibody?
75. What is an antibody?
Antibodies- proteins made by B-cells and destroy
pathogens
76. What is an antigen?
76. What is an antigen?
Antigens- protein markers on surfaces of cells
and viruses that help immune system identify a
foreign cell or virus
77. What are the three types of neurons?
(Diagram and label the correct pathway)
77. What are the three types of neurons?
  (Diagram and label the correct pathway)
• Sensory neurons- detect stimuli and transmit
  signals to brain and spinal cord
• Interneurons- make up brain and spinal cord
  and receive and process information
• Motor neurons-pass messages from nervous
  system to organs and muscles
78. What is a feedback loop and how is it similar
to a thermostat in your house?
78. What is a feedback loop and how is it similar
to a thermostat in your house?
It operates by doing the opposite (negative) of
what it senses. If senses it is to hot, it tries to cool
down, to cold, tries to warm up.
79. How are the nervous system and endocrine
system similar? Different?
79. How are the nervous system and endocrine
system similar? Different?
Both regulate and control you body
Nervous system- fast acting and “hard wired”


Endocrine system- slower acting chemical
signals carried in your bloodstream throughout the
body. Control process that occur over long periods
of time (hair growth, aging, sleep patterns, etc.)
80. Why is a virus not considered a living thing?
80. Why is a virus not considered a living thing?
It needs a host cell to reproduce (cannot
reproduce by itself)

								
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