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									THE GREAT WAR
                Great War Timeline
• 1905-11           1st Moroccan Crisis, Bosnian Crisis, 2nd
                    Moroccan Crisis
•   1912-13         1st and 2nd Balkan wars
•   June 28, 1914   Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated
•   Aug 4, 1914     Germany invades Belgium
•   May 1915        Italy enters on side of allies
•   March 1917      Tsar overthrown
•   April 6, 1917   US declares war on Germany
•   March 1918      Russia signs treaty of Brest-Litovsk
•   June 28, 1919   Germany signs Treaty of Versailles
              Underlying Causes
• Political
  – alliance system - inflexibility
  – secret agreements
  – disruption of balance of power
       • Germany: economic, naval, foreign policy
• Attitudes - Sigmund Freud - Claude Monet
  –   militarism
  –   Naval support clubs
  –   Pan-Slavism
  –   Expansion.
          Emperor William II
            r. 1889-1918
• Replaces Bismarck
• Wants England as an ally
  – withdraws support and causes
    trouble to show how valuable
    Germany would be as an ally
• Naval “risk” theory
• Boer war - offers from England
  for alliance
  – turned down repeatedly from
     Forging the Triple Entente
• 1890-1907
  – 1893 Russia and France begin alliance
  – 1902 England ends its isolation
  – 1904 Entente Cordiale with France
     • clears air on colonial matters
  – 1905 Russian losses to Japan and abortive coup make
    Russia seem less a threat than Germany
  – 1907 England and Russia have a Cordiale.
 Events leading to the Great War
• 1905     First Moroccan Crisis
  – William II lands and demands concessions
  – hopes to split England and France
• 1908     Bosnian Crisis
  – Austria and Russian cut a deal with each other
  – Austria cheats and annexes Bosnia and Herzegovinia
• 1911     Second Moroccan Crisis
  – William II makes more demands, sends a ship
  – provokes increased Anti-German sentiment
  – Italy invades Algeria.
 Events leading to the Great War
• 1912     First Balkan War
  – Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia unite
    versus the Turks
  – victorious but begin squabbling
• 1913     Second Balkan War
  – Turkey and Rumania unite with previous combatants
    against Bulgaria
  – strip Bulgaria down to 1878 size
  – Austria acts to keep Serbia small
  – Russia and Pan-Slavism are threatened.
                 The Trigger
• 1914 Archduke Ferdinand assassinated
• Austria waits one month before issuing an
• does not declare war until nearly two months
  after the murder
• loses popular support
• Russia mobilizes its forces against Austria
  – why?
  – Pan Slavism, Russian interests in the Balkans.
           The Domino Effect

• Russian military leaders only had planned for a
  war against both Germany and Austria
  – forces total mobilization
• Germany reacts to mobilization
  – own mobilization plans are also based on two front
  – mobilizes and declares war on Russia and France.
             The Domino Effect

• Germany enacts the
  Schlieffen Plan
  – sweep around French defenses
  – strong forces on right - swing
• Invade through Belgium
  – violates guarantee from 1839     General Von Moltke
  – Britain uses this as excuse to
                                     In charge of German
    join war.
                                     forces at start of war
Who’s on which side?
           Fighting the War

• Western Front
  – after first attacks developed into trench warfare.
• Trench warfare favored
  the defender
• front did not move much
• Focused on: artillery
  barrage, barbed wire,
  machine guns, tanks,
  poison gas, human waves.
  New Tactics
• Aerial superiority:
  introduction of
  – balloons
  – aces: Red Baron

                        Observation crew prepares
                            a balloon for use

                         Dogfights abounded in
                        prop planes like this one.
  New Tactics
• Naval superiority:
  introduction of
  – Lusitania (1915)

                       U-boat swept ashore by storms

                        Coffins for Lusitania dead.

– Ireland,
  Poles and
– Czecks,        Main locations for Turkish
  Slovaks,        death and deportation
  South Slavs,    camps for Armenians.
  Poles, Arabs
                    New Tactics

• Bleeding the enemy
  to death
  – Verdun
  – Germans assault town
    for purpose of
    draining French
    willpower and
  – “they shall not pass”
  – notion of “total war”.
             End of the War

• 1917     Russia withdraws from war because of
  two different revolutions
• 1917     United States declares war on Germany
• 1918     Germans launch offensive with troops
  from eastern front
  – Marne offensive stalls
• William II abdicates because army dissolves.
    “All together now!”           “Germans as Huns”
  William hanging himself      Listing of the benefits of
and Germany with his dreams   the bright future compared
                                  to darkness behind.
         The Versailles Treaty

• Wilson and his
  Fourteen points
  – “peace without victors”
  – League of Nations
     • does not include
       Germany or Russia
• Dictated peace
  – France protected
  – Germany “tricked”
  – unresolved issues.        The League of Nations
         The Versailles Treaty

• Long term effects
  – France has short term protection but loses allies for
    long term defense
  – dissolution of Austria Hungary into nationalist
  – Turkey and Russia lose lands
  – German war debt and blame for war cause rancor
    and fuel desire to strike back
  – lays groundwork for World War II.
Loss of

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