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Water management institutions conditions necessary and sufficient


  • pg 1
									 Water management institutions
conditions necessary and sufficient
 for application of economic and
       finance instruments

            Noma Neseni
            Group work
• Please define what we mean by
• In groups please identify what
  you consider to be institutions
  necessary for effective
  application of economic, financial
  and policy instruments
              Defining institutions
• Institutions are broadly defined as norms, value
  systems, culture that govern the way we do business.
  These norms or value systems are then applied using
  different physical organizational forms such as
  churches, schools, utilities, public/private entities.
• Historically in Southern Africa because of the colonial
  history, most governments have adopted redistributive
  policies and institutional norms and values.
• An example is that in the past water was seen as a free
  commodity that was god given and therefore could not
  be paid for. General belief was that it was plenty and
  bountiful. Colonial regimes denied majority safe water
  so political agenda has been to correct these injustices
• With the belief of abundance and god given
  we therefore did not pay for water.
• The Dublin principle emphasizing finite, social,
  economic and environmental justice have
  brought a new way of thinking- in essence a
  new culture
• Thus the culture of having to think of valuing
  and costing water
• In WASH there is a move to put a value to
  water, sanitation and hygiene at the micro and
  macro levels
Different institutions and their roles in
• The effectiveness of economic instruments for
  sustainable WASH depends on the efficiency of
  the way the markets function and the presence of
  a solid institutional platform with capacity to
  implement WASH objectives at the national, state
  and municipal level. Ultimately, the success of
  this type of instruments in the countries will be
  intrinsically linked to the degree of institutional
  development attained, and to the capacity of the
  public apparatus to render operable policy
  objectives –such as environmental policy– in the
  long term
      Institutions and conditions
• Studies that have been carried out (Denmark,
  Germany) show that that institutions matter in
  the application of economic and financial
  measures. Neither market mechanisms nor
  market-like policy instruments operate in a
  vacuum. Regulatory reform do not mean leaving
  the market to itself. Formal and informal
  government institutions define and specify the
  conditions under which market mechanisms
  function. Adaptation of the current legal-
  institutional framework to facilitate the
  operation of instruments for environmental
  management at the different levels of
  government and ensure their harmony with
  other political sectors
        Institutions and conditions
• Since market-like policy instruments are usually
  applied within existing rules, institutions, and
  policy processes, the policy and administrative
  contexts in which they operate become
  important. These contexts are quite different
  from country to country, often more so than
  policymakers are aware of The national style of
  policymaking depends on the constitutional
  framework, the infrastructure of public
  authorities as well as the historical and cultural
  heritage, which are basic institutional premises
  that vary tremendously even between
  neighboring East and Southern African countries.
  Some insight into WASH institutions
• SWAP case studies carried out by cap-net
  indicate that harnessing of financial resources
  in successful WASH programmes has needed
  transparent institutions that are accountable
  to both the donors, private sector and the
  public at large.
• Some of the key institutions involved have
• Ministry of Finance, ministry of water
  resources, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Local
  Government civic organizations, NGOs, CBOs,
  the private sector, local authorities.
• Key to some of the success stories have been the
  decentralization of revenue collection and
• Centralized accounting to the parliament, donors
  and end users either through parliamentary
  reports or annual publications of revenue
  generated and outputs thereof (Uganda)
• Basket funding for rural water supplies
• Coordinated prioritization with key stakeholders
  making decisions on investment priorities
• Budgeting checklist
• Is the cost of meeting WASH needs clear?
• What needs to be done before embarking on
  sector financing?
• What roles can each of the stakeholders play at
  this costing exercise?
• What evidence is needed to present to finance so
  they allocate more resources to sub components
  of the sector?
• How do you go about collecting evidence that
  would assist in budgeting?
• Institutions in WASH have to answer questions
• how much money will be needed when will it
  be provided and how to deliver the resources.
  Also critical is the question of if there is
  absorptive capacity.
Accountability and coordination mechanisms in Ethiopia

   Government              High-level forum              Donors /DAG

 Harmonisation task        Joint Budget Support           DAG
 force (chaired by
 donors and gvt)

                           High Level JBS forum
                           (Chaired by minister of          DAG technical
 Harmonisation                                              working group
                           finance and donors)
 secretariat (gvt)

                           JBS coordination team
                           (govt, donors and DAG            DAG Secretariat

                           JBS technical team

                            Example from Ethiopia on institutions involved in WASH
                            financial accounting
                            Multi level accounting to ensure transparency
An example shows catchment councils, then we have local governments
and political boundaries.
SADC ZAMCOM Institution
 To     Kingdom Central Africa
 FAX : +267 3906874
 Att Bridget Moduka

 From   Noma Neseni

 Fax    263-4 738120

 RE: Request for a transfare of US 1500 Acc Noma Nyoni Neseni/acc number 102666

 I am kindly requesting that you transfer US$2000 ( two thousadnd dollars from my account
 Nyoni- Neseni 102666 my account into the following account:

 ACC Name :             Institute of Water and Sanitation Dvelopment
 Bank Name              B arclys Bank of Zimbabwe
 Branch                Avondale Branch
 Accouint Number       6579101
 Swift Code            BARCZWHX

 Please confirm by e-mail or fax once the money has been transafered and may I also have a


 Noma Neseni
Fig 1: The Composition of the National Action Committee (NAC) 2009

                          MOESC           MOF         MYD&E





                               NAC                                         EMA



              National                                                      (Chair)
              Aids                                    MOHC
                                    MOED                                              NCU
              Council                                 W
          Examples in the region-Water supply
                   Ministry of
               Agriculture, Water,
                  and Forestry
                    MAWF                   The Ministry of Health and Social Services
                                           (MHSS) and the Ministry of Agriculture,
                                           Water and Forestry (MAWF) are the
                                           agencies responsible for setting water
                                           quality standards for drinking water.
          Namibian Water Corporation
                                           However no statutory instrument for
           Board of Directors (Elected     potable water exist at the moment, and
             Reps of interest groups but
               appointed by MAWF)          currently NAMWATER utilizes Namibian
                      CEO                  guidelines (Ndokosho et al., 2007)
                 Line Managers
                 Area Managers

          Bulk supply to Municipalities
                (32 out of the 36)
           Rural areas and individual

Z. Hoko                                                                        16
Examples in the region-Water supply-
             Zambia (1)

             MLGH                             MEWD


                             Regulation and
        Commercil Utilitis   financing
        E.g Lusaka Water
          and Sewerage

   Zambia Water and Wastewater Management              17
Examples in the region-Water supply
              –Malawi      Ministry of
                      Irrigation and Water

                                                      Ministry of State
                                                     Corporations (MSC)
                                                         Tariff approval

                   Water Board(currently 5,
                    (BWB, CRWB; LWB, NRWB
                  Board of Directors (Includes
                 Reps from MIWD & MSC& interest
                       Line Managers
                    Zone/Scheme Managers

                 (Domestic, institutional,
                 commercial and industrial)

  BWB-Blantyre Water Board; CRWB-Central Region Water Board; LWB-
   Lilongwe Water Board; NRWB-Nothern Region Water Board; SRWB-
                    Southern Region Water Board)                           18
             MSC- Ministry of Statutory Corporations
Examples in the region-Water supply –
              Zambia (2)

 Innovations in Zambia in the water and sanitation Sector

    Kanyama Water Trust

  Kiosks in George Compound


Examples in the region-Water supply –
              Zambia (2)

  Water Kiosks in George Compond-   User registration ion George
  Lusaka                            compound

Examples in the region-Water supply –
              Zambia (2)

 Water storage tanks
                                                 Part of george compond- shallow wells are
       of water is boreholes with chloronation
Z. Hoko                                          also common                            21
          Examples in the region-Water supply
                      –Zambia (2)

                           •Initially sponsored by Care Internationa
                           •Fully managed by the community the a
                           Board and management Team
                           •Individual and kiosk connections
Z. Hoko                                                      22
                           •Very successful
                                     Roles and Institutional Framework
                                                Uganda WSS Institutional Framework

     National Level

 • Policy setting           MOH        MFPED        MWE         MoLG           MoES    MAAIF              MGLSD

 • Regulation
 • Monitoring
 • Overall planning & coordination
 • Quality assurance and guidance
 • Capacity development

District level
                                                               Local                          Private
     • Service Delivery                                        Government
     • Support to Communities
                                                                 t DWO     Governmnt

                                                                                       X 79

Community level
                                                                 Communities           NGOs/CBOs
     • O&M
• At the end each country has to develop institutions
  that are contextual to meet its particular needs,
• questions that need to be answered are :
• Who are the main institutions ?
• What is their role – is there no duplication?
• What are the accounting procedures?
• What about the different interests of institutions
• Does the water manager who is concerned about the
  finite, vulnerable resource understand the Utility
  Manager who wants to abstract and provide water or
  the politician who has a constituency?
Questions suggestions

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