CSCI 248: Data Structure and Algorithms II by Mweja89

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									                     CSCI 248: Data Structure and Algorithms II
                        Depth-first search – DFS Algorithm

Input: Graph G = (V, E), source vertex s
Output: Graph G with its vertices marked by two integers d[v] and f[v] indicate when
DFS discovers v and when it finishes v.

The process:
    DFS assumes that adjacency linked-list representation of the graph is used.
    DFS colors each vertex white, gray, or black.
           o white means – the vertex in not discovered yet,
           o gray means the vertex was discovered but their adjacency list is not fully
                examined yet,
           o black color means that the vertex was discovered and the adjacency list of
                that vertex was fully examined.
    DFS is recursive algorithm
    DFS creates the Depth-First Forest composed of several Depth-First Trees
    Color of each vertex v is stored in color[v]
    Parent of v in the breadth-first tree is stored in p[v]
    DFS timestamps each vertex: each vertex has two timestamps: d[v] records when
       v is first discovered ( and grayed), and the second timestamp f[v] records when
       the search finishes examining v’s adjacency list ( and blackens v). DFS uses
       global variable time for that purpose.

DFS(G, s)

   1   for each vertex u in V do
   2          color[u] ← white
   3          p[u] ← NULL
   4   time ← 0
   5   for each u in V do
   6           if color[u] == white
   7                  DFS-Visit(u)

DFS-Visit(u) //recursive function

   1    color[u] ← gray
   2    d[u] ← time ← time + 1
   3    for each v in adjacency list of u do
   4           if color[v] == white
   5                p[v] ← u
   6                DFS-Visit(v)
   7    color[u] ← black
   8    f[u] ← time ← time + 1

Running time of DFS is  (V+E).

								
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