4 learning associanistic

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					Associanistic Theories
Edwin Ray Guthrie
         One Law Of Learning
• A combination of stimuli which has been
  accompanied by movement will on its
  recurrence tend to be followed by that
            Law of Contiguity
• If you did something in one situation, the next
  time that you are in that situation, you will
  tend to do the same thing.
* Although the law of contiguity may be true,
  prediction of behavior will always be
            One-Trial Learning
• A stimulus pattern gains its full associative
  strength on the occasion of its first pairing
  with a response

          The Recency Principle
• The response performed last in the presence of a
  set of stimuli will be that which will be done
  when that stimulus combination next recurs.
    Movement-Produced Stimuli
• As the name implies caused by the
  movements of the body
• Stimulus responses can be conditioned to
• After a response is initated by an external
  stimulus, the body itself produces the stimulus
  for the next response and that response
  furnishes the stimulus for the next one, and so
       Nature of Reinforcement
• Reinforcement was merely a mechanical
• Reinforcement changes the simulating
  conditions and thereby prevents unlearning
     Guthrie-Horton Experiment
• (1946) observed more than 800 escapes by
  cats from a puzzle box
• Each cat escaped the box in its own peculiar
• Stereotyped behavior- the exact response
  tends to be repeated the next time it was
  placed in the puzzle box
• Occurs by causing an alternative response to
  occur in the presence of a stimulus pattern
• After a stimulus pattern results in an
  alternative response, that stimulus pattern
  will thereafter tend to bring about the new
• Retroactive inhibition
        How To Break Habits
Habit- A response associated with a number of
 stimuli The more stimuli that elicits the response,
 the stronger the habit

How can we break habits?
Find cues that initiate the bad habit and practice
  another response in the presence of those cues
• Threshold Method- introducing the stimulus
  at such weak strengths that it will not cause
  the response and then gradually increase the
  intensity of the stimulus, always taking care
  that it is below the “threshold” of the
• Fatigue Method- let the animal/person
  perform the undesirable behavior until it is
  sick of it
Incompatible Response- the stimuli for the
 undesirable response is presented with other
 stimuli that is incompatible with the desired
          Sidetracking A Habit
• Accomplished by avoiding cues that elicit the
  undesirable behavior
• Partial escape, many of the stimuli causing
  your undesired behavior are internal
• Psychological drives provide what Guthrie
  called a Maintaining Stimuli
• Intentions- responses that are conditioned to
  a maintaining stimulus, sequence of behavior
            - maintaining stimulation from drive
  usually lasts for a period of time
• Transfer of Training
• The stimulating conditions under which that
  association is made can be different.
• Determined by what it causes the punished
  organism to do.
• Why does punishment work?
• Only effective when it results in a new
  response to the same stimuli
• It elicits behavior which is incompatible with
  the punished behavior
William Kaye Estes
 Negatively Accelerated Learning Curve
• Occurs because trials in a learning experiment
  usually end in an A1 response, and as a result,
  and increasing number of elements become
  associated with A1.

• Transfer takes place to the extent that 2
  situations have stimulus elements in common
• A trial usually ends with the subject doing
  something other than , the stimulus elements
  previously conditioned to gradually switch
  back to .
          Spontaneous Recovery
• It is possible that during training A1 responses
  become conditioned to transitory elements. If it
  turns out these elements are not available during
  extinction, the A1 responses conditioned to them
  cannot be switched to A2 processes.

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