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UNIT-26 Total Quality Management _TQM_ for software quality

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UNIT-26 Total Quality Management _TQM_ for software quality Powered By Docstoc
Total Quality Management (TQM) for software quality

26.1 TQM Origin and Background
26.2 TQM Definition
26.3 Characteristics of TQM
26.4 Models of TQM
26.4.1 Principles and concepts of “pyramid”
26.5 TQM Benefits
26.6 TQM & Software Industry
       26.6.1 Process Is Going Out-of-Control
26.7 PDCA Cycle
•     This chapter covers the TQM concepts
  for software quality in software industry.
  The TQM coverage includes definition,
  characteristics, models, benefits and
  PDCA cycle.
•     After reading this chapter the learner
  will have a very good understanding in
  TQM concepts, definition, benefits,
  software industry and PDCA cycle.
• 26.1 TQM Origin and Background
• In mid 1940s, Dr. W. Edward Deming picked up some of the ideas
  from Walter Shewhart (who discovered that quality can be
  measured, and that there are measures of variability) and developed
  what is known as TQM. In 1940s, Dr. Deming was working as an
  advisor in sampling at the Bureau of Census and later became a
  statistics professor at the New York University Business School. At
  that time, he had little success convincing American businesses to
  adopt TQM, but his management methods did gain a huge success
  in Japan.
• While the Japanese were concentrating on producing quality
  products, businesses in the United States were more concerned
  with producing large quantities of products. Their emphasis on
  quantity at the expense of quality let the Japanese, with their
  inexpensive, high quality products, gain a substantial foothold in
  American markets.
  In the 1970s and 1980s, many American companies, including Ford,
  IBM, and Xerox, began adopting Dr Deming’s principles of TQM.
• This gradually led to their regaining some of the markets previously
  lost to the Japanese.
• 26.2 TQM Definition
• “A comprehensive approach to improving competitiveness and
  flexibility through planning, organizing and understanding each
  activity, and involving everyone at each level”. TQM ensures that the
  management adopt a strategic overview of quality and focus on
  prevention rather than inspection” (Oakland, 1993).
• “ A positive attempt by the organization concerned to improve
  structural, infrastructural, attitudinal, behavioral and methodological
  ways of delivering to the end customer, with emphasis on:
  consistency, improving in quality, competitive enhancements, all
  with the aim of satisfying or delighting the end customer” (Zairi et al.,
• "TQM means that the organization's culture is defined by the
  constant attainment of satisfaction through an integrated system of
  tools, techniques, and training. Total Quality Management is a
  management style based upon producing quality service as defined
  by the customer. TQM is defined as a quality-centered, customer-
  focused, fact-based, team-driven, senior-management-led process
  to achieve an organization’s strategic imperative through continuous
  process improvement."
• T = Total = everyone in the organization
• Q = Quality = customer satisfaction
• M = Management = people and processes
    26.3 Characteristics of TQM
•    The following are the characteristics of TQM:
•    TQM is the management philosophy to guide a process of change.
•    TQM ensures that the quality be recognized as a corporate strategic
     priority, along with financial and other priorities.
•    TQM starts at the top.
•    TQM calls for planning.
•    TQM requires organization- wide involvement.
•    TQM calls for everyone to be skilled and knowledgeable.
•    TQM promotes teamwork.
•    TQM is about achieving results by process based approach.
•    TQM focuses on the customer.
•    TQM recognizes internal customer-supplier relationship.
•    TQM considers suppliers as part of the organizations process.
•    TQM seeks disciplined approach in continuous improvement efforts.
•    TQM aims to instill a “prevention and not an inspection” ethic.
•    TQM emphasizes the importance of measurement.
•    TQM reduces total cost of meeting customer requirements.
             26.4       Models of TQM


COMMITMENT                         COMMUNICATION



  s                                  Tools


• In the UK, the models proposed by Oakland and by Kanji & Asher
  (1993) are two of the better known ones. The core theme of the
  former model is the identification and management of the processes
  within the organization. The processes are as chains of internal and
  external customer-supplier relationships that must be managed
  effectively and efficiently. Surrounding the processes are the “soft”
  outcomes of TQM- culture, communication and commitment (i.e. the
  so-called foundation elements)- and the “hard” management
  necessities of TQM- the use of teams (ranging from high powered
  quality councils to work area quality circles), quality tools (for
  systematic data collection and analysis) and systems (based on
  recognized international standards). The Bradford model is shown in
  figure 26.1
• 26.4.1        Principles and concepts of “pyramid” model:
• Kanji & Asher (1993) used a 4-sided “pyramid” model to show the
  structure of TQM. It encompasses a set of four general governing
  principles, represented by the four sides. Each of the principles is
  translated into practice by using two core concepts. “Leadership” is
  at the base of the pyramid, aptly emphasizing the critical role of
  leadership to make TQM happen.
              Table 26.1: principles and concepts of “pyramid” model:

Principles                                                       Concepts

Delight the customer      Customer satisfaction          Internal customers are

Management-by-fact        All work is a process          Measurement

People-based management   Teamwork                       People make quality

Continuous improvement    Continuous improvement cycle   Prevention
•   Other quality authorities used different ways to explain their models, some
    of them novel. Kano (1993) used “The House of TQM” to show the structure
    of TQM. Using various parts of the house, namely, floor, base and pillars,
    he describes the factors and characteristics needed to achieve customer
    satisfaction and create a “prevention not inspection” management system,
    represented by the roof. Among the essentials for TQM, he talks about
    maximizing employee involvement, training, management-by-fact, the need
    for building in quality, continuous improvement, tools and techniques,
    management by policy, and teams.
•          Cullen (1991) used a picture of a shield to put forward the hypothesis
    that there is a set of five conditions which are necessary and sufficient to
    establish TQM, namely, Leadership from the top, The cost of quality, Focus
    on customer satisfaction, Continuous improvement and involvement of
•   26.5 TQM Benefits
•    TQM has few short-term advantages. Most of its benefits are long-term and
    come into effect only after it is running smoothly for some time. In large
    organizations, it may take several years before long-term benefits are
    realized. Long-term benefits that may be expected from TQM are higher
    productivity, increased morale, reduced costs, and greater customer
    commitment. These benefits may lead to greater public support and
    improvement of an organization’s public image.
• 26.6 TQM & Software Industry
• TQM was originated in the manufacturing sector but it has been
  successfully adopted by almost every type of organization
  imaginable - for example - hotel management, highway
  maintenance, churches, schools & universities. If you look closely at
  Software development, it is no different from any other industry. We
  develop software using processes. We know our processes are not
  perfect. What can we do to improve quality and bring more discipline
  into our processes? TQM has the answer.
  Remember, we can't test quality into our software, we design in it.
  And the only way we can design quality in is by continuously
  monitoring and improving our processes.

• Since TQM requires extensive statistical analysis to study processes
  and improve quality, we need be able to define a variable (or set of
  variables) to monitor a certain process. We should be able to then
  make a corrective action whenever we find that the process is going
  out-of-control. But, how do we know if the process is going out-of-
  control? Note: A process in-control means it's repeatable.
•   Use Control-Charts. They are also known as XBAR and R-Charts. It's hard
    to explain without a diagram, but I'll try to explain. You measure a process
    variable and define the target mean i.e. its acceptable average value. Note:
    To be able to begin monitoring a process, it must be in-control. Then define
    the Upper Control Limit (UCL) and Lower Control Limit (LCL). Use XBAR
    Charts to track if the process is going out-of-control. This URL provides
    more insight into how to define UCL and LCL. Note: if the LCL drops below
    some practical value, then choose zero.
    26.7 PDCA Cycle
•    Plan-Do-Check-Act is also known as Shewhart Cycle. Instead of following a
    Dilbert Cycle, where one only react to changes, PDCA shows a more
    sophisticated way to welcome change. Look at the problem in detail and
    check what's wrong (Plan). Then try improvement in small steps (Do).
    Gather data and analyze results (Check). In the end, make a decision (Act)
    and repeat the cycle for next problem. It's common sense, isn't it? But we
    still find managers suffering from Dilbert Syndrome almost everyday!
• Summary
• We can't test quality into our software, we design in it
• A chain is as strong as its weakest link. We must find and fix the
  bottlenecks first.
• Processes needs to be continually improved
• The People who do the work generally knows best how to improve it
• Use quantitative methods to support decisions, whenever possible
• Plan a flight, and fly the plan
• Review Questions
   –   Explain the TQM Origin and Background?
   –   What are the definitions of TQM?
   –   Explain the characteristics of TQM?
   –   Describe the various models of TQM?
   –   Briefly explain the principles and concepts of pyramid model?
   –   Highlight the TQM Benefits?
   –   How is TQM & Software Industry related?
   –   What is PDCA Cycle?
• Ramesh Gopalswamy, Managning the
  global software projects, First Edition, Tata
  McGraw Hill, Ltd (2002).
• Kieron Conway, Software Project
  Management, First (Reprint) Edition, The
  Coriols Group, USA (2002)
• Dean Leffingwll & Don Widrig, Managing
  software requirements, First (Reprint)
  Edition, Addison Wesley Longman, Pvt Ltd

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