Chapter 8 The Progressive Era 1890-1920

					Chapter 8: The Progressive
      Era 1890-1920
  Section 1: The Drive for Reform
• Progressivism –
  Political belief that
  new ideas and
  honest, efficient
  government could
  bring about social
  justice.
I. Origins of Progressivism
              •   Who were the
                  Progressives?
                  People from all
                  walks of life; growing
                  middle class,
                  industrial workers,
                  immigrant minorities.
                  All social classes,
                  political parties,
                  ethnic groups, and
                  religions.
A. Progressives Share Common Beliefs

   1. Industrialization and urbanization had created troubling
      social and political problems.

   2. Wanted government to step in and pass laws to solve
      the issues.

   3. Social justice was of great concern.

   4. Get rid of corrupt government and corrupt officials.

   5. Focus was on increased education and the use of
      modern ideas to solve problems.
B. Progressives Target a Variety of
              Problems
     1. What to do first?

         a. Political corruption

                    i. Political machines

                    ii. Wanted safe water, paved streets, decent
                        housing, and a safe life.

         b. Women wanted suffrage

         c. Argued that the rights of women voting should be at
            the top of the list.
c. Honest government
       i. Did not want officials to control city services

d. Big Business
        i. “bust the trusts”
        ii. create more opportunities for small
             businesses

e. reduce the gap between the “have and have nots”
 better working conditions, pay, and living conditions.
II. Muckrakers Reveal the Need for
                Reform
• Muckrakers – Journalists who wrote
  sensationalistic investigative news stories
  about the ills of society.

• People across the nation were appalled at
  the conditions that their fellow Americans
  were living and working in.
A. Journalists Uncover Injustices
                 1. Lincoln Steffens – Writer for
                    McClure’s magazine.

                     a. wrote a collection of stories
                        about Philadelphia’s
                        government allowing utility
                        companies charge their
                        customers excessively high
                        rates

                     b. exposed politicians who bribed
                        and threatened voters.
2. Jacob Riis – Photographer for
   the New York Evening Sun.
                * Took photographs of city life in New
                   York.



                    a. “How the other half lives” was a
                       photographic expose’ of how
                       many people in America live their
                       lives.
• 3. Ida Tarbell –
  Another journalist
  who exposed the
  ruthless tactics of the
  era’s industrialists
  (John Rockefeller).
B. Novelists Defend the
      Downtrodden
1. The naturalist novel – fiction writing that honestly
   portrayed the misery and struggles of the common
   people in America.

2. Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle” which exposed the
   horrors of the US meat packing industry. Pg 220

Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle” (2:56)
III. Progressives Reform Society
   A. The Social Gospel Guides Reform Efforts

      1. Many thought Christianity should be the basis for social
         reform.

      2. Social Gospel – By following the teachings of the bible
         people could make society the “kingdom of heaven”.
B. Settlement House Workers Aid
          the Urban Poor
    1. Settlement House – A
        community center that
        provided services to the
        poor.
         a. Childcare classes
              for mothers
         b. English education
              for immigrants
         c. Ran nursery schools
              and kindergarten.

    2. Jane Addams – Became a
        leading figure in the
        settlement house
        movement.
         a. Opened Hull House in
              Chicago that was so
              successful that she
              opened up 13 other
              sites.
C. Protecting Children and
     Improving Education
 1. Florence Kelley – Illinois lawyer who convinced Illinois
    to ban child labor.
     a. National Child Labor Committee – petitioned the
        federal government to intercede on the issue of
        child labor.
     b. U.S. Children’s Bureau – 1912 – Still exists today to
        protect American children.
 2. Keating-Owens Act – Made child labor illegal, was
    ruled unconstitutional 2 yrs later.
 3. Progressives also worked to improve education, but
    there was much debate over what should be taught and
    to whom?
D. Progressives Help Industrial
             Workers
   1. 1900 U.S. had the highest rate of work related
      accidents in the world.
   2. 30k per year died on the job.
   3. Triangle Shirtwaist fire in 1911 – 146 workers died in
      the fire, in part, due to the doors being locked shut so
      workers could not leave early.
       a. Many states passed laws making workplaces safer.
       b. Many states set up funds for workers who were
           injured on the job.

       Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (4:48)
IV. Reforming Government
A. Reforms Improve City Government
   1. 1900 a hurricane destroyed Galveston, Tx.
       a. Corruption and incompetent city officials led to the
          city struggling to rebuild
       b. Fired the mayor and city aldermen and replaced
          them with a 5 man city commission.
       c. By 1918 nearly 500 cities had adopted the
          “Galveston Plan”.
B. Progressives Reform Election
              Rules
    1. Robert LaFollete – “Fighting Bob” was the governor of
       Wisconsin.
        a. Created a direct primary where voters chose who
            would run for office.
    2. Initiative – Gave people the power to directly place an
       issue on the ballot.
    3. Referndum – Allowed citizens to approve or reject a
       piece of legislation passed by government.
    4. Recall – Allowed citizens to remove elected officials
       from office if they did not do as promised or do enough.
    5. 17th Amendment – Direct election of Senators.
C. Progressive Governors Take
             Charge
   1. Fighting Bob LaFollete - Wisconsin
        a. Passed many reform laws
        b. Forced RR to pay higher taxes and reduce rates.
        c. Improved education & made factories safer
   2. Hiram Johnson – California
        a. Shattered the control that the Southern Pacific RR
            had over state government.
   3. Theodore Roosevelt (NY) and Woodrow Wilson (NJ)
       were also prominent reform minded Governors of the
       era.
     Section 2: Women Make
            Progress
•   Progressive Women Expand Reforms
•   Women wanted to do more with their
    lives than be mothers and homemakers
•   Education often allowed women to
    expand their role in their community.
 A. Working Women Face
         Hardships.
1. Difficult jobs, long hours, dangerous conditions
   with less $$

2. Handed their wages over to their husbands,
   fathers, or brothers

3. Were often cheated by their employers
B. Reformers Champion Working
         Women’s Rights
  1. Mueller V Oregon – backed up an Oregon law
     limiting the # of hours per day women could be
     required to work.
  2. Florence Kelley – Said women were being
     cheated by high prices of consumer goods
        a. National Consumer League – Gave special labels
           to goods produced under safe, fair, and healthy
           working conditions.
        b. Urged women to avoid products not carrying their
           labels.
        c. Women’s Trade Union League – Tried to improve
           working conditions for women.
C. Women Work for Changes in
         Family Life
 1. One main priority for
    Progressives was to
    change the lives of
    American families
    (whether they wanted
    to or not)
 2. Temperance
    Movement –
    Promoted the practice
    of never drinking
    alcohol.
        a. Their work on
           this issue led to
           the passage of
           the 18th
           Amendment.
1. Margaret Sanger – Opened the nations 1st birth
   control center because she believed that families
   would be better off with less children.

      a. Federal law prohibited any form of birth control
         meds, and the discussion of the names of STD’s.

      b. She did time in Queen Anne’s Prison before
         winning on appeal…thus changing the laws
II. Women Fight for the Right to
               Vote
A. Catt Takes Charge of the Movement

  1. Carrie Chapman Catt – Re-energized the
     American women’s suffrage movement.

        a. National American Women’s Suffrage
           Association – Women’s group dedicated to
           gaining women’s suffrage.

        b. Recruited wealthy, prominent socialites to her
           cause, spoke before state legislatures, and
           pressured Congress to pass an Amendment
           granting women’s suffrage.
2. Believe it or not there
    were actually women
    who WERE
    OPPOSSED to
    women voting…

        a. National
           Association
           Opposed to
           Women’s
           Suffrage

        b. Believed that
           women’s place
           was taking care
           of her family
           and
           voting/politics
           was a
           distraction
B. Activists Carry on the Struggle
  1. Alice Paul - Very well educated Quaker who
     actively recruited very important people in the
     suffrage movement.

        a. National Women’s Party – Organized the 1st
           women’s protest march at the White House.

        b. Hundreds arrested & thousands on hunger strikes
           and other sorts of radical tactics.
C. The 19th Amendment becomes
              Law.
   1. Carrie Catt and Florence Kelley led suffrage
      groups in support of the U.S. war effort in WWI.

   2. Their actions convinced Congress to look at
      suffrage again.

   3. 19th Amendment – The right to vote shall not be
      abridged on account of sex. (Women get to
      vote)

   4. November 2, 1920 – Women in the U.S. voted
      for the 1st time.
    Section 3: The Struggle Against
            Discrimination
I. Progressivism Presents Contradictions

•     Most Progressives were White Anglo
      Saxon Protestants and only really cared
      about fixing society for white non-
      immigrants
A. Social Reform or Social Control
     1. Americanization – The philosophy of helping
        immigrants become more American.

        a. Wanted them to forgo their culture and ethnicity to
           become more American.
        b. The thought was they would become more loyal
           Americans
        c. The alcohol use of immigrants was of great concern
           to many. Became a part of the prejudice against
           immigrants.
 B. Racism Limits the Goals of
          Progressivism
1. Many believed that certain races were more fit to
   lead than others.
2. Popular “scientific” theories suggested that dark
   skinned people were naturally less intelligent than
   whites.
3. These beliefs became part of the way that people
   justified their treatment of African-Americans,
   Mexicans, and Native Americans throughout our
   history.
4. By 1910, segregation became the norm that was
   supported by the U.S. Supreme Court case Plessy
   V Ferguson.
II. African Americans Demand
              Reform
              • W.E.B DuBois and Booker T.
                Washington became
                prominent African
                Americans who spoke out
                against segregation and
                worked to change the future
                for other African-Americans.
A. African Americans Form the
        Niagara Movement
 1. DuBois and William
    Trotter met with other
    African American
    leaders at Niagara
    Falls (Canadian side)

 2. Called the Niagara
     Movement –
     Denounced the idea
     of gradual progress.
a. Not willing to compromise the rights of African-
   Americans.

b. Argued that the current educational system only
   created workers

c. Believed African American men should be taught
   history, literature, and philosophy so they could
   think for themselves.

d. Movement never amounted to anything significant
   due to the size of their membership.
B. Riots lead to the Formation of
           the NAACP
  1. Riot in Springfield, Ill. after a failed attempt to
     lynch 2 African-American prisoners in the city jail.
  2. Rioters turned on black residents of the city,
     killing 2 and burning 40 homes.
  3. Members of the Niagara Movement formed the
     NAACP.
  4. NAACP – National Association for the
     Advancement of Colored People.
         a. Aimed to help African Americans be “physically free
            from peonage, mentally free from ignorance,
            politically free from disfranchisement, and socially
            free from insult.”

5. The group, made up of both blacks and whites,
sought to use the courts to challenge unfair laws.
C. African Americans for the Urban
               League
   1. Urban League –
      Groups in cities that
      banned together to
      fight for the rights of
      poor African
      American workers.

           a. Helped families
              buy clothes and
              books and send
              children to
              school.
III. Reducing Prejudice and
        Protecting Rights
                A. The Anti-
                   Defamation League
                   Aids Jews

                  1. The goal was, and still
                      is, to defend Jews
                      and others against
                      physical and verbal
                      attacks, false
                      statements, and “to
                      secure justice and fair
                      treatment to all
                      citizens alike”.
B. Mexican Americans Organize
       1. Partido Liberal
          Mexicano – Similar in
          function to the Urban
          League

2. Mutualista – Groups who
    made loans and provided
    legal assistance to Mexicans
     Section 4: Roosevelt’s Square
                  Deal
I.        Rough-Riding President

     A.    Roosevelt’s Rise

            1.   Feeble, sick, & weak as a youngster he drove himself
                 to accomplish physical feats.
            2.   Boxed, wrestled, horseback riding, while at Harvard
                 Univ.
            3.   Joined the Army and became cavalry brigade
                 commander
• Roosevelt was chosen as McKinley’s
  running mate literally to get him out of the
  hair of Republican leaders
• Won fame for his role in the battle of San
  Juan Hill in Spanish American War.
  Became President when McKinley was
  assassinated
B. The Modern Presidency
  1. At age 42, he became the youngest President ever.
  2. Bold and brash…his policies were always right. Boxed
     pros, rode horseback 100 mile, hunted wild game,
     “Teddy Bear” named after him. He was bigger than life.
  3. Believed the government was there to serve & provide
     for the people.
  4. Square Deal- The various Progressive reforms that
     Roosevelt sponsored. Supported his idea of
     government responsibility
     II. Using Federal Power
A. 1902 Coal Strike
       1. 140,000 coal miners in Pa. went on strike wanting 20%
          pay raise, 9 hour work day and organized labor
          right.
       2. As winter approached Roosevelt called both sides to
          the White House to discuss the situation. “Only the
          dignity of the Presidency” kept him from taking the
          owner “by the seat of the breeches and tossing him out
          the window.
    B. Federal Arbitration- Roosevelt threatened to take
                             over the mines

            1. Federal arbitration committee – works with both sides to
               work out their differences.

            2. Compromise was reached – 10% pay raise, 9 hour
                day, no strikes for 3 years.


•     This set a precedent for government
      intervention in labor/owner conflict.
      C. Trust-busting
1. Roosevelt vowed to rid the U.S. of all “bad trusts” that
   sought to get rich while harming the public.

    a. Trusts controlled 80% of U.S. industry

2. Believed that all trusts were not bad

3. Roosevelt’s administration attacked and defeated 44
    trusts using the Sherman anti-trust act. (oil, tobacco,
    RR & beef among them)

    a. Northern Securities Company – Had a complete
       monopoly over RR in NW U.S.
D. Railroad Regulation
1. Interstate Commerce Act – Prohibited “pools” in which
   RR owners divided business in a given territory and
   shared the profits.
2. Elkins Act – Made it illegal for RR to give and shippers
   to receive rebates or discounts. RR could not change
   rates without notifying the public.
3. Hepburn Act – Severely limited the distribution of free
   RR passes…a common form of bribery.
     III. Protecting Citizens and the
                  Environment
    A. Protecting Health
         1. Upton Sinclair – “Muckracker” Journalist who exposed
            the meatpacking industry for it’s filth, unsafe, and
            unsanitary conditions.
         2. “The Jungle” (1906) – Sinclair’s book that graphically
            outline the safe and unsanitary conditions inside the
            U.S.’s meat packing industry.


•   “The Jungle” was a best seller and
    people were disgusted with it’s findings.
•   “Potted Ham” – Hash with disgusting
    ingredients such as rope, pigskin etc..
3. Meat Inspection Act – Dictated strict cleanliness
   requirements for meatpackers and created a system of
   federal inspection.
4. Created the inspection system we had until the 1990’s
5. Increased government regulation that cost taxpayer
   money
     B. Pure Food and Drug Act
1.   Pure Food and Drug Act – Halted the sale of
     contaminated food and medicines. It called for “truth in
     labeling”.

2.   The government reported that harmful additives and
     preservatives were being added to food and drugs to
     make them last longer.

3.   All foods/drugs had to have labels that told what
     exactly was in the food/medicine.

4. Did not outlaw the harmful things being put in, but made
    sure the public had knowledge of what they were
    ingesting.
C. Conservation and Natural Resources-
    Roosevelt the outdoorsman steps up.
   1. Roosevelt deemed water and forest problems a vital
      concern for Americans.
   2. Roosevelt set aside well over 230 million acres for
      national forests, water power, and resource research.
   3. Actually banned all Christmas trees in the White House
      until 1902. Camped in Yosemite National Park in 1903.
D. Gifford Pinochet- Professional conservationist that
       became head of the U.S. Forest Service
1. Worked on plans to conserve the wild lands and natural
   resources of the U.S.
2. Conservation- some areas would be preserved while
   others would be developed for commercial purposes.
3. Money gathered from commercial sales/profits would be
   used to fund large scale irrigation projects.



•   What is the difference between Conservation and
    Preservation?
 IV. Roosevelt and Civil Rights
• Was not a supporter of the civil rights
  movement, but did support a few individual
  African Americans. Why ? Fear?
• Had Booker T. Washington to dinner at the
  White House and supported his Tuskegee
  Institute. Why Him? He supported
  segregation by not bitterly fighting it.
• Appointed an African American as head of
  Charleston, SC customhouse
   V. Roosevelt and Taft Differ
• Roosevelt left office
  after 1 term..to hunt
  big game in Africa
  among other things.

• Thought he left things
  in reliable hands –
  William H. Taft
I. Taft Takes his Own Course
A. Taft had his own agenda.
      1.   Payne Aldrich Tariff – Did not lower tariffs as much as
           Roosevelt wanted.

      2. Encouraged government to pass an income tax
      3. pushed for legislation to take control of phone and telegraph
         rates.

      4. Fired Gifford Pinochet.

      5. Seemed to go against much of what Roosevelt had done in
         his administration.

      6. Roosevelt was furious.
B. Roosevelt Strikes Back
  1.   Came back from Africa
       with his eyes on re-
       taking the White House
  2.   New Nationalism –
       Roosevelt’s new
       program to restore the
       governments trust
       busting powers.
  3.   Roosevelt failed to win
       the Republican
       nomination
  4.   Formed his own party
       – Progressive Party –
       Often called the “Bull
       Moose Party”.
• Roosevelt and Taft traveled the country
  bad mouthing each other and their
  leadership.
• Spent so much time worrying about each
  other that Woodrow Wilson literally “snuck”
  past them both and won the 1912 election.
     Section 5: Wilson’s New Freedom – Wilson’s political
                          platform.

I.        Progressive Reform Under Wilson

      •    Went after the “Triple Wall of Privilege” =
           trusts, tariffs, high finance
          A. Wilson’s Background

1.   Came from a family of
     ministers
2.   He became a lawyer
     then a professor at
     Princeton for being
     named President of
     Princeton University
3.   New Jersey Governor
     in 1910
4.   Elected President in
     1912
      B. Clayton Anti-trust Act
1.   He believed trusts should not be regulated, but taken
     apart.
2.   Clayton Anti-Trust Act declared certain business
     practices to be illegal.
•    Ex – a corporation could not acquire stock in another
     company if it would be creating a monopoly by doing
     so.
3.   If a company violated these law then it’s officers could
     be prosecuted.
4.   Labor unions were no longer subjected to anti-trust
     laws and were therefore legal. Strikes and boycotts
     became legal.
C. Federal Trade Commission
              •   Had the power to
                  investigate
                  violations of
                  regulatory statutes
              •   Had the ability to
                  order companies to
                  halt illegal activities
       D. A new Tax System
1. Wilson believed high tariffs helped create
   monopolies

2. Argues before Congress to reduce tariffs
   and encouraged voters to monitor their
   politicians votes on the issue
E. Federal Income Tax
           1. Revenue lost from
              tariffs needed to be
              replaced
           2. 16th Amendment –
              Created a tax on
              individual earnings.
                      a. a graduated tax
                          that taxed
                          higher incomes
                          more
 F. Federal Reserve System – A decentralized banking
                system under Federal control

1. Country divided into
    zones, each with it’s
    own federal reserve
    bank that controlled
    the flow of currency.
     II. Limits of Progressivism
•   D. Wilson and Civil Rights
     1. While running for election, he won NAACP support for his
        anti-lynching stance.
     2. Once in office, he failed to support legislation that would
        make lynching a federal crime.
     3. Wilson stated often that he viewed segregation as a just
        policy.
     4. Federal offices, which had been desegregated after the
        Civil War became segregated again after Wilson’s election.
     5. Wilson told African American leaders that he would fight for
        them, but he did not and refused to acknowledge that he
        owed them any political support.
•   E. The Twilight of Progressivism

     1. No chance of reform while at war.

     2. The progressive ideals took a backseat to the
        problems of WWI.

				
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