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					Cancer
  Chapter 16




               1
    Leading Causes of Cancer
   Risk Factor
       Tobacco
       Diet and obesity
       Sedentary lifestyle
       Family history of cancer
       Occupational factors
       Viruses
       Alcohol
       Environmental pollution

                                   2
    What is Cancer?
   Definition: an abnormal and uncontrollable
    growth of cells or tissue that can lead to death.
       Tumor: a mass of tissue that serves no purpose.
          Malignant tumor: (Neoplasm) cancerous, can invade
             surrounding tissues.
            Benign tumor: mass of cells enclosed in a membrane that
             prevents their penetration of other tissues.




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How Cancer Spreads
   Metastasis: Primary tumor
       Definition: the spreading of cancer cells,
        occurs because cancer cells do not stick to
        each other as strongly as normal cells.
         Cells break away from primary tumor and invade
          surrounding tissues or travel through the blood
          and lymphatic system.
         Secondary tumor or metastases




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Types of Cancer
   Malignant Tumors
       Classified according to the types of cells.
           Initially retain some of the original properties of
            the host cell.
         Carcinomas        - most common - start from the
            epithelial tissue that cover body surfaces. Linings,
            tubes, cavities and secretion glands.




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Malignant Tumors
   Sarcomas: arise in connective and fibrous
    tissues. Bone, muscle, cartilage and
    membranes covering muscle or fat.
   Lymphomas: Cancers of the lymph nodes.
   Leukemia: cancer of the blood-forming
    cells in bone marrow.


                                                8
The Incidence of Cancer
   1.3 million Americans are diagnosed yearly
   More than half will be cued.
   About 40% will die as a result of cancer.
   1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women will be
    develop cancer during their lifetime.



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    Common Cancers
   Lung Cancer: Most common cancer.
        Risk Factors
            Tobacco smoking contributes to 87%.
                 Combined with environmental carcinogens multiply by 10.
        Detection and Treatment (Difficult to detect)
            Symptoms are not detected until cancer has reached the
             invasive stage.
            Persistent cough, chest pain, or recurring bronchitis.
            Diagnosis - chest x-ray or sputum examination - fiber-optic
             bronchosectomy.


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Common Cancers
   Lung Cancer treatment:
       Difficult to treat.
       Surgery- removal of involved cells.
       Typically- cancer cells have already spread.
       Very resistant to chemotherapy.




                                                       12
Common Cancers
   Colon and Rectal- second most prevalent
    cancer.
       Risk Factors
         Directly linked to diet and genetic predisposition.
         Mostly occurs after 50 yr. of age.Diet low in fat
          and High in fiber - best defense.
         Up to 1/3 of the population is genetically prone.

       Detection and Treatment


                                                                13
Common Cancers
   Breast Cancer - Second most common
    cancer in women; 1:9 American women
    will have it during her lifetime.
       Risk Factors
         Most common in women over 50
           5 year survival rate is 79%
           “Disease of Civilization”
            Common causes: Genetic predisposition; High fat, High
            calorie diet and Sedentary lifestyle, Alcohol use, early onset
            of menstruation, First child after 30 and obesity
           Estrogen -cancer in estrogen-responsive sites
       Detection and Treatment

                                                                             14
Common Cancers
   Breast Cancer -.
       Three part program for early detection.
         Monthly breast self-exam for all women over 20.
         Clinical breast exam by a physician every 3 yr.

         Mammography- Every 1-2 years 40-50 yr. old.
               Over 50 every year.
       New Strategies for Treatment and Prevention



                                                            15
Common Cancers
   Prostate Cancer - Most common cancer in
    men. Third leading cause of cancer deaths
    in men
       Risk Factors - Age, diet, lifestyle and genetic
        predisposition
       Early detection is key. PSA Blood test
       Treatment - surgical removal of the prostate
        and radiation

                                                          16
Common Cancers
   Female Reproductive Tract: Uterus, Cervix
    or Ovaries.
       Cervical cancer - sexually transmitted.
         80% stems from infection by the papillomavirus -
          transmitted by unprotected sex.
         PAP Test

       Cervical cancer most common in women in
        their 20’s and 30’s.
           Factors: sexual intercourse before 18, multiple sex
            partners, cigarette smoking and low
            socioeconomic status.
                                                                  17
    Common Cancers
   Uterine, or Endometrial:
       Occurs after 55
       Determined by Pelvic Exam
       Treatment is surgery
   Ovarian Cancer: Difficult to detect and
    diagnosis, No warning signs
       Family history or genetic factors
       Determined by Pelvic Exam
       Treatment is surgery & radiation
                                              18
    Common Cancers
   Skin Cancer: Most common form
        Easily detected and highly curable
        Exposure to ultraviolet rays during childhood
        Common cause - sunburns and suntans
        Types:
           Basal and Squamous

           Melanoma - more dangerous form

        Prevention
        Detection and Treatment

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20
Common Cancers
   Oral Cancer
   Testicular Cancer
   Pancreatic Cancer
   Stomach Cancer
   Bladder Cancer
   Kidney Cancer
   Brain Cancer
                        21
Common Cancers
   Leukemia:
       Cancers of the blood forming tissues
       Abnormal production of immature white
        blood cells; rapidly growing cells displace red
        blood cell precursors
       Immature WBC’s cannot fight off infections
       Risk factors are unknown


                                                          22
Common Cancers
   Lymphoma
       Arising from the lymph cells
         Hodgkin’s disease
         Non-Hodgkin’s disease

   Multiple Myeloma
       Malignant plasma cells produce tumors in the
        bone marrow.
           Leads to anemia, excessive bleeding and
            decreased resistance to infection
                                                       23
    The Cause of Cancer
   The Role of DNA
       Each cells has 23 pairs of chromosomes
         Each controls the way a cell will work
         A gene

   DNA Mutations and Cancer
       Changes the way the cells function
       Mutagens
       Oncogenes
       Tumor suppressor genes
   Hereditary Risks
                                                   24
Links to Cancer
   Foods:
       Both carcinogens and compounds that provide
        protection
           Dietary Fat and Meat (Saturated Fats)
           Alcohol
           Dietary Fiber
           Fruits and Vegetables
                Anticarcinogens
                Carotenoids
                Antioxidants versus Free radicals
           Phytochemicals
           Sulforaphane



                                                      25
Foods That Contain Cancer-
Preventing Substances
   Broccoli              Kale
   Brussels sprouts      Spinach
   Cabbage               Apricot
   Cauliflower           Cantaloupe
   Carrots               Grapefruit
   Red peppers           Orange
   Tomato                Papaya
   Sweet potato          Peach
   Collard greens        Plum
   Green Tea             Watermelon

                                        26
Links to Cancer
   Inactivity and Obesity
       Linked to colon cancer
   Benefits of Physical Activity




                                    27
Carcinogens in the Environment
   Ingested Chemicals
   Environmental and Industrial pollution
   Radiation




                                             28
Detecting, Diagnosing, and
Treating Cancer
   Detecting
       Self-monitoring
   Diagnosing
       Biopsy
       Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
       Computed tomography (CT)
       Ultrasonography

                                           29
    Detecting Cancer
   Self Monitoring is Essential
   C Change in bowel or bladder habits
   A A sore that does not heal
   U Unusual bleeding or discharge
   T Thickening or lump in breasts or
       elsewhere
   I Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
   O Obvious change in a wart or mole
   N Nagging cough or hoarseness

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Detecting, Diagnosing and
Treating Cancer
   Treatment:
       Surgery
       Chemotherapy
       Radiation Therapy
   New and Experimental
       Gene therapy
       Bone marrow and Stem Cell transplants
       Biological therapies
                                                32
Cancer Survivors
   Must live with fear of recurrence
   Face prejudice from health insurers
   Psychological support is important
   Financial impact




                                          33
    Prevention
   Lifestyle choices
      Avoid tobacco
      Control diet and weight
      Regular exercise
      Protecting skin from the sun
      Avoiding environmental and occupational
        carcinogens
      Regular self exams
      Medical screenings
      Be aware of the early signs and symptoms


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Thanks!!!!!!!




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posted:6/14/2012
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