Chap Nixon Ford Carter

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Chap Nixon Ford Carter Powered By Docstoc
					     Chap. #24
Nixon – Ford - Carter
       26th Amendment 1971
       18 year olds can Vote!
• Democrats = Like
• Republicans = Oppose
• Only 25% vote in 1972
  – 2004 = less than 15%.
• Why?
    Nixon & Republicans resent
      Liberalism of the 1960’s
• Vietnam War
• Social Unrest
• Warren Court: For
  coddling criminals!
• Taxes that only helped the
  poor and minorities!
         Nixon’s Presidency
• Appealed to “The Un-black, The Un-young,
  & The Un-poor”!
• “New Federalism” = Less Federal
  – Revenue sharing with the States they get
    more power to decide where $ goes.
  – Welfare reform = roll back Great Society. Cut
    $ and require work or lose welfare!
              Law & Order
• Illegal wiretaps
• Watergate building
• Ordered I. R. S. audits
• “Enemy Lists” = +200 F.B.I. told to
  discredit them / I.R.S. --to audit them
• F.B.I. = infiltrate S.D.S. & Black Panthers
    Nixon’s Southern Strategy

• Purpose to get Democratic vote Wallace got
  1968 (discontented White voters).
   – Attacks those favoring instant integration
   – Denounces School Busing (Boston / Detroit)
   – Opposed extending Voting Rights Act 1965

• Spiro Agnew (V.P.) = Attacks T.V. / Media /
Busing Controversy in Boston
              Supreme Court
• Appoints (4) in his first
  – C.J. Warren Burger
  – Harry Blackman
  – Lewis Powell
  – William Rehnquist

• Conservative “Face”
        Troubled Economy
• “Stagflation” = high unemployment &
   –Caused by deficit spending 1960’s.
   –International trade competition
   –Flood of new workers: women &
   –Foreign oil costs.
• O.P.E.C. =
  Organization of
  Petroleum Exporting
  Countries…purpose is..
• Yom Kippur War 1973
  – Israel attacked by
    Egypt and Syria.
  – We supply Israel with..
  – O.P.E.C. embargo
    against U.S.
  – 1 year later = oil is 4
    times higher
       Nixon’s Foreign Policy
• Henry Kissinger = 2nd most powerful (to
  Nixon) in the White House.
• “Realpolitik” = foreign policy based solely
  on consideration of power – not ideals or
  moral principles (What is best for Me!)
• “Détente” = Easing of Cold War Tensions
              China Visit
• Normalization of
• Nixon had been
  “Communist Hunter” =
  not soft on
• Scientific / cultural
  exchanges / trade
• Ping-Pong Diplomacy
China Visit
       Impact of Nixon’s visit
• 1971 China
  admitted to U.N.

• Taiwan is out!
        1972 Moscow Visit
• Nixon & Brezhnev
• Sign Strategic Arms
  Limitation Treaty
  (S.A.L.T.) limits
• Attempts to avoid
  future Third World
• Plays Soviets against
        All The Presidents Men
            (The Inner Circle)

• H.R. Haldeman ----Chief
  of Staff

• John Ehrlichman----Chief
  Domestic Advisor

• John Mitchell----Attorney
• Raised tens of
  millions $
• discredit
• Engaged in “Dirty
  Tricks” against Nixon
           Watergate Break In
• June 17th , 1972 at
  Democratic National
  – 5 men arrested in
    business suits
  – “Bugs”, camera’s, $ on
  – Nixon feared a Ted
    Kennedy run for
• Nov. ’72 Nixon wins in
  landslide over
• Woodward &
  Bernstein (Wash.
  Post) break the story.
         Watergate Fallout
• Burglars: G. Gordon
  Libby & Howard
  Hunt = employees of
• Nixon secretly
  approves $460,000
  to keep burglars
          Fallout Continued
• White House’s
  “Plumbers” to
  plug up leaks of
  information to
  media from the
  White House
               The Trial

• Jan. 1973 - - the burglars go on trial !
• James McCord admits he worked for
  C.R.E.E.P. (hush $ given burglars to
  conceal White House involvement)!
• Attorney General John Mitchell approved
  the break in…
• Nixon denies knowing anything about “the
  Break In”! --knew w/n 3-6 days!!!
        Nixon and Watergate
• Nixon lied …
• Nixon orders aides
  to block investigation
• Nixon refuses to
  testify = “Executive
           Senate Hearings

• April 30, 1973
  Dean / Ehrlichman /
  Haldeman Resign.
• Archibald Cox =
• Dean says,
  “President directed
    The Great Tape Controversy
• July 1973 Aide, Alexander Butterfield said,
  that tapes exist in the White House !
• Nixon won’t turn tapes over “Executive
• U.S. vs. Nixon = Supreme Court orders
  him to turn them over.
• “Saturday Night Massacre” Nixon fire
• Nixon appoints Leon Jaworski as new
Cries to Impeach Nixon
• Nixon tries to release
  transcripts only – Supreme
  Court order tapes!
• Tapes = Gaps!!! (18 min.
  on one tape)
• Secretary: Rosemary
  Woods said, “it was her
• House begins
  “Impeachment Hearings”
           Other Problems
• Oct ’73 --V.P. Spiro
  T. Agnew Resigns /
  income tax evasion /
  taking bribes as
  Governor of Maryland
• Nixon appoints
  Gerald Ford as new
  V.P. How can Nixon
         Unmaking of a President
• House of Reps. begins
  impeachment hearings
  Andrew Johnson = Only
  President impeached
  before Clinton!
• Republican leaders press
  Nixon to resign.
• Aug. 9, 1974--- Nixon
  resigns, Gerald Ford
  becomes President.
• 1st President in history to
         Effects of Watergate
• Americans Disillusionment with “Imperial
• Americans lost confidence in Government.
• 1974, Freedom of Information Act =
  Citizens given access to files government
  may have on them!
     Ford Becomes President

• Selects Nelson
  Rockefeller III as V.P.
• Only V.P. & President
  to never be elected!
• Sept. 1974 -- Ford
  pardons Nixon
      Assassination Attempts

• Twice Ford narrowly escaped death
• Once by one of Charles Manson’s disciples
        Economy Was Terrible
•   Worst economic recession in 40 years.
•   Unemployment 10%
•   Inflation 10%
•   Japanese car sales go from 17% in 1970
    to 37% in 1980, over 50% foreign 2007 No
    One Wants A “Gas Guzzler”

• Today ---approx. $1380 of every Am. auto
  sold goes to health Insurance, retirement
  benefits, & other Toyota - - $100
             Foreign Affairs
• Carry on Détente

• 1975 Cambodia
  seizes Mayaguez
  merchant ship
  – 39 American’s held
  – Rescue mission but
    42 troops die to save
Ch 24:3
              1976 Election
• Ford = Rep. / Carter = Dem.
• Carter wins narrowly
   – I’ll never lie to the Am.
   – Runs as a Washington
     outsider– (trust reasons)
   – Doesn’t even work well
     with the Democrats in
     Congress, not part of D.C.
           Carter’s Agenda
• Pardons draft dodgers

• Human Rights for Foreign Policy—
  away from Realpolitik

• Creates Department of Energy
  – Tax on gas – guzzling cars
  – Tax credits for alternative energy
        Economic Problems
• Inflation = 14%
• “Prime Rate” =
  20% in early 1980.
• Unemployment =
  12% = worst since
  – U.S. Goes from
    jobs to service
          Civil Rights Issues
• More African Americans and women in his
  administration than any before.

• Andrew Young = U. S. Ambassador U.N.
  first African-American

• 1978 Supreme Court decision =
  Affirmative Action = Unconstitutional in
  Alan Bakke vs. University of California
               Foreign Policy
•   Based on human rights
•   Panama Canal is …..
•   Collapse of détente because…
•   USSR in Afghanistan ended.. SALT II
•   Camp David is …in Md… (FDR)
•   Camp David Accord is
    – Egypt, Israel, USA
           Iran Hostage Crisis
•   January-79 ---Shah forced to leave…
•    Carter allows Shah to enter the.. cancer
•   Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile to..
•   444 days- - till Ronald Reagan is president
Ch 24:4
        Love Canal crisis
• Niagara Falls, NY
• homes had been
  built on a toxic-
  waste dump
• people getting sick
• abandonment
• growing awareness
  of environmental
Three Mile Island

        • core of this nuclear
          power plant came close
          to a catastrophic
In 1979, roughly 25,000 people lived within five miles of
  the giant cooling towers that became symbols of the
     nation's worst commercial nuclear accident.
After the March 28 accident, reporters from around the
world descended on the nuclear power station on the
 Susquehanna River, 10 miles from the Pennsylvania
              state capital in Harrisburg
Workers from the nuclear power plant were checked
  for radiation exposure at the end of their shifts
 Pennsylvania Gov. Richard Thornburgh advised
children and pregnant women to evacuate the area
            around Three Mile Island
Four days after the accident, President Jimmy Carter,
educated as a nuclear engineer, rode a school bus to
the damaged plant, leading a delegation that included
  Gov. Thornburgh and first lady Rosalynn Carter
Meltdown at Chernobyl