Neuromuscular Adaptations to
Muscular strengthis the maximum
amount of force a muscle or group of
muscles can generate.
Muscular power is the product of
strength and the speed of movement.
Though two individuals may have the
same strength, if one requires less time
than the other to move an identical load the
same distance, the first individual has
Muscular endurance is the ability of
your muscles to sustain repeated
muscle actions or a single static action.
Neural adaptations always accompany
the strength grains that result from
resistance training, but hypertrophy
might or might not be present.
Neural mechanisms leading to strength
gains can include recruitment of more
motor units to act synchronously and
decreases in autogenic inhibition from
Golgi tendon organs.
When the tension on a muscle’s tendons
and internal connective tissue
structures exceeds the threshold of the
imbedded Golgi tendon organs, motor
neurons to that muscle are inhibited.
This reflex is called autogenic inhibition.
Transient muscle hypertrophy is the
pumped-up feeling you get
immediately after an exercise bout.
It results from edema and is short-lived.
Chronic muscle hypertrophy occurs
from repeated resistance training and
reflects actual structural changes in the
Steroid Induced Hypertrophy
Although most muscle hypertrophy
probably results from an increase in the
size of individual muscle fibers (fiber
hypertrophy), some evidence suggests
that an increase in the number of
muscle fibers (hyperplasia) might also
Muscles will atrophy, meaning they
decrease in size and strength, when
they become inactive, such as with
injury or disuse.
Atrophy begins very quickly if training
Training can be reduced, as in a
maintenance program, without
resulting in atrophy or loss of strength.
One fibertype can take on
characteristics of the opposite type in
response to training.
Evidence indicates that one fiber type
might actually be converted to the other
type as a result of cross-innervation or
Acute muscle soreness occurs late in an
exercise bout and during the immediate
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
occurs a day or two after the exercise
seems to be the
primary instigator of this type of
Proposed causesof DOMS include
structural damage to muscle cells and
inflammatory reactions within the
Armstrong’s proposed model of the
sequence of events that cause DOMS
impaired calcium availability leading to
accumulation of irritants
increased macrophage activity
Muscle soreness can be prevented or
reducing the eccentric component of
muscle action during early training
starting training at a low intensity and
gradually increasing it, or,
beginning with a high-intensity,
exhaustive bout, which will cause much
soreness initially but will decrease future
Resistance training actions can use
static or dynamic actions.
Dynamic actions include the use of free
weights, variable resistance, isokinetic
actions, and plyometrics.
A needs analysis should be completed
before designing a training program to
tailor the program to the exerciser’s
Low-repetition, high-resistance training
enhances strength development
High repetition, low-intensity training
optimizes muscular endurance
Periodization, through which various
aspects of the training program are
varied, is important to prevent
overtraining or burnout.
the goal is to gradually decrease
volume while increasing intensity.
four phases, each
A typical cycle has
emphasizing a different muscle fitness
component, plus an active recovery
Strength gains are highly specific to
speed of training and the movement
patterns used in training.
For maximum benefit, a resistance
training program must include
activities quite similar to those
experienced by the athlete in actual
Resistance training can benefit almost
everyone, regardless of a person’s
gender, age, or athletic involvement.
Most individuals can benefit from
resistance training if an appropriate
program is designed for them.
ensure that the program is
working, performance should be
assessed periodically and adjustments
made to the training regime as needed
Considerations for Special
3. Cardiac patients.