Neuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Training Chapter 19

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					   Neuromuscular Adaptations to
       Resistance Training
              Chapter 19
 Strength
 Power
 Endurance
 Muscular strengthis the maximum
 amount of force a muscle or group of
 muscles can generate.
 Muscular power  is the product of
 strength and the speed of movement.
   Though two individuals may have the
   same strength, if one requires less time
   than the other to move an identical load the
   same distance, the first individual has
   more power.
         Muscular Endurance
 Muscular endurance is  the ability of
 your muscles to sustain repeated
 muscle actions or a single static action.
         Neural adaptations
 Neural adaptations always accompany
 the strength grains that result from
 resistance training, but hypertrophy
 might or might not be present.
          Neural adaptations
 Neural mechanisms leading to   strength
 gains can include recruitment of more
 motor units to act synchronously and
 decreases in autogenic inhibition from
 Golgi tendon organs.
            Neural adaptations
 When the tension on a muscle’s tendons
 and internal connective tissue
 structures exceeds the threshold of the
 imbedded Golgi tendon organs, motor
 neurons to that muscle are inhibited.
   This reflex   is called autogenic inhibition.
             Muscle adaptations
 Transient muscle hypertrophy is        the
 pumped-up feeling you get
 immediately after an exercise bout.
     It results from edema and is short-lived.
          Muscle adaptations
 Chronic muscle hypertrophy    occurs
 from repeated resistance training and
 reflects actual structural changes in the
Steroid Induced Hypertrophy
         Muscle adaptations
 Although most  muscle hypertrophy
 probably results from an increase in the
 size of individual muscle fibers (fiber
 hypertrophy), some evidence suggests
 that an increase in the number of
 muscle fibers (hyperplasia) might also
 be involved.
          Muscle adaptations
 Muscles will atrophy, meaning they
 decrease in size and strength, when
 they become inactive, such as with
 injury or disuse.
          Muscle adaptations
 Atrophy begins very   quickly if training
 is stopped.

 Training can be reduced, as in a
 maintenance program, without
 resulting in atrophy or loss of strength.
              Fiber adaptations
 One fibertype can take on
 characteristics of the opposite type in
 response to training.
   Fiber adaptations
 Evidence indicates that one  fiber type
 might actually be converted to the other
 type as a result of cross-innervation or
 chronic stimulation.
           Muscle Soreness
 Acute muscle soreness occurs late in an
 exercise bout and during the immediate
 recovery period.
           Muscle Soreness
 Delayed-onset muscle soreness  (DOMS)
 occurs a day or two after the exercise
   Muscle Soreness
                 seems to be the
 Eccentric action
 primary instigator of this type of
           Muscle Soreness
 Proposed causesof DOMS include
 structural damage to muscle cells and
 inflammatory reactions within the
             Muscle Soreness
 Armstrong’s proposed  model of the
 sequence of events that cause DOMS
   structural damage
   impaired calcium availability leading to
   accumulation of irritants
   increased macrophage activity
             Muscle Soreness
 Muscle soreness    can be prevented or
 minimized by:
   reducing the eccentric component of
   muscle action during early training
   starting training at a low intensity and
   gradually increasing it, or,
   beginning with a high-intensity,
   exhaustive bout, which will cause much
   soreness initially but will decrease future
          Resistance Training
 Resistance training actions   can use
 static or dynamic actions.

 Dynamic actions include the   use of free
 weights, variable resistance, isokinetic
 actions, and plyometrics.
         Resistance Training
 A needs analysis should be completed
 before designing a training program to
 tailor the program to the exerciser’s
 specific needs.
          Resistance Training
 Low-repetition, high-resistance training
  enhances strength development
 High repetition, low-intensity training
  optimizes muscular endurance
           Resistance Training
 Periodization, through  which various
 aspects of the training program are
 varied, is important to prevent
 overtraining or burnout.
            the goal is to gradually decrease
   Typically
    volume while increasing intensity.
                   four phases, each
 A typical cycle has
 emphasizing a different muscle fitness
 component, plus an active recovery
          Resistance Training
 Strength gains are highly specific to
 speed of training and the movement
 patterns used in training.
   Resistance Training
 For maximum benefit, a    resistance
 training program must include
 activities quite similar to those
 experienced by the athlete in actual
        Age-related Resistance
 Resistance training can benefit almost
 everyone, regardless of a person’s
 gender, age, or athletic involvement.
        Age-related Resistance
 Most individuals can   benefit from
 resistance training if an appropriate
 program is designed for them.
   Age-related Resistance
       ensure that the program is
 But to
 working, performance should be
 assessed periodically and adjustments
 made to the training regime as needed
      Considerations for Special
 1. Young.
 2. Older.
 3. Cardiac patients.

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