AP European History - Unit 7 Test
Multiple Choice. Mark the one best answer for each of the following questions. (1 point each)
1. The Triple Alliance included which of the following countries?
a. England, Germany, Italy
b. Russia, England, France
c. Italy, Turkey, England
d. Germany, Italy, Austria
ANS: D REF: page(s) 700
2. The Triple Entente included which of the following countries?
a. Great Britain, France, Russia
b. Austria, Germany, Italy
c. Turkey, Russia, Germany
d. France, Spain, Great Britain
ANS: A REF: page(s) 702
3. Bismarck's "reinsurance" treaty with Russia demonstrated considerable diplomatic finesse because
a. previously Germany and Russia had been enemies.
b. the Russian Tsar hated Bismarck
c. Russia and Austria were enemies, and Germany was also allied with Austria
d. Bismarck had sided with the Polish people when they revolted against Russian rule in 1863
4. The First Moroccan Crisis had the result of
a. making Morocco a German colony in Africa.
b. uniting France and Britain in a new alliance.
c. degrading relations between France and Russia.
d. discrediting the imperialist policies of northern European nations.
ANS: B REF: page(s) 701-702
5. The primary antagonists in the Balkans region were
a. Serbs, Austrians.
b. Russians, French.
c. English, Germans.
d. Serbs, Croats.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 702
6. Which of the following trends helped lead to the outbreak of the Great War?
a. conservative leaders hoped to crush internal democratic movements through war
b. European generals adopted new military policies
c. European states felt they had to uphold the power of their allies for their own internal security
d. the downward spiral of European economies
ANS: C REF: page(s) 708
7. The First World War not only killed millions of human beings, it also destroyed one of the basic intellectual precepts upon
which recent Western Civilization had been founded:
a. the concept of a benevolent God
b. the belief in progress
c. the conviction of the enlightened spirit of man
d. the belief in justice for all
ANS: B REF: page(s) 708
8. The Austrian annexation of Bosnia in 1908 threatened the nationalist aspirations of which of the following countries?
9. The dismissal of Bismarck by Kaiser William II paved the way for an alliance between which of the following countries during
World War I?
a. France and Russia
b. Germany and Italy
c. Germany and Austria-Hungary
d. Great Britain and Belgium
e. Serbia and Russia
10. Before the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the general outlook for the future by most Europeans was
a. highly optimistic with material progress expected to create an "earthly paradise."
b. one of extreme indifference and reckless abandon.
c. extremely negative, with most people believing that Armageddon was near.
d. largely determined by state agencies.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 708
11. The Schlieffen plan indicated that the German General Staff
a. did not expect to go to war with Russia
b. expected a long, drawn-out war
c. anticipated a war on two fronts
d. did not expect Austria-Hungary to honor the Triple Alliance
e. were relying heavily on Italy and the Ottoman Empire
12. Between 1890 and 1914, in part through conscription, European military forces had
a. increased ten times.
b. quadrupled in size.
c. tripled in size.
d. doubled in size.
ANS: D REF: page(s) 709
13. The outbreak of the Great War was greatly accelerated by the Schlieffen Plan, which was
a. Germany's promise of full-fledged support for Austrian military actions against Serbia.
b. the Black Hand's plan for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria.
c. Germany's military plan to invade France rapidly through neutral Belgium before attacking Russia.
d. Russia's mobilization plan against both Germany and Austria-Hungary.
ANS: C REF: page(s) 712
14. The rivalry between which states for domination of southeastern Europe helped create serious tensions before World War I?
a. Germany and Italy
b. Russia and Italy
c. Austria-Hungary and Russia
d. Britain and France
AP European History 2
Unit 7 Test
ANS: C REF: page(s) 709
15. On the eve of the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914, William II of Germany
a. was plotting the overthrow of Nicholas II in Russia.
b. was intentionally provoking the Russians to attack Austria and set off a world war.
c. attempted to engage Nicholas II in a diplomatic dialogue to avoid war if at all possible.
d. sent ultimatums to England and France that were so clumsy and insulting as to make war inevitable.
ANS: C REF: page(s) 711
16. Austrian ultimatums to Serbia, hastening the outbreak of World War I, came, in part, because
a. the Austrians had received a "blank check" of German support and military backing in their dispute
with the Slavs.
b. England had refused to guarantee Serbian territorial integrity.
c. the French did nothing to suggest that they might cancel their alliance with the Habsburgs.
d. the Italians renewed their military alliance with Austria.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 710
17. In August 1914, the perception of the upcoming war among Europeans was that
a. it would be the dawn of a new socialist Europe.
b. the war would be very short, possibly only weeks in duration.
c. it would mark the end of European civilization.
d. its long-term nature would revive Europe's suffering economy.
ANS: B REF: page(s) 712
18. As early as July 28, 1914, European diplomats were becoming incapable of slowing a rush toward war mainly because
a. European kings, tsars, and emperors were too bent on war to heed their advice.
b. the complex, rigid, and demanding mobilization plans devised by European army generals made
immediate military action essential.
c. ordinary people everywhere went to the polls and voted for immediate opening of the war on all
d. European industrialists, seeking to profit from mass destruction, induced the politicians they owned
through bribery to push declarations of war through all European
ANS: B REF: page(s) 710, 712
19. Most Europeans believed that the Great War would
a. be much like the American Civil War in length.
b. be an exciting, emotional release from the otherwise dull and boring existence of mass society.
c. last for years creating a rousing state of perpetual heroics as proclaimed by Nietzsche in his
writings on the "superman."
d. ultimately bring about the unification of Europe in one centralized and highly militarized
ANS: B REF: page(s) 713
20. The most important consequence of the first year of World War I was
a. a deadly stalemate on the western front as a result of the failure of German war plans at the First
Battle of the Marne.
b. Italy's decision to switch sides to the German-Austrian alliance.
c. the collapse of German armies on the Russian front.
AP European History 3
Unit 7 Test
d. Serbia's rapid advance into Austria-Hungary.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 713
21. The First World War in the east was characterized by
a. more mobility than the trench warfare on the Western Front.
b. relatively little loss of life and small skirmishes.
c. trench warfare as in France.
d. the overwhelming superiority of Russian forces.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 713
22. World War I was more destructive that earlier wars because
a. the armies were more ruthless
b. the technology of war made the defense more deadly than the offense
c. modern airplanes were more deadly
d. airplane could drop huge bombs
e. the armies were quick to surrender
23. The usual tactic of trench warfare was to
a. surround the enemy and starve him into submission.
b. use heavy artillery bombardments and then launch direct frontal infantry assaults on
well-defended enemy positions.
c. attempt to outflank the enemy through rapid and mobile deployment of troops and cavalry.
d. meet the opposing force on the "field of honor" between the trenches for hand-to-hand
ANS: B REF: page(s) 715
24. As fought in the World War I, trench warfare
a. became a senseless slaughter of troops on all sides with hundreds of thousands of men dying for
battlefield gains of a few miles at best.
b. increased the morale of soldiers who fought well and came to obey promptly the orders of their
c. became increasingly unreal as baffled and incompetent officers persistently ordered their men to
accomplish battlefield objectives that were impossible.
d. brought great innovations to military tactics as the long conflict forced generals to devise novel
e. a and c
ANS: E REF: page(s) 714-715
25. The entry of the United States into World War I in April 1917
a. gave the nearly-defeated allies a psychological boost.
b. was greatly feared by the German naval staff.
c. was a response to Turkey's entrance into the war on the side of the Central Powers.
d. put an end to Germany's use of unlimited submarine warfare.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 717
26. Economically, World War I
a. saw European governments adopt a "hands off" policy toward their economies.
b. saw European governments all take control of only war-related industries.
c. witnessed European governments gradually take full control of all aspects of their economies.
d. did little to affect the domestic industries of European nations.
AP European History 4
Unit 7 Test
ANS: C REF: page(s) 719
27. In World War I, the Turkish Ottoman Empire fought on the side of
a. Austria and Germany.
d. France and Britain.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 716
28. The fact that European states fighting in World War I had to effectively organize masses of men and material for years of deadly
combat led to
a. increased centralization and expansion of government powers.
b. economic regimentation of entire countries.
c. unscrupulous manipulation of public opinion through mass propaganda and government control of
d. all the above
ANS: D REF: page(s) 717-722
29. As public morale and support for the war ebbed
a. workers' strikes became less frequent as they were brutally repressed.
b. the liberal French government under Clemenceau found it impossible to end internal dissent.
c. propaganda posters and weapons became less important.
d. police powers were widely expanded to include the arrest of all dissenters as traitors to the state.
ANS: D REF: page(s) 722
30. Internal opposition to the war in European nations came largely from
a. factory owners and businessmen ruined by wartime inflation.
b. liberals and socialists appalled by the scale of human slaughter and the terrible costs of rampant
nationalism and militarism.
c. government ministers terrified of losing complete control over armies and the civilian populations
being fed into military formations.
d. ethnic minorities and women convinced that they only stood to lose newly won rights as the war
progressed and encouraged repressive government policies.
ANS: B REF: page(s) 721-722
31. The women workers of World War I played an important role in
a. winning women the right to vote immediately following the war.
b. gaining equal industrial wages with men by the end of the war.
c. achieving permanent job security in the once male-dominated workplace.
d. all work areas except the textile industry.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 724
32. Death rates at the front in World War One were high for all soldiers engaged regardless of their prior social status, but mortality
was especially great among
a. junior officers drawn largely from the nobility.
b. non-commissioned officers of the urban middle class.
c. unskilled laborers and peasants comprising the mass of infantry troops.
d. skilled laborers serving disproportionately in the air forces.
AP European History 5
Unit 7 Test
e. a and c
ANS: E REF: page(s) 724
One socioeconomic group that clearly benefitted from World War I was
a. civil servants who received more powers and job security.
b. large industrialists, especially owners of factories making weapons and munitions.
c. young adults who received better, more technical training.
d. petty criminals who won release in wartime to work in factories.
ANS: B REF: page(s) 725
33. The collapse of Russia's tsarist regime in March 1917 was aided by all of the following except
a. the leadership of the Mensheviks in forming the new Provisional Government.
b. a general strike in Petrograd.
c. the wartime casualties due to incompetent leadership and poor equipment.
d. strife in the ruling dynasty as evidenced by the influence of Rasputin, "the mad monk."
ANS: A REF: page(s) 726
34. The chief motivation of Georges Clemenceau's terms of armistice was to
a. punish Germany and gain security for France.
b. help Germany become a democracy.
c. maintain a demilitarized Europe.
d. limit Britain's influence on the continent.
ANS: A REF: page(s) 733
35. The Treaty of Versailles
a. absolved the Central Powers of full guilt in causing the war.
b. created Wilson's United Nations.
c. forced Germany to acknowledge "war guilt" and to pay massive reparations for its alleged wartime
d. created a system by which the old Turkish Empire could be safely dismantled.
ANS: C REF: page(s) 734-735
36. The feature of the Versailles Treaty that most Germans found very hard to accept was
a. the loss of land that reduced the nation by half.
b. the reductions imposed in the size of the German military.
c. Article 231, the "War Guilt Clause" which imposed heavy war reparations on Germany.
d. the loss of all political sovereignty for a period of twenty years.
ANS: C REF: page(s) 734
37. As a result of World War I, eastern Europe
a. experienced little or no real change.
b. fell subject to the new Russian communist state.
c. witnessed the emergence of many new nation-states.
d. quickly overtook western Europe economically.
ANS: C REF: page(s) 735
AP European History 6
Unit 7 Test
38. How might the Treaty of Versailles have contributed to World War II?
a. It was too hard economically on Germany
b. The principle of self determination was not applied to Germany and the consequent territorial
arrangements were harsh
c. It provided Germany with legitimate grievances
d. All of the above
AP European History 7
Unit 7 Test
Short answer: Please answer the following in a short paragraph (2 to 4 sentences approx.). (5 points each)
1. William R. Keylor’s “A Re-evaluation of the Versailles Peace” describes two accounts of the Treaty written
shortly after it was drafted. Describe the common theme of both John Maynard Keynes’ The Economic
Consequences of the Peace and Ray Stannard Baker’s Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement. On what
topic did the two differ?
2. Describe the manner in which events in the Ottoman Empire prompted specific events in Bosnia
Herzegovina in 1908 and 1914.
Essay. Please answer one of the following in a complete and factually detailed essay. (50 points)
A. Discuss the causes of World War I: What were the major long-term causes of the war? How important were the
decisions made by European statesmen during the summer of 1914 in causing the war?
B. Discuss the course of the first two years of World War I: Why did many people expect a short war? Why was it not
a short war? Why did World War I become a "war of attrition"? Why did the warring nations, worn out by the end
of 1916, not make peace?
C. What were the chief aims of the Paris Peace Conference? To what extent were these aims incorporated into the
actual peace treaties?
D. How did wartime governments maintain public order and mobilize public opinion during the course of the war?
Compare these actions with those taken by governments in previous wars.
AP European History 8
Unit 7 Test