Document Sample
					    B. Herskowitz, et al. Scientifical Researches. Agroalimentary Processes and
                 Technologies, Volume XI, No. 2 (2005), 503-508

                        B. Herskowitz1, Rodica Segal2
          Soglowek Food Industries, Nahariya, Israel, Tel.+972-4-9878727,
                          E-mail :
          University "Dunarea de Jos", Galati, Romania, Tel.+40-236414871,

    A detailed analyze was performed for 2 commercial lupine protein
derivates from 2 lupins producers: Kerry and Soya Austria and 3 commercial
soy proteins from 2 soys producers: Solae, and Solbar trying to find solutions
and applications of new protein derivates as alternative protein sources in
meat analogs to make a novel based vegetarian sausage free of lactose,
chemical colors, GMO, nitrates and cholesterol. In this article we found the
best mode for using a new lupine protein source (PROLU 100) as a
functional ingredient, which can replace the soy protein source (SOLCON S

Keywords: lupin protein, lupin producers, soy protein, meat analogs,
    Lupins are a grain legume from the Lupinus genus, a group within
the leguminous bean and the pea family Fabaceae. The seed of the
lupin plant is a rich source of protein (Segal, 2002) used by people for
their own consumption and their animals for centuries (Petterson,
2000). Until 1960 most lupin varieties contained high levels of
alkaloids (a bitter compound which at high levels can be toxic)
(Momber, 2003., Wink, 2002, Wink et al. 1995) and it has been
necessary for the seed to be debittered prior to consumption. Selective
breeding of lupins all over the world and especially in Australia since
the 1960's has resulted in sweet (extremely low alkaloid) (Food
Standards Code, 1987) lupin varieties significantly increasing the
potential use of lupins for human purposes.
    The lupin seed protein fraction is of great interest as it is rich in
some aminoacids as arginine and presents a good balance of essential
aminoacids (Wardroup et al. 1989).

  Applications of New Lupine Protein Derivates as Alternative Protein Sources in
                                 Meat Analogs

    Lupine has an advantage in its natural yellow color due to high
levels of beta-carotene and total carotene, and its sweet flavor. These
compounds lend to Lupine proteins their relative oxidative stability as
well as healthy image. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) and isolated
(ISP) are well known as functional and nutritional ingredients in the
food industries (Stancu et al. 1975). Beside a high level of protein,
both SPC and ISP contain other nutritional compounds such as soy-
isoflavones, soy-saponins etc. that related to prevention and treatment
of chronically disease (Messina et al.1994).
    Based on these advantages, we have studied the use of lupin and
soy proteins as functional and nutritional ingredients in novel
vegetarian products.
    A pre-selection stage for commercial protein products was performed by
determining the chemical (moisture, protein, protein solubility, ash, fat) and
functional (gel strength, emulsion strength, powder color) properties of two
Lupine Protein products (PROLU 100, Kerry Ingredients; LUPISAN, Soya
Austria), two Functional Soy Protein Concentrates (SOLCON S100), Solbar
Hatzor Ltd.; DANPRO 760S, Solae) and one Isolated Soy Protein (ISP)
(SUPRO 620, Solea). PROLU 100, and SOLCON S 100 were then selected
and used individually in 3 recipes for novel based vegetarian sausage
formulas. Weight loss, chemical analysis, texture, sensory analysis was then
analyzed in order to study the contribution of each protein product on the
final sausage.
    Chemical analysis:
    Moisture: moisture analysis preformed by using an HR73, Halogen
Moisture Analyzer based on the AOCS method No. Bc2-49.
    Protein: Protein content was detected using a KJELTEC 2030 instrument
based on AOCS method No. Ba4b-87.
    Protein Solubility (NSI): The protein solubility of the powders was
analyzed by determine the Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI) based on AOCS
method No. Ba11-65.
    Ash: The ash content was determined by drying the powders at 600ºC,
cooling and calculating the ash as the residual mass, based on AOCS method
No. Bc5-49.
    Fat: The fat percentages were measured by petrol-ether extraction using
a 2050 Soxtec Avanti Automatic System based on AOCS method No. Bc3-49.

    B. Herskowitz, et al. Scientifical Researches. Agroalimentary Processes and
                 Technologies, Volume XI, No. 2 (2005), 503-508

    Functional analysis:
    Gel Strength: A 20% protein solution was prepared using a Braun
CombiMax 650 mixer. The final slurry was stuffed in two 50 ml plastic
centrifugal tubes by spinning at 3000 . g for 5 min in a laboratory centrifuge
type ALC PK121. After 30 min. chilling at 4ºC the tubes were cooked for 30
min. at 80ºC and chilled over-night at 4ºC. Thereafter a 30mm slice was cut
and analyzed in a Texture-Analyzer (SMS) connected to a “0.5 inch diameter
Derlin” cylinder probe.
    Emulsion Strength: A water:oil:protein emulsion in a ratio of 5:4:1
(respectively) was made and used in the same manner as the Gel Strength
    Powder Color: The powders color (L, a, b) was measured using a
Minolta instrument direct on the powder and reading the values
corresponding to each sample.
    Vegetarian sausage manufacture: A basic formula containing 10-
20% protein, 70% ice water, 2-5% natural stabilizers and spices, and 7-10 %
oil was made in order to evaluate the differences of the protein sources. The
ingredients were mixed in a laboratory Stefan mixer type for about 3 min. at
3000 rpm. The total mass was stuffed into cellulose casings and cooked for
30 min at 80ºC. After cooking the sausages were chilled over-night at 4ºC
and then analyzed for chemical, sensorial and functional properties.
    Experiments: Based on the pre-selection stages we made 3 trails
(numbered 1, 2, 3), which were produced in three replications of a vegetarian
sausage using the basic formulations described. In the first group we used
PROLU 100 + EGG WHITE, in the second group we used only PROLU 100
and in the third group we used only SOLCON S100 (Table 1).
Table1. Lupine and soy proteins involved in the trails
  NR OF TRAILS                      1         2         3
  EGG WHITE                        X
  SOLCON S100                                           X
  PROLU 100                        X          X

    Final products sensorial evaluations: Texture evaluation,
juiciness, elasticity, taste, color and aroma were analyzed by point
methods from 1 to 6 by 10 persons:

  Applications of New Lupine Protein Derivates as Alternative Protein Sources in
                                 Meat Analogs

   1 – for high quality
   3 - 4 – for medium quality
   6 – for low quality.

                          Results and Discussions
     Chemical and functional analysis of the proteins: Analyzing the
table 2 we pointed 4 parameters for our selection: NSI, gel strength,
emulsion strength and fat. The first 3 parameters are lower for samples
5 and 8 compared to samples 1 and 2. The fat content of sample 5 has
the biggest amount compared to all other samples. For continuing our
trails we took only 2 proteins (1, 2) for the final products making
products as described.
     Functional and sensorial properties of the final products: As the
results present (fig.1) we can conclude that egg white binds better the
water in the product but in the same time it gives a less juicy product.
In the same time we can see that PROLU 100 – the lupine concentrate
keeps better the water than the soy concentrate SOLCON S100 in the
cooking and storage time.
Table 2. Chemical and functional analyses of the proteins
                      3      2                            1              8
 SAMPLE NR. Product PROLU SOLCON                   5
                                                       SUPRO          DANPRO
      name                                     LUPISAN
                     100    S100                        620            760S
Company                   KERRY SOLBAR                 SOLAE           SOLAE
Moisture (%)                7.5       8.41        7.63   6.0             6.02
Protein (d.s.) (%)        52.61      68.13       46.32   91             67.07
Ash (%)                    2.72       7.53        4.07   4.3             6.47
NSI (%)                   74.41      73.14        21.6   85             46.68
Fat (%)                    0.29       0.73        6.77   0.6             0.66
Powder Color:
L                         86.38      85.84       83.42       86.4       87.12
A                         -4.12      -0.67        -1.06      -0.5       -0.39
b                          32.9      14.38       35.78        15        15.66
Gel Strength (gr.)        109.5      234.2       No Gel      500        149.4
Emulsion Strength (gr.)     75        200           9        250        119.2
    Fig. 2 is a result of texture analyzer for a distance of 12 mm. with
registration in 70 points for each product.

   B. Herskowitz, et al. Scientifical Researches. Agroalimentary Processes and
                Technologies, Volume XI, No. 2 (2005), 503-508

    Although PROLU 100 + EGG WHITE gave the firmest texture
(fig.2) its uniformity, color, and flavor were poor compared with both
SOLCON S and PROLU 100. PROLU 100 has an advantage in its
natural yellow color [due to high levels of beta-carotene (0.5
mg/100gr.), and total carotene (3 mg/100gr.)], its anti-oxidative
capacity and its sweet flavor [which contributed to the final product
flavor based vegetarian sausage, and its medium firmness (1000 gr.)]
giving a tasty and juicy product.







                                                storage loss cups storage loss cups    storage loss    storage loss
                                 cooking loss                                                                         total loss
                                                       2w                4w           sausages 2w     sausages 4w
   PROLU 100 + EGG W HITE           0.60%            0.85%             0.85%             1.00%           1.35%         1.95%
   PROLU 100                        1.20%            0.97%             0.97%             1.85%           2.02%         3.21%
   SOLCON S100                      1.31%            1.13%             1.13%             1.88%           2.02%         3.33%

                          Fig. 1. Weight loss of vegetarian meat analogs

            Force (g)




                               Distance (mm) PROLU 100 +                     PROLU 100 SOLCON S100

                   Fig. 2. Textural analyses for vegetarian meat sausages

    The evaluations were made in 3 replications and the average results
were inscribed (p<0.05). The best results for the vegetarian meat
analogs products were obtained for the vegetarian frankfurters with
lupine concentrate PROLU 100: juiciness = 2.6; elasticity = 2.6; taste
= 2.5; aroma = 2.4 (figure 3).

  Applications of New Lupine Protein Derivates as Alternative Protein Sources in
                                 Meat Analogs

                  100+ALB                         Textura
                  PROLU 100                      6.00
                                 Elasticitatea   4.00       Aroma
                  SOLCON S100

                  PROBA 4          Suculenţa                Culoare

                  PROBA 5                          Gust

                  Fig. 3. Sensorial analyses of final products


We conclude by defining the best mode for using a new protein as an
alternative source in meat analogs and as a functional ingredient is
PROLU 100 a lupine protein concentrate. This protein has a functional
and marketing advantage upon chemical and synthetic ingredients
when it is used in "clean-labeled" (free of lactose, chemical colors,
GMO, nitrates, cholesterol, etc.) healthy products, due to its natural
high protein levels, texture, color, and flavor properties.
FOOD STANDARDS CODE, (1987). Australia New Zeeland Food Autority,
Canberra. URL:
Messina, M. Messina, V. and Setchell, K. (1994). The simple soybean and your
health, pp 50-100.
Momber, R. (2003). Renwick Momber Farmers Pty. Ltd. E-mail:
Petterson, D.S. (2000). The Use of Lupins in Feeding System. Asian–Aus. J. Anim.
Sci. Vol. 13, No. 6: 861-882.
Segal, R. (2002). Principiile nutriţiei. Editura Academica , Galaţi, pp. 50-66.
Stancu, M. şi Segal, B. (1975). Surse noi de proteine. Editura tehnică, Bucureşti,
pag.11- 55.
Wardroup, P.W. and Smith, K.J. (1989). Animal feed uses of legumes. In: , R.H.
Mattews (Editor), Legumes Chemistry, Technology and Human Nutrition. Marcel
Dekker, Inc., pp. 245-337.
Wink, M. (Hrsg.) (2002). Lupinen 2001- Ergebnisse aus forschung, Anbau und
Verwertung, pp.12-28.
Wink, M., Messner, C., Witte, L. (1995). Patterns of quinolizidine alkaloids in 56
species of the genus Lupinus. Phytochemistry 38, 139-153.


Shared By: