INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE LEARNER INTERLANGUAGE

Document Sample
INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE LEARNER INTERLANGUAGE Powered By Docstoc
					                                              Piano Poseidon 2008
                                         Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                 Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                          “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                       a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”




                                     "Penitenziagite!
        Watch out for the draco who cometh in futurum to gnaw on your anima!
                                   La mort e supremos!
                        You contemplata me apocalypsum, eh?
                             La bas! Nous avon il diabolo!
                               Ugly cum Salvatore, eh?
                           My little brother! Penitenziagite!"1




1 The text, drawn from Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose, is put forth as an eye-catching example of extended interlanguage
discourse. (Translation by William Weaver)

                                                             1
                                     Piano Poseidon 2008
                                Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                        Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                   “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                 a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                       INSET (in-service training) Plan Outline
                        The present teacher training sequence mainly targets in-service
  The target             second and foreign language teachers at all levels of educational,
    group                professional background, teaching context.
                        The sequence can also be broadened to target induction-year
                         teachers.

                    The target group are expected to:
                        have some degree of theoretical and/or hands-on knowledge of
 Prerequisites
                           interlanguage-related issues and terminology.
                        have dealt with interlanguage-related phenomena in their day-to-
                           day teaching practice.

                        To have participants gain an applied knowledge of IL issues
                        To enable participants to (re)adapt and/or design their own data-
   Training
                           gathering tools
  outcomes
                        To promote cooperation and collaboration among fellow teachers
                        To lead teachers to improve their overall teaching practice (i.e.
                           their individual teaching styles, methods, aptitude).
                    By the end of the training activities participant teachers should:
                        be able to single out IL phases, etc. more readily and more
                           effectively
     Skills
                        have gained greater confidence in dealing with IL-related
                           problems that hinder learning, as/when they arise

                    Sessions will be communicative, hands-on, experience-based, work-
                    shoppy, and include the following activities and procedures:
Methodology /
                        using teacher-provided examples
  Activities
                        hypothesis discussion
                        teacher-to-teacher cooperation
                        (semi)guided pair and group tasks and practice activities.
                       Authentic, semi-
                                                 ad hoc examples
                       authentic and
                                                 examples chosen from own / colleagues’
Materials, tools       inauthentic
                                                   learners’ performances.
   and aids            samples
                       Teaching/learning
                                                 the www; black(white)board
                       aids



                                             2
                                             Piano Poseidon 2008
                                        Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                         “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                      a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                         Introduction to the Training Sequence
This set of questionnaires, etc. set out below address interlanguage-related phenomena and
issues. The set targets second and foreign language teachers of English from primary to upper
secondary education, with a wide range of teaching-learning settings. Each stage/issue is
addressed by one or more questionnaires, each of which has two main objectives: firstly, to
further raise teacher awareness of the phenomenon and its implications on language learning
and teaching; secondly, to provide teachers with a framework (the questionnaire itself) which
may act as a guide for analysing the classroom context, or conducting small-scale exploratory

research, in order to understand the dynamics of one’s own teaching context. Ideally, they
should trigger within school teacher-to-teacher or L1/L2 teacher cooperation.

Needless to say, the questionnaires (and other data colleting instruments) are by no means
exhaustive, but are deemed a possible starting point. Each can therefore be self-administered,
be specially adapted to meet the needs of small group in-service training activities, or adapted
for use in other settings.

Individuals stages or sections of the set may act as prerequisite for the issue area which
follows; or they can be used as needed, independently of one another.

The notes which follow the questionnaires, tasks, etc. are meant to provide the teacher
additional ideas, information, about how to proceed, what to expect, etc.


According to Pitt Corder, the learner begins not with his own L1, but with a highly simplified
version of it, which is, as it were, a memory of one of the early stages of L1 learning. This
'stripped down' or basic system gives the learner his first hypotheses - some linguists claim
that it may be universal - that is, that these are the rules that are at the basis of all languages.
The learner then builds up from the stripped down form to greater complexity.2




2         Mason,          Timothy.      “Interlanguage       &         Fossilization”        -   Lecture   8.
http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLectures/L8_Interlanguage.htm

                                                           3
                                    Piano Poseidon 2008
                               Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                       Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                  “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
               a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

The bulk of the materials comprises 10 sections on the following interlanguage-related
phenomena / issues:

      Introduction to learner interlanguage …………………………………………………. p.
      Lead-in: becoming (better) acquainted with key words ……………………………. p.
      Section 1: “Stages & patterns of IL development” ………………………………. p.
      Section 2: “L1 Transfer” ………………………………………………………………. p.
      Section 3: “Reverse language Transfer: L2 > L1 transfer” ………………………. p.
      Section 4: “Interlanguage variation” …………………………………………………. p.
      Section 5: “Interlanguage Fossilisation” ……………………………………………. p.
      Section 6: “Phonological fossilization” …………………………………………….. p.
      Section 7: “Grammar fossilisation” ………………………………………………….. p.
      Section 8: “Lexical fossilisation” ……………………………………………………. p.
      Section 9: “Over-generalisation (of L2 rules)” .……………………………………. p.
      Section 10: “Avoidance (of the TL)” …………………………………………………… p.
      Main Sources & References ……………………………………………………………. p.




                                            4
                                    Piano Poseidon 2008
                               Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                       Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                  “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                    Lead-in activity
Activity 1. Following is a list of interlanguage related words. Read the list and think
carefully about each item. Then draw up brief definitions or descriptions.

Avoidance (of L2 items) ……………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Fossilization …………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Interlanguage ………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Language transfer ……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Negative transfer ……………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Positive transfer ………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Reverse language transfer ……………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Variation …………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Activity 2. Share/discuss your descriptions with your colleague(s). Work towards
negotiated, commonly-shared definitions, before reporting back to the trainer or group.

Avoidance (of L2 items) ……………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Fossilization …………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Interlanguage ………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Language transfer ……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Negative transfer ……………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Positive transfer ………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Reverse language transfer ……………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Variation …………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
                                            5
                                                Piano Poseidon 2008
                                           Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                   Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                           “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                        a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3. Match the words and definitionsi. Then compare with (a) colleague(s). During
the plenary session they will be brought into greater focus.

    1. Avoidance (of L2 items)                 _____                2. Fossilization                 _____
    3. Interlanguage                           _____                4. Language transfer             _____
    5.Negative transfer                        _____                6. Positive transfer             _____
    7. Reverse language transfer               _____                8. Variation                     _____

    a. Concerns the way or ways a learner's interlanguage varies between tasks, contexts,
       etc.
    b. … is a developing language system produced by second- and foreign- language
       learners at any level, in their ongoing effort to become fully proficient.
    c. When an error becomes a habit of speech in a second language learner. It is
       maintained above all when the error does not interfere with communication, and hence,
       the speaker may not get corrective feedback.
    d. When the relevant unit or structure of both languages is the same, linguistic
       interference can result in correct language production….3
    e. … refers to the learner's trying to apply rules and forms of the first language into the
       second language. The term can also include the transfer of features from one additional
       language to another (such as from a second to a third language), although this is less
       common. 4
    f. .. occurs when the learner’s target language or languages affects his/her L1, bringing
       about pattern alteration or replacement. It may be defined as L1 alteration caused by L2
       acquisition.
    g. … is said to take place when specific target-language features are under-represented in
       the learner’s production in comparison to native-speaker production. Learners are likely
       to avoid structures they find difficult as a result of differences between their native
       language and the target language.5
    h. …. occurs when learners transfer language items, patterns, etc. which are not the same
       in the native language and the target language. This can inhibit and / or disrupt
       performance and learning.

Note corner ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


3 Language transfer; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_transfer#Positive_and_negative_transfer
4 Language transfer; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_language_acquisition
5 Ellis, Rod. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Glossary, p. 694


                                                                6
                                              Piano Poseidon 2008
                                         Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                 Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                          “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                      a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                     Section 1 : Stages of Interlanguage Development
Learner interlanguage “… is a dynamic evolving system…” 6, sets of distinct stages has been
identified. However, it has to be borne in mind that any given stage of the learner’s
interlanguage development overlaps with the one that precedes it, as well as with the one that
follows it. The four-stage set shown below has been chosen for our present purposes.
Activity 1. Read the descriptions to the IL stages of development. Think about each one
individually. Then share your ideas/views with a colleague / your group. You can make
any necessary notes in the spaces provided below the definitions.
Stage 1: random errors
At this initial stage, the learner is only vaguely aware there might be a system, but has got little
idea. Learning is characterized by interlanguage transfer (L1-L2). The learner’s overall L2
repertoire is very restricted.
Stage 2: emergent stage
The learner has begun to identify a system, and to internalize its rules. These rules may not be
correct (i.e. not the same as the L2 rules) but they are the best the s/he has at this stage. At
this stage a great deal of backsliding may be expected: s/he appears to have mastered the
rule, then forget it. (e.g. present continuous instead of present simple). In addition, more often
than not, s/he is not able to self-correct. Learning is still teacher-led.
Stage 3: systematic stage
The learner has gained greater awareness of the overall L2 system, therefore making fewer
errors. Although mistakes occur, learner is more confident and therefore able to repair, redress
and self-correct. The learner starts to put in place his/her own learning, and to expand his/her
L2 repertoire.
Stage 4: stabilization stage
The learner’s interlanguage is characterized by very few errors, mostly mistakes. Although
his/her L2 repertoire continues to advance, another potential problem looms on the horizon –
interlanguage fossilization.
Note corner ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


6Capraro, Fernanda Patrica. A Journal Study of the Spoken English Learning Experience of Prospective International Teaching
Assistants. The Ohio State University, 2002, P. 258; http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi?osu1016061356

                                                            7
                                                 Piano Poseidon 2008
                                            Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                    Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                            “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                        a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Single out ten learners, no more than two/three per class and / or age group.
Fill out the table below. Then answer the questions below.
Compare and share your information with a colleague, then with the rest of your group.

                                            Stages of IL development
     Learner             Class (e.g. 1st year               Age           Stage of IL                  Additional info
                           lower secondary                               development
                               school)
    Learner 1                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..…………….……

    Learner 2                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..………….………

    Learner 3                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..……….…………

    Learner 4                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..…….……………

    Learner 5                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..…….……………

    Learner 6                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..……….…………

    Learner 7                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..…….……………

    Learner 8                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..……….…………

    Learner 9                                                              1 2 3 4              …………..…….……………

    Learner 10                                                             1 2 3 4              …………..….………………


How does your information compare with your colleagues’? To what extent do they
differ?7 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


7Of course, stages are likely to differ less from levels elementary to lower intermediate proficiency levels (A1 – early B1 of C.E.F.)
and with younger learners.

                                                                  8
                                                Piano Poseidon 2008
                                           Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                   Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                           “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                       a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                  Section 2 : Language Transfer8
Activity 1. Read the following information, picking out the three single most important
aspects, in your view. Make notes in the spaces below, before you share your views
with your group / trainer.
Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and cross-meaning)
refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from their native language to a second
language.9 The phenomenon “… is most likely to occur when the learner incorrectly believes
there are common features, improperly links the information while encoding it, or incorrectly
sees some value in using information from one setting in another.”10
Negative transfer is the counterpart of positive transfer, in which learners improve their
repertoire and skills through the use of the similarities between NL - TL(s). Common to all
kinds of negative transfer is that the learner, on encountering similarities between L1 - L2
structures (phonological, grammatical, lexical, orthographic) assumes that, instead of being
partially identical, they are completely identical.
“Berthold et al (1997) define phonological interference as items including foreign accent
such as stress, rhyme, intonation and speech sounds from the first language influencing the
second. Grammatical interference is defined as the first language influencing the second in
terms of word order, use of pronouns and determinants, tense and mood. Interference at a
lexical level provides for the borrowing of words from one language and converting them to
sound more natural in another and orthographic interference includes the spelling of one
language altering another.
Zero transfer (when no effect takes place between tasks) and intra-language transfer (the
transfer across modalities within the same language) will not be dealt with.
1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

8 Zero transfer (when no effect takes place between tasks) and intra-language transfer (the transfer across modalities within the
same language) will not be dealt with.
9 Wikipedia: the free encyclopaedia. “Language Transfer”; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_transfer
10 http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_transfer.htm


                                                               9
                                     Piano Poseidon 2008
                                Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                        Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                   “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Read the listed items and think about your average learners. Write one or
more examples of negative language transfer for each item in the table. Compare your
examples with your colleague’s, before negotiating answers to the questions below.

                             Language Transfer Table
 Type / area            Subtype                         Example(s)         Learner
                                                                          age / class
             Stress
             Intonation
             Vowel quantity
Phonological Confusion (similar sounds,
             etc.)
             Other ……………………
             Word form
             Word order
             Verb (form, tense, mood)
Grammatical Agreement
             Usage              (article,
             preposition, etc.)
             Other ……………………
             Pre-developmental stage
             Assimilatory stage
  Lexical    Approximate stage
             Other ……………………


Do both sets of examples match? Explain why (not).
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Which type(s) or subtype(s) of negative transfer appears to be more commonplace or
widespread? Explain why.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

                                             10
                                              Piano Poseidon 2008
                                         Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                 Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                          “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                      a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3. Complete the questionnaire individually, before reporting back to your group.
Can you add at least one additional item?

                                Language Transfer Questionnaire
One effective way to minimise negative transfer is through the promotion of positive
transfer.11 How effective do you think the following activities and/or strategies can
prove in drawing learner attention to interference, and hopefully minimising it? Tick
from 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely). Try to add at least one more to the list.
             0              1            2                    3                   4
        Not at all      Slightly Moderately             Considerably          Extremely

   1. Teach subject matter in meaningful rather than rote contexts.            0 1 2 3 4
   2. Teach target items/etc. in contexts as similar as possible to those in which they will be
       employed, in order to favour the storage of skills to be retrieved, as/when needed.
                                                                               0 1 2 3 4
   3. Provide practice settings which might match authentic situations the learner is likely to
       encounter.                                                              0 1 2 3 4
   4. Design and propose practice opportunities spread out over longer periods of time, in
       order to facilitate the transfer of the items(s) into long term memory. 0 1 2 3 4
   5. Promote positive attitudes toward the subject matter, so that students will feel inclined
       to deal with - rather than avoid - topics when they are encountered elsewhere.
                                                                               0 1 2 3 4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                          0 1 2 3 4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                          0 1 2 3 4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                          0 1 2 3 4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                          0 1 2 3 4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                          0 1 2 3 4


Note corner ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




11          Adapted         from       Purdue       University        Calumet.          School       of        Education.
http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:Y141ubOhB8cJ:education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_transfer.ht
m+%22positive+transfer+is%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1

                                                           11
                                       Piano Poseidon 2008
                                  Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                          Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                    “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                 a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                   Section 3 : Reverse Language Transfer
Activity 1. Read the text. Then single out two or three of the most relevant aspects, and
make notes about them in the spaces below. Exchange your views with your partner,
then with your group.

Reverse language transfer generally occurs when the learner’s target language affects his/her
L1, causing pattern alterations. Pattern changes can cause fluctuations in language choice,
the use of L2 patterns such as syntactic constructions, phonology and pronunciation,
punctuation, and so on. Reverse language transfer can also occur between L2 and L3,
causing similar or related modifications.

While research on L1 transfer in second and/or foreign language acquisition is rather well-
established, the effects of L2 patterns onto L1 speech is much less investigated.

It is not yet clear whether the carryovers can be potentially detrimental to the language, or
have a beneficial effect, causing the learner’s overall proficiency and linguistic competence to
improve and progress.

In some cases, reverse language transfer might well contribute to or trigger L1 language
attrition.

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




                                               12
                                     Piano Poseidon 2008
                                Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                        Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                  “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Write one or more examples of reverse language transfer for each item.
Compare your examples with your colleague’s, before negotiating answers to the
questions below.

                        Reverse Language Transfer Table
     Area                 Subtype                               Example(s)
                 Stress
                 Intonation
                 Vowel quantity
 Phonological    Confusion (similar sounds,
                 etc.)
                 Other ……………………
                 Word form
                 Word order
 Grammatical     Verb (form, tense, mood)
                 Agreement
                 Usage              (article,
                 preposition, etc.)
                 Other ……………………
   Lexical       Pre-developmental stage
                 Assimilatory stage
 Orthographic

Which type(s) or subtype(s) of reverse transfer appears to be more commonplace or
widespread? Explain why.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

To what extent do both sets of examples differ? Explain.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...



                                                13
                                    Piano Poseidon 2008
                               Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                       Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                  “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3a. Get into pairs and draw up ways / strategies which help language teachers
(L1 / L2) counter reverse language transfer. Make notes in the spaces below. You may
find the information contained in the Language Transfer Questionnaire useful.

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Activity 3b. Get into pairs small groups (possibly teachers with a variety of teaching /
professional backgrounds). Pool your information, and make a single list of activities.

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




                                            14
                                                Piano Poseidon 2008
                                           Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                   Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                            “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                        a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                  Section 4 : Interlanguage Variation
Activity 1. Choose two or three of the most relevant aspects from the text below. Write
briefly about each one. Then share your views with your group.
Interlanguage variation focuses on how the learner’s interlanguage varies over time, between
(communication / learning) contexts, between tasks, etc.
“IL variation research has examined linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic constraints,
and has revealed much about this phenomenon. An additional potentially-useful perspective
that has, to this point, been virtually unused in IL variation research and theory, is the cognitive
psychology construct transfer of learning.”12
“Much work by second language acquisition researchers has focused on how interlanguage
varies across different learners or within the speech of one learner across different tasks.
Previous studies of variation in English as a second language, however, have led to conflicting
and contradictory claims concerning the causes of variation.”13
Interlanguage variation has been distinguished between vertical and horizontal: the former
involves change in an L2 learner's language over time, and usually indicates positive growth in
the learner's competence; the latter, also termed synchronic variation, is the variability in an
interlanguage at one point in time.
Multiple factors are at play in interlanguage variation, including the task that learners are
performing, the linguistic context, the learner’s level of proficiency and/or acquisition in the TL,
1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...



12      James,       Mark     Andrew.      Interlanguage       Variation      and      Transfer  of     Learning        (abstract);
http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ78
0165&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ780165
13 Young, Richard. “Variation in Interlanguage Morphology: (s) Plural-marking in the speech of Chinese learners of English” –

abstract;       The     Linguist    List;     http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:jmfejf9gyLsJ:www.linguistlist.org/issues/19/19-
1874.html+types+of+interlanguage+variation&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=13

                                                               15
                                    Piano Poseidon 2008
                               Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                       Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                  “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Fill out the grid individually, at set deadlines. Compare your examples with
your colleague’s. Share your data (and findings) with the rest of the group, during the
plenary session.

                          Interlanguage Variation Table
    Record one or more examples of your learner’s interlanguage variation for each
  language area. You should record the progress of interlanguage variation of several
                                      learners.

Language Area        Lexicon         pronunciation          grammar       discourse


 Month /…. 1




 Month / …. 2




 Month / …. 3




 Month / …. 4



Note corner ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




                                            16
                                                  Piano Poseidon 2008
                                             Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                     Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                             “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                         a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                Section 5 : Interlanguage Fossilization
Activity 1. Read the introductory text on IL fossilization. Make your own notes below.
Then share your views and ideas with your colleague or the rest of your group.

Interlanguage fossilization is “…a process (in second and foreign language learning) which
sometimes occurs in which incorrect linguistic features become a permanent part of the way a
person speaks or writes a language. Aspects of pronunciation, vocabulary usage, and
grammar may become fixed, or fossilized in second or foreign language learning.”14

Causal factors leading to the onset of fossilization include intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Intrinsic factors include the cognitive and affective domains, motivation, self-esteem and self-
confidence; extrinsic factors include environmental factors (i.e. learning milieu, teacher
approach, materials and tasks, input, curriculum, peers, etc.) In addition, L2 learning context /
communication demands could force learners to resort to “… strategies like approximation,
word coinage, circumlocution, translation, language switch, appeals for assistance, and mime,
or else abandon their message altogether or choose to avoid the topic.”15, which may in turn,
lead to further entrenchment.16

It should be stressed that interlanguage fossilization may be global or local, therefore the
learner(s) may make progress in some areas, whilst becoming entrenched in others, and that it
can set in at any time and at any level of learning.

In recent years, the phenomenon of interlanguage (and error) fossilization has been steadily
gaining overdue attention among language researchers and practitioners alike.




14 Han, Zhaohong. “Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition.” Multilingual Matters Limited.
“[F]ossilizable linguistic phenomena are linguistic items, rules, and sub-systems which speakers of a particular L1 tend to keep in
their IL relative to a particular TL, … no matter what the age of the learner or amount of explanation and instruction he receives in the
TL.... (Selinker)
15    Kambon, Obadele. “Theory of Intrinsic Motivation and ‘Fossilization’ of Error in Language Learning.
http://www.assatashakur.org/forum/open-forum/11599-theory-intrinsic-motivation-fossilization-error-language-learning.html
16 Other possible causes of fossilization are:

       “Strong identity in L1;
       Lack of motivation or need for native-like TL ability;
       The learner is beyond the critical/sensitive periods for phonological and language acquisition;
       Lack of access to a speech community to provide comprehensible linguistic input or sociolinguistic norms.”
From                Chris             Allan          Thomas’              Wiki;            http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:05Ou-
HL0HcoJ:chrisallenthomas.wetpaint.com/page/Fossilization+%22morphology+fossilization+is+%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1


                                                                  17
                            Piano Poseidon 2008
                       Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
               Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
          “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
        a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Individual Notes
1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




                                    18
                                     Piano Poseidon 2008
                                Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                        Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                   “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Complete the questionnaire. Compare the results with your colleague’s.
Share your data (and findings) with the rest of the group, during the plenary session.

                  Interlanguage Fossilization Questionnaire 1
To what extent are your learners’ language repertoires/performances affected by the
following interlanguage fossilization areas? Rate each one, by ticking from 0 (not at all)
to 4 (extremely). You can add other fossilization items in the spaces below.
             0            1             2                  3                  4
        Not at all    Slightly Moderately            Considerably         Extremely
Learner 1
1. Phonological area or items                                           0   1   2   3   4
2. Lexical area or items                                                0   1   2   3   4
3. Grammatical area or items                                            0   1   2   3   4
4. Discourse area or items                                              0   1   2   3   4
5. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
6. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
7. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
Learner 2
1. Phonological area or items                                           0   1   2   3   4
2. Lexical area or items                                                0   1   2   3   4
3. Grammatical area or items                                            0   1   2   3   4
4. Discourse area or items                                              0   1   2   3   4
5. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
6. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
7. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
Learner 3
1. Phonological area or items                                           0   1   2   3   4
2. Lexical area or items                                                0   1   2   3   4
3. Grammatical area or items                                            0   1   2   3   4
4. Discourse area or items                                              0   1   2   3   4
5. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
6. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
7. other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                0   1   2   3   4
Note corner: ………………………………………………………………………………………..…...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

                                             19
                                        Piano Poseidon 2008
                                   Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                           Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                     “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                  a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3. Complete the questionnaire. Compare the results with your colleague’s /
other group members’. Share your data (and findings) with the rest of the group, during
the plenary session.

                     Interlanguage Fossilization Questionnaire 2
How often do you do the following to help your learners de-fossilize or overcome
fossilized items? Rate each of the options listed below, by choosing one of the adverbs.
Tick from 0 (never) to 4 (always).
                    0              1                  2              3              4
                Never          Seldom         Sometimes          Usually       Always
1. provide positive affective and /or corrective feedback (recasts, elicitation, metalinguistic
feedback, etc.)                                                                     0 1 2 3 4
2. encourage individual learners to redress, repair and self-correct                0 1 2 3 4
3. provide negative feedback, when fossilized structures are used, whilst making an effort not
to be threatening or intimidating                                                   0 1 2 3 4
4. provide remedial activities and / or tutorial help tailored to cater for individual learner’s needs
                                                                                    0 1 2 3 4
5. design and set intonation exercises, using rhymes, tongue twisters, authentic conversations,
etc.                                                                                0 1 2 3 4
6. tailor the correction(s), etc. to the student (e.g. proficiency, age, gender, educational
background, etc.)                                                                   0 1 2 3 4
7. other ………………………………….……………………………………….. 0 1 2 3 4
8. other ………………………………….……………………………………….. 0 1 2 3 4
9. other ………………………………….……………………………………….. 0 1 2 3 4




                                                 20
                                             Piano Poseidon 2008
                                        Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                         “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                      a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                         Section 6 : Phonological fossilization17
Activity 1. Read the introductory text on IL fossilization. What aspect(s) would you like
to explore in greater detail? Explain your choice. Make notes about it / them below.
Then share your views and ideas with your colleague, before reporting back to the rest
of your group.

“While much work has been done in studying the acquisition of morphology and syntax, there
is one area of second language acquisition that has been largely overlooked by researchers.
Heretofore, little has been done in the field of interlanguage phonology.”18

What triggers phonological fossilization? Is it due to attitudinal factors, learner age,
teaching/learning setting, L1 (or other FL) transfer, the atrophy of the nerves and muscles
necessary for articulation, etc.? What is certain is that the causes are still the focus of ongoing
debate

It is however a well-known fact that overall pronunciation (speech and voice work, etc.) has
been largely de-emphasized in communicative language teaching. It is equally well-known that
teaching pronunciation is an area of language teaching that many L2 teachers overlook and
de-emphasize and therefore underteach.

No doubt, if speakers are not able to produce the phonological features of (TL) speech well
enough to be understood, communication is at risk and may very well break down.

Note corner: ………………………………………………………………………………………..…...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




17   Carey, Michael. “Interlanguage Phonology         - Sources of L2 Pronunciation ‘Errors’”. Macquarie University.
http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:ws3IO4nMnhUJ:www.ling.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/phonology/interlanguage/pronerrors.
html+Interlanguage+Phonology+-
18    Waris, Jilani. “Native-like Phonology in Second Language Acquisition: Effective Learner Strategies.
http://jilaniwarsi.tripod.com/nativelikephonology.pdf

                                                           21
                                                   Piano Poseidon 2008
                                              Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                      Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                               “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                           a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Complete the questionnaire. Compare the results with your colleague’s.
Share your data (and findings) with the rest of the group, during the plenary session.

                               Phonological Fossilization Questionnaire
How well / badly do your learners perform? Do they excel, are they barely borderline, or
below? Which of the error types do you notice in your learner’s productions and
performance(s)?19
Choose from 0 – 5 to rate how often you notice each of the features: 0 = never to
5 = very often.

Features may include phonology, word and / or sentence stress, rhythm, intonation patterns,
linking sounds (e.g. consonant and vowel), etc..
    1. Individual sounds – consonants, vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs. 0 1 2 3 4 5
    2. The stressed and weak sounds in words; for example, the second syllable of 'banana'
        is stressed and the first and third are weak.                              0 1 2 3 4 5
    3. The stressed and weak words in speech; for example, in the order "Go to bed!" 'Go'
        and 'bed' are stressed and 'to' is not.                                    0 1 2 3 4 5
    4. The rhythm of speech in general. English is stress-timed, meaning that in general
        stressed syllables have an equal amount of time between them.            0 1 2 3 4 5
    5. The intonation patterns in speech: falling, rising, flat, et cetera.      0 1 2 3 4 5
    6. The features of connected speech, i.e. things that happen when we connect sounds
        together. For example, connected speech produces contractions such as ‘doesn’t’,
        linking sounds such as the /j/ in 'I am', lost sounds such as the /t/ in 'I don’t know', and
        changed sounds such as the /t/ in 'white bag' changing to a /p/.         0 1 2 3 4 5
    7. (other) …………………………………………………………………………………………...
                                                                                 0 1 2 3 4 5
    8. (other) …………………………………………………………………………………………...
                                                                                 0 1 2 3 4 5
    9. (other) …………………………………………………………………………………………...
                                                                                 0 1 2 3 4 5

Note corner: ………………………………………………………………………………………..…...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


19   Kaye, Paul. (adapted from) Evaluating Speaking;. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/evaluating-speaking

                                                                   22
                                       Piano Poseidon 2008
                                  Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                          Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                   “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                 a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3. Complete the grid. Compare the results with your colleague’s. Share your
data (and findings) with the rest of the group, during the plenary session

                           Phonological Fossilization Table
Which of the following phonological qualities, etc. do your learners lack? Provide a few
              examples for each type. Single out three or more learners.

   Learner 1                       Sub-type                               Example(s)

                  Stress
                  Intonation (e.g. falling, rising, rising-
 Phonological     falling, etc.)
 Fossilization    Vowel quantity
                  Confusion (similar sounds)
                  Confusion (minimal pairs)
                  Connected speech (linking, intrusion,
                  elision)
                  Other ……………………………

   Learner 2                       Sub-type                               Example(s)

                  Stress
                  Intonation (e.g. falling, rising, rising-
 Phonological     falling, etc.)
 Fossilization    Vowel quantity
                  Confusion (similar sounds)
                  Confusion (minimal pairs)
                  Connected speech (linking, intrusion,
                  elision)
                  Other ……………………………

   Learner 3                       Sub-type                               Example(s)

                  Stress
                  Intonation (e.g. falling, rising, rising-
 Phonological     falling, etc.)
 Fossilization    Vowel quantity
                  Confusion (similar sounds)
                  Confusion (minimal pairs)
                  Connected speech (linking, intrusion,
                  elision)
                  Other ……………………………




                                                   23
                                      Piano Poseidon 2008
                                 Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                         Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                    “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                 a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 4. Complete the questionnaire. Compare / discuss your data with your
colleague’s. Share the findings with the rest of the group, during the plenary session.

   Phonological Fossilization Questionnaire 2 (countering phonological fossilization)
Which of the following activities and strategies do you implement in order to help
learners de-fossilize their phonology patterns, improve and/or acquire new speech
skills and habits? Cross from 0 – 5 to rate how often you do each: 0 = never to 5 =
always.

   1. draw my learners’ attention the problem(s) (E.g. their pronunciation, etc. patterns may
      make their overall performances incomprehensible and communication breakdown).
                                                                              0 1 2 3 4 5
   2. devise activities and tasks which focus on listening and identifying Target Language
      phonemes, words, sentences, context(s)                                  0 1 2 3 4 5
   3. help my learners make their voices more confident-sounding voices (change the pitch,
      word/sentence stress, intonation, speed of delivery, etc.).             0 1 2 3 4 5
   4. do my very best to the learning milieu less threatening, more encouraging
                                                                              0 1 2 3 4 5
   5. teach pronunciation using a multi-modality approach (auditory, visual, kinaesthetic,
      tactile)                                                                0 1 2 3 4 5
   6. offer script-based remedial practice activities (differentiate similar vowel / consonant
      groups, unfamiliar pronunciation / speech patterns, etc. using colour or graphic codes,
      etc.).                                                                  0 1 2 3 4 5
   7. create oral communicative practice opportunities / contexts for additional practice
                                                                              0 1 2 3 4 5
   8. select and / or adapt passages that contain trouble areas with which become the focus
      of oral classroom activities.                                           0 1 2 3 4 5
   9. adopt more or less controlled, more or less sophisticated productive or reading tasks
      that involve distinguishing close sound patterns or exceptions to spelling-sound
      correspondence rules.                                                   0 1 2 3 4 5
   10. (other) …………………………………………………………………………………………..
                                                                              0 1 2 3 4 5
Note corner: ………………………………………………………………………………………..…...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...




                                              24
                                      Piano Poseidon 2008
                                 Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                         Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                   “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                 a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                       Section 7 : Grammar Fossilization
Activity 1. Read the introductory text to this section. What aspects of grammar
fossilization would you like to explore in greater detail? Be ready to explain your
choice(s). Make notes about it / them below. Share your views and ideas with your
colleague, before reporting back to the rest of your group during the plenary
discussion.
Grammar is one of the levels at which learner interlanguage fossilization can occur. It can
affect the learner’s overall grammatical proficiency, including morphology, word order, verb
tense and form, agreement (subject-verb, pronoun-number, etc.), case errors, etc. The list of
grammatical fossilization ‘areas / items’ (and examples) set forth below has been drawn up in
an effort to bring the topic into sharp focus. It is therefore by no means exhaustive or all-
inclusive.
Morphology:
a. Word forms (s plural, 3rd person etc). Example: There were two mens in the shop.
b. Verb + phrasal particle (omission of morpheme s on the verb and / or over-inclusion on the
particle). Example: My mother always get up(s) early.
c. Lack of subject-verb agreement. Example: He go to school.
d. Count / non-count Nouns. Example: I like the sugar in my milk. …
Word (mis)order:
a. Verb-adverb placement. Examples: We go sometimes to the supermarket on weekdays.
Mary is eating quietly her soup.
b. Inversion (subject – verb used in English question formation). Example: You were watching
TV when I phoned?
Verbs (form, tense, mood)
a. Modals. Examples: Can you to come to the shopping centre? She is to home. John cans go
too.
b. Helping / modal verbs (substitution, redundancy, omission). Examples: My dog does
not eating. Do you can come to the cinema? Which dress I wear?
c. Misselection of tense. Examples: My parents goed to the cinema last week. My best friend
learns English since last year.
d. Reflexive / non-reflexive verbs.
Other items:
Article usage (omission, overuse). Examples: We have the pizza once a week. The my
computer is a laptop. I am visiting the my friend from university.
Prepositions. Examples: They went at home after the party. After school she returns to home.
Case errors: (pronominal). Examples: Him a good boy. Me and Mary got lost.

                                              25
                                   Piano Poseidon 2008
                              Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                      Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                 “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
               a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Note corner: ………………………………………………………………………………………..…...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Activity 2. Complete the questionnaire. Compare / discuss your choices with your
colleague(’s). Share the outcomes with the rest of the group, in plenary.

                   Grammar Fossilization Questionnaire 1
To what extent are your learners’ L2 repertoires / performances affected by the
following grammar areas / items? Tick from 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely).
             0           1            2                    3                 4
        Not at all   Slightly Moderately          Considerably           Extremely
Morphology:
a. Word forms                                                         0   1   2   3   4
b. Verb + phrasal particle                                            0   1   2   3   4
c. Lack of subject-verb agreement                                     0   1   2   3   4
d. Count / Non-count Nouns                                            0   1   2   3   4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                 0   1   2   3   4
Word (mis)order:
a. Verb-adverb placement                                              0 1 2 3 4
b. Inversion                                                          0 1 2 3 4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                 0 1 2 3 4
Verbs (form, tense, mood)
a. Helping / modal verbs (substitution, redundancy, omission)         0   1   2   3   4
b. Misselection of tense                                              0   1   2   3   4
c. Reflexive / non-reflexive verbs                                    0   1   2   3   4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                 0   1   2   3   4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                 0   1   2   3   4
Other items:
Article usage (omission, overuse)                                     0   1   2   3   4
Prepositions                                                          0   1   2   3   4
Case errors: (pronominal)                                             0   1   2   3   4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                 0   1   2   3   4
other ………………………………….………………………………………..                                 0   1   2   3   4


                                           26
                                        Piano Poseidon 2008
                                   Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                           Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                    “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                 a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3. Pool your ideas /experience to draw up a list of suggestions (activities,/
strategies Complete the questionnaire. Compare / discuss your choices with your
colleague(’s). Share the outcomes with the rest of the group, in plenary.

      Grammar Fossilization Questionnaire 2 (countering grammar fossilization)
Suggest / recommend at least 5 activities or strategies to help learners reduce or rid of
their fossilized grammar patterns / items. Share and discuss them with (a) colleague(s).
        (Devise your own and /or adapt the items from phonological fossilization questionnaire 2)

   1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..




                                                   27
                                                    Piano Poseidon 2008
                                               Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                       Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                               “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                           a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                       Section 8 : Lexical fossilization
Activity 1. Read the introductory text to this section. Think about your learners and
working context.
Make notes about each stage in the spaces below. Then share your views and ideas
with your colleague, before reporting back to the rest of the group.

Nemser’s first stage of lexical development is the pre-developmental one, where the learner
makes an oversimplified assumption of L1 = L2, carrying over the semantic grid of the L1-
lexicon into the L2.

The next stage is the assimilatory one, represented by calques and semantic extension errors,
which are the ‘implied results of the receptive strategies of the first developmental stage in
which the L2 words are assimilated to L1 analogues’.

At Nemser’s last stage, the ‘approximate’ one, transfer does not have a direct role. It is
illustrated by words for which the learner can find no L1 analogues as a starting point, but uses
contextual cues and general linguistic knowledge as a source for constructing an appropriate
representation of an unfamiliar word.20

First (pre-developmental) stage: ………………………………………………………………………
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Second (assimilatory) stage : ….…………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Third (approximate) stage: ……………………………………………………………………………
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..




20   Cenoz, Jasone. Hufeisen, Britta. Jessne, Ulrike. “Cross-linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition”, p. 63



                                                                    28
                                           Piano Poseidon 2008
                                      Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                              Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                        “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                    a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Complete the table. Then compare and discuss your data with your
colleague(’s). Answer the questions below, before sharing the outcomes with the rest of
the group.

                                   Lexical Fossilization Table
Go over the characteristics of the three lexical development phases outlined by Nemser
again. Use the following grid to record examples of learner performance(s) for one or
more levels.

                 Stages                                           Examples



pre-developmental: learner carries
        words over from L1 to L2




     assimilatory: L2 words are
       assimilated to L1 analogues




Approximate: learner uses contextual
cues, etc. to construct unfamiliar word (no
              L1 > l2 transfer)


Can links be established with other fossilization areas? What conclusions can you
draw, as to your learners’ interlanguages?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


                                                   29
                                                Piano Poseidon 2008
                                           Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                   Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                            “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                        a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                   Section 9: Avoidance (of L2 features)
Activity 1. Read the introductory text to this section. Think about your learners and
working context. Do the explanations offered by the text about why learners avoid L2
features match your own? Make notes below.
Discuss your views and ideas with a colleague, before the plenary session.

The literature offers several explanations why learners avoid using L2 features. Learners may
choose to avoid using TL items/structures, above all if they are very different from their native
language: “ … avoidance of a target language (TL) structure due to native language
constraints ….”21

It is difficult to know when a student is using avoidance as a strategy - he must show some
evidence that he knows of the structure that he is avoiding, and it must also be so that a
normal speaker of the target language would have used the structure in that situation.

“Kellerman distinguishes 3 types of avoidance:
1. Learner can anticipate that there is a problem, and has some idea of what the correct form
is like.
2. Learner knows the target form well, but believes that it would be too difficult to use in the
circumstances in which he finds himself - free-flowing conversation, for example.
3. Learner knows how to use the target form, but will not do so because it breaks a personal
rule of behaviour - ready use of 'tu' form by person coming from a culture where formality is
highly valued.”22

“Avoidance is said to take place when specific target-language features are under-represented
in the learner’s production in comparison to native-speaker production.”23

Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


21   Selinker, Larry. Mascia, Rita. “Interlanguage speech recognition by computer: implications for SLA and n,
http://www.solki.jyu.fi/apples/010101/ISPRC.htm 21 Mason, Timothy. From Didactics - 6 : Critique of Krashen III; Natural Order
Hypothesis                                                     (2)                                                   :Interlanguage.
http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLectures/L6_Natural_Order.htm computational machines”.
Centre for Interlanguage Studies - Birkbeck College, University of London, http://www.solki.jyu.fi/apples/010101/ISPRC.htm
22
   Mason, Timothy. “Natural order hypothesis – 2”.
http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLectures/L6_Natural_Order.htm
23 Ellis, Rod. The Study of Second Language Acquisition, p. 694, Glossary,


                                                                30
                                              Piano Poseidon 2008
                                         Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                 Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                        “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                    a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 2. Complete the table. Then compare and discuss your data with your
colleague(’s). Answer the questions below, before sharing the outcomes with the rest of
the group.

                                     Avoidance (of L2 features) Table
Go over the reasons which may trigger learner avoidance again. Write examples in the
table.

                  Type                                               Examples


 First : learner has some knowledge of
            the target feature



 Second : learner knows target form
  well, but does not use it owing to the
                 context


Third : learner knows target feature, but
 puts off using it, because his/her native
  language equivalent would be used in
           such a way/ context



  Fourth : avoidance is triggered by
difficulty, due to TL structures, which are
         more difficult than NL ones



Pool examples (yours and your partners’). Are they different, similar, complementary?
Compare and discuss.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

                                                      31
                                        Piano Poseidon 2008
                                   Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                           Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                     “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                  a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

Activity 3. Brainstorm activities and strategies with which to minimise L2 feature
avoidance, with your group. Write a clear list for the plenary session.

                            (countering)   Avoidance of L2 features
Suggest / recommend at least 5 activities or strategies to help learners reduce or rid of
their fossilized grammar patterns / items. Share and discuss them with (a) colleague(s).
      (Devise your own and /or adapt the items from phonological fossilization questionnaire 2, etc.)

   1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
   10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..




                                                    32
                                                  Piano Poseidon 2008
                                             Interlingua 1 : Lepore - Barba
                                     Lavoro individuale a cura di Nicola Papaianni
                              “Introduction to language learner interlanguage
                            a brief, hands-on overview for in-service L2 teachers”

                                         Main Sources & References
           Capraro, Fernanda Patrica. A Journal Study of the Spoken English Learning Experience of Prospective International
            Teaching Assistants. The Ohio State University, 2002, P. 258; http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi?osu1016061356
           Carey, Michael. “Interlanguage Phonology              - Sources of L2 Pronunciation ‘Errors’”. Macquarie University.
            http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:ws3IO4nMnhUJ:www.ling.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/phonology/interlanguage/pr
            onerrors.html+Interlanguage+Phonology+-
            +Sources+of+L2+Pronunciation+%E2%80%98Errors%E2%80%99%E2%80%9D%3B&hl=it&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=it
           Cenoz, Jasone. Hufeisen, Britta. Jessne, Ulrike. “Cross-linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition”, p. 63
           Ellis, Rod. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Glossary, p. 694
           Kaye, Paul. Evaluating Speaking;. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/evaluating-speaking.
           Han, Zhaohong. “Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition.” Multilingual Matters Limited.
           James, Mark Andrew. Interlanguage Variation and Transfer of Learning (abstract);
            http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValu
            e_0=EJ780165&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ780165
           Kambon, Obadele. “Theory of Intrinsic Motivation and ‘Fossilization’ of Error in Language Learning.
            http://www.assatashakur.org/forum/open-forum/11599-theory-intrinsic-motivation-fossilization-error-language-learning.html
           Mason, Timothy. From Didactics - 6 : Critique of Krashen III; Natural Order Hypothesis (2) :Interlanguage.
            http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLectures/L6_Natural_Order.htm
           Mason, Timothy. “Interlanguage & Fossilization” - Lecture 8.
            http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLectures/L8_Interlanguage.htm
           Purdue University Calumet. School of Education.
            http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:Y141ubOhB8cJ:education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_
            transfer.htm+%22positive+transfer+is%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1
           Selinker, Larry. Mascia, Rita. “Interlanguage speech recognition by computer: implications for SLA and computational
            machines”. Centre for Interlanguage Studies - Birkbeck College, University of London,
            http://www.solki.jyu.fi/apples/010101/ISPRC.htm
           Thomas, Chris Allan. http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:05Ou-
            HL0HcoJ:chrisallenthomas.wetpaint.com/page/Fossilization+%22morphology+fossilization+is+%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1
           Warsi, Jilani. “Native-like Phonology in Second Language Acquisition: Effective Learner Strategies”.
            http://jilaniwarsi.tripod.com/nativelikephonology.pdf
           Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia. “Language Transfer”; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_transfer
           Young, Richard. “Variation in Interlanguage Morphology: (s) Plural-marking in the speech of Chinese learners of English” –
            abstract; The Linguist List; http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:jmfejf9gyLsJ:www.linguistlist.org/issues/19/19-
            1874.html+types+of+interlanguage+variation&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=13




i   Answer key:
        1               2                3                4                5               6                7                8
        G               C                B                E                H               D                F                A




                                                                  33

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:60
posted:6/13/2012
language:
pages:33