What Every American Should Know by Addison

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									                                               What Every American Should Know

a cappella                                                adagio                                                     Alaskan pipeline
Aaron, Henry (Hank Aaron)                                 Adam and Eve                                               Alas, poor Yorick!
Abandon hope …                                            Adams, Ansel                                               Albania
abbreviation                                              Adams, John                                                Albany
abdomen                                                   Adams, John Quincy                                         albatross around one’s neck
abdominal cavity                                          Adams, Samuel                                              Albee, Edward
Aberdeen                                                  adaptation                                                 Alberta
ABM Treaty                                                Addams, Jane                                               Albright, Madeleine
abolitionism                                              Addis Ababa                                                Albuquerque
aborigines                                                Aden                                                       alchemy
abortion 1, 2                                             adenoids                                                   alcoholism
Abraham and Isaac                                         “Adeste Fideles”                                           Alcott, Louisa May
abscess                                                   adhesion                                                   alderman
Absence makes the heart grow                              adipose tissue                                             Aleutian Islands
    fonder                                                Adirondack Mountains                                       Alexander the Great
absenteeism                                               adjective                                                  Alexandria
absolute monarchy                                         Adonis                                                     algae
absolute zero                                             adrenal glands                                             algebra
abstract art                                              adrenaline                                                 Alger, Horatio, Jr.
abstract expressionism                                    Adriatic Sea                                               Algeria
absurd, theater of the                                    adsorption                                                 Algiers
academic freedom                                          Advent                                                     algorithm
Academy, French                                           adverb                                                     Ali Baba
Academy, Plato’s                                          Aegean Sea                                                 Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
Academy Awards                                            Aeneas                                                     Alien and Sedition Acts
Acapulco                                                  Aeneid                                                     alienation
accelerating universe                                     aerobic                                                    Ali, Muhammad
acceleration                                              aerobics                                                   alkali
according to Hoyle                                        aerodynamics                                               Allah
accounting                                                Aeschylus                                                  All animals are equal, but some
acculturation                                             Aesop’s fables                                                  animals are more equal than
Ace in the hole                                           aesthetics                                                      others
Achebe, Chinua                                            affirmative action                                         Allegheny Mountains
Achilles                                                  affluent society                                           allegory
Achilles’ heel                                            Afghanistan                                                allegro
Achilles tendon                                           AFL-CIO                                                    allele
acid                                                      Africa                                                     Allende, Salvador
acid rain                                                 Agamemnon                                                  Allen, Woody
acquittal                                                 Age cannot wither her, nor custom                          allergy
acronym                                                       stale …                                                All for one and one for all
acrophobia                                                Agee, James                                                Allies
Acropolis                                                 Agnew, Spiro                                               alliteration
act of God, 1, 2                                          agnosticism                                                alloy
action potential                                          agreement                                                  All Quiet on the Western Front
Actions speak louder than words                           agribusiness                                               All roads lead to Rome
active site                                               Ahab, Captain                                              All’s fair in love and war
active voice                                              Aïda                                                       All’s well that ends well
actuary                                                   AIDS                                                       all systems go
acupuncture                                               air pollution                                              All that glitters is not gold
acute angle                                               Air Quality Index                                          All the world’s a stage
acute disease                                             aka                                                        all thumbs
ad absurdum                                               Akron                                                      allusion
ad hoc                                                    Alabama                                                    All work and no play makes Jack a
ad hominem                                                Aladdin’s lamp                                                  dull boy
ad nauseam                                                Alamo                                                      alma mater
A.D.                                                      Alaska                                                     alpha and omega


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

alpha and omega                                           ancien régime                                              antitrust legislation
alpha radiation                                           Andersen, Hans Christian                                   Antony and Cleopatra
Alps                                                      Anderson, Marian                                           Antony, Mark
Al Qaeda                                                  Andes                                                      antonyms
alter ego                                                 Andromeda galaxy                                           anus
alternating current                                       And thereby hangs a tale                                   anxiety
alternative medicine                                      anemia                                                     Any port in a storm
alto                                                      anesthesia                                                 aorta
altruism                                                  anesthetic                                                 Apaches
Alvarez hypothesis                                        an eye for an eye                                          apartheid
Alzheimer’s disease                                       Angelou, Maya                                              aphorism
“Amazing Grace”                                           angels                                                     aphrodisiac
Amazon River                                              angina pectoris                                            Aphrodite
Amazons                                                   angioplasty                                                Apocalypse
ambrosia                                                  Anglican Communion                                         Apocrypha
A.M.E. Church                                             Angola                                                     apogee
“America”                                                 angst                                                      Apollo
American Civil Liberties Union                            Animal Farm                                                Apollo 11
The American Crisis                                       animal kingdom                                             Apollo program
American Dream                                            animism                                                    apoptosis
American Gothic                                           Ankara                                                     Apostles, the Twelve
American Legion                                           Anna Karenina                                              apostrophe
American Stock Exchange                                   Annapolis                                                  Appalachia
“America the Beautiful”                                   Ann Arbor                                                  Appalachian Mountains
amicus curiae                                             annuity                                                    appeasement
amino acids                                               Annunciation                                               appendectomy
Amish                                                     annus mirabilis                                            appendicitis
amnesia                                                   anon.                                                      appendix
Amnesty International                                     anorexia                                                   apple of discord
amniocentesis                                             anorexia nervosa                                           apple of one’s eye
amniotic fluid                                            An ounce of prevention is worth a                          Appleseed, Johnny
amniotic sac                                                 pound of cure                                           Appomattox Court House
amoeba                                                    Antarctic                                                  apportionment
amortization                                              Antarctica                                                 appraisal
amp                                                       Antarctic Circle                                           appropriation
ampersand                                                 antebellum                                                 April showers bring May flowers
amphetamine                                               Anthony, Susan B.                                          Aquinas, Thomas
amphibians                                                anthrax                                                    Arabia
amplifier                                                 anthropology                                               Arabian Nights
amplitude                                                 anthropomorphism                                           Arabian Sea
amplitude modulation                                      antiballistic missile                                      Arab-Israeli conflict
Amsterdam                                                 antibiotic                                                 Arafat, Yasir
anabolic steroids                                         antibiotics, resistance to                                 Ararat
anabolism                                                 antibodies                                                 arbitration
anaerobic                                                 Antichrist                                                 arch
analgesic                                                 anticoagulants                                             archaeology
analog signal                                             antidepressants                                            archetype
analogy                                                   antigens                                                   Archimedes
anal personality                                          Antigone                                                   archipelago
anal stage                                                Antigone                                                   Arctic
An apple a day keeps the doctor                           antihistamines                                             Arctic Circle
    away                                                  antimatter                                                 Arctic Ocean
anarchism                                                 antiparticle                                               Ares
An army marches on its stomach                            antipodes                                                  Argentina
anatomy                                                   anti-Semitism                                              Argonauts
Anchorage                                                 antiseptics                                                Argus


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

aria                                                      Aswan Dam                                                  autocracy
aristocracy                                               As You Like It                                             autoimmune disease
Aristophanes                                              Ataturk, Kemal                                             autonomic nervous system
Aristotle                                                 atheism                                                    auxiliary verb
Arizona                                                   Athena                                                     avatar
Arkansas                                                  Athens                                                     average
Armada, Spanish                                           Athens                                                     axiom
Armageddon                                                atherosclerosis                                            axis
Armenia                                                   athlete’s foot                                             axis
Armenian massacres                                        Atlanta                                                    Axis powers
Armstrong, Louis                                          Atlantic City                                              axon
Arnold, Benedict                                          Atlantic Ocean                                             Azerbaijan
Around the World in Eighty Days                           Atlantis                                                   Azores
Arpanet                                                   at large                                                   AZT
Artemis                                                   Atlas                                                      Aztecs
arteries                                                  atlas                                                      bête noire
arteriosclerosis                                          at loggerheads                                             Baa, baa, black sheep
art for art’s sake                                        ATM                                                        Babar
arthritis                                                 atmosphere                                                 Babbitt
arthropods                                                atmospheric pressure                                       Babel, Tower of
arthroscope                                               atoll                                                      Babylon
Arthur, King                                              atom                                                       Babylon
articles                                                  atomic bomb                                                Bacchus
Articles of Confederation                                 atomic clock                                               Bach, Johann Sebastian
artificial intelligence                                   Atomic Energy Commission                                   bacilli
artificial selection                                      atomic number                                              backbone
asceticism                                                atomic weight                                              background radiation
ASCII                                                     ATP                                                        back to the drawing board
ascorbic acid                                             atria                                                      Bacon, Francis
asexuality                                                atrophy                                                    Baconian method
asexual reproduction                                      at sixes and sevens                                        bacteria
Ashe, Arthur                                              attaché                                                    bacterial infection
Ash Wednesday                                             Attention Deficit Disorder                                 Bad news travels fast
Asia                                                      Attila the Hun                                             A bad penny always turns up
Asia Minor                                                attorney general of the United                             Baghdad
Ask, and it shall be given you                                States                                                 Baha’i
Ask not what your country can do                          Attucks, Crispus                                           Bahamas
    for you; ask what you can do for                      Auckland                                                   Bahrain
    your country                                          Auden, W. H.                                               Baker, Josephine
Assad, Hafez al-                                          audit                                                      baker’s dozen
Assemblies of God                                         auditory nerve                                             Bakke decision
assembly line                                             Audubon, John James                                        balanced diet
assessment                                                Augean stables                                             balance of nature
asset                                                     Augustine                                                  balance of payments
assimilation                                              Augustus Caesar                                            balance of power
Astaire, Fred                                             “Auld Lang Syne”                                           balance of terror
asteroid                                                  aurora borealis                                            balance of trade
asteroid belt                                             Auschwitz                                                  balance sheet
as the crow flies                                         Austen, Jane                                               Balboa, Vasco Nùñez de
asthma                                                    Austin                                                     Baldwin, James
astigmatism                                               Australia                                                  Bali
astrology                                                 Australopithecus                                           balkanization
astronaut                                                 Austria                                                    Balkan Peninsula
astronomical unit                                         autism                                                     Balkans
astronomy                                                 autism                                                     ballad
astrophysics                                              autobiography                                              ballad


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

ballerina                                                 Bay of Bengal                                              Better late than never
ballet                                                    Bay of Biscay                                              Better safe than sorry
Baltic Sea                                                Bay of Pigs                                                between a rock and a hard place
Baltimore                                                 bayou                                                      Beverly Hills
Balzac, Honoré de                                         B.C.                                                       Beware of Greeks bearing gifts
banana republics                                          B.C.E.                                                     beyond the pale
bandwidth                                                 B-cell                                                     Bhagavad Gita
Bangkok                                                   Beacon Hill                                                Bible
Bangladesh                                                Beale Street                                               Bible
banjo                                                     bear market                                                Bible Belt
bank run                                                  beat around the bush                                       bibliography
bankruptcy                                                Beatitudes                                                 bicameral legislature
Banneker, Benjamin                                        Beatles                                                    Big Bad Wolf
baptism                                                   beatniks                                                   Big Bang theory
Baptists                                                  “Beauty and the Beast”                                     Big Ben
Barbados                                                  Beauty is only skin deep                                   big board
The Barber of Seville                                     Becket, Thomas à                                           Big Brother is watching you
barbershop singing                                        Beckett, Samuel                                            big business
barbiturates                                              bee in one’s bonnet                                        Big Dipper
Barcelona                                                 Beelzebub                                                  big stick diplomacy
bar code                                                  Beethoven, Ludwig van                                      Big Ten
Bard of Avon                                              Beggars can’t be choosers                                  bilateralism
baritone                                                  beginning, In the                                          bilateralism
[His] bark is worse than his bite                         beg the question                                           bile
bar mitzvah                                               behaviorism                                                bile ducts
Barnum, Phineas T.                                        behavior modification                                      Bill of Rights
barometer                                                 behind the eight ball                                      Billy the Kid
baroque                                                   Beijing                                                    binary
barrier island                                            Beirut                                                     bin Laden, Osama
Barrymore family                                          Belarus                                                    biochemical pathways
barter                                                    Belfast                                                    biochemistry
Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations                            Belgium                                                    biodegradable
Barton, Clara                                             Belgrade                                                   biodiversity
basal metabolism                                          Bell, Alexander Graham                                     bioethics
basalt                                                    Benedict, Ruth                                             biofeedback
base                                                      beneficiary                                                biography
Basie, Count                                              Ben-Gurion, David                                          biological clock
basilica                                                  benign                                                     biological warfare
Basque Region                                             Benny, Jack                                                biology
bas-relief                                                Beowulf                                                    biomass
bass                                                      Bergman, Ingmar                                            biometrics
bass drum                                                 Bering Sea                                                 biophysics
bassoon                                                   Berkeley                                                   bioremediation
bass viol                                                 Berkshires                                                 biosphere
Bastille                                                  Berlin                                                     bioterrorism
Bathsheba                                                 Berlin airlift                                             bioterrorism
bathyscaph                                                Berlin, Irving                                             bipolar disorder
Batman                                                    Berlin wall                                                A bird in the hand is worth two in
bat mitzvah                                               Berlin Wall                                                     the bush
baton                                                     Bermuda                                                    birds
battery                                                   Bernhardt, Sarah                                           Birds of a feather flock together
“Battle Hymn of the Republic”                             Bernstein, Leonard                                         Birmingham
Baudelaire, Charles                                       Berry, Chuck                                               Birmingham
baud rate                                                 beta radiation                                             birth control
Bauhaus                                                   Bethlehem                                                  birthday suit
Bavaria                                                   Bethune, Mary McLeod                                       The Birth of a Nation


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

The Birth of Venus                                        “Blue-Tail Fly”                                            Boys will be boys
bisexuality                                               Boers                                                      “The Boy Who Cried ‘Wolf’”
bishop                                                    Boer War                                                   Brünnhilde
Bismarck, Otto von                                        Bogart, Humphrey                                           brackets
bit                                                       Bogotá                                                     Bradley, Omar
bit between one’s teeth                                   bohemian                                                   Brahmins
bite the bullet                                           Bohr atom                                                  Brahms, Johannes
bite the dust                                             Bohr, Niels                                                Braille
Bizet, Georges                                            boiling point                                              brain
Black Arts Movement                                       Bolívar, Simón                                             brain trust
blackball                                                 Boleyn, Anne                                               brain trust
blackbody                                                 Bolivia                                                    brainwashing
black box                                                 Bolsheviks                                                 branches of government
Black Boy                                                 Bolshoi Theater                                            Brandeis, Louis D.
Black Death                                               bolt from (out of) the blue                                Brando, Marlon
Black Hills                                               Bombay                                                     Brasilia
black hole                                                bona fide                                                  brass
Black Hole of Calcutta                                    bond                                                       brass band
Black, Hugo                                               bond market                                                Brave New World
blacklist                                                 bone marrow                                                Brazil
black lung                                                bone to pick                                               breach of contract
black market                                              Bonn                                                       bread and circuses
Black Muslims                                             Bonnie and Clyde                                           break the ice
blackout                                                  Book of Common Prayer                                      breeder reactor
Black Panthers                                            Book of Common Prayer                                      Brevity is the soul of wit
Black Power                                               boom, sonic                                                Brezhnev, Leonid
Black Sea                                                 Boone, Daniel                                              brinkmanship
black sheep                                               Booth, John Wilkes                                         Brisbane
bladder                                                   Bordeaux                                                   Britain
Blake, William                                            Borden, Lizzie                                             Britain, Battle of
blank verse                                               Borges, Jorge Luis                                         British Columbia
blarney                                                   Borgia, Cesare                                             British Empire
Blarney Stone                                             Borgia, Lucrezia                                           British Isles
blastula                                                  born-again Christian                                       British thermal unit
blind leading the blind                                   Borneo                                                     broadband
blind spot                                                born with a silver spoon in one’s                          broad construction
blitzkrieg                                                    mouth                                                  Broadway
block grant                                               Bosch, Hieronymus                                          Broadway
blood                                                     Bosnia and Herzegovina                                     broker
blood-brain barrier                                       Bosporus                                                   bronchial tubes
blood group                                               Boston                                                     Brontë, Charlotte and Emily
Blood is thicker than water                               Boston Massacre                                            Brontosaurus
blood pressure                                            Boston Tea Party                                           Bronze Age
blood type                                                Boswell, James                                             Brooklyn
blood vessels                                             botany                                                     Brooklyn Bridge
blow hot and cold                                         Botswana                                                   The Brothers Karamazov
blow one’s own horn                                       Botticelli, Sandro                                         brother’s keeper, Am I my
Blue and the Gray                                         bottleneck                                                 Brownian motion
Bluebeard                                                 bottom line                                                Browning, Elizabeth Barrett
blue chip stock                                           botulism                                                   Browning, Robert
blue-collar                                               Bourbons                                                   Brown, John
bluegrass                                                 bourgeoisie                                                brownout
blue laws                                                 bowdlerizing                                               Brown versus Board of Education
Blue Ridge Mountains                                      Bowery                                                     browser
blues                                                     boycott                                                    Brueghel, Pieter, the Elder
blue screen technology                                    Boy Scouts of America                                      Brussels


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Brutus                                                    Byron, George Gordon, Lord                                 coalition
Brutus                                                    Byronic hero                                               coat of many colors
Brutus is an honorable man                                byte                                                       coattail effect
Bryan, William Jennings                                   by the book                                                cobalt 60
bubble                                                    Byzantine Empire                                           Cobb, Ty
bubonic plague                                            cabinet                                                    cocaine
Bucharest                                                 cabinet                                                    cock-and-bull story
Budapest                                                  cadre                                                      COD
Buddhism                                                  Caesar                                                     coda
Buenos Aires                                              cladistics                                                 code
Buffalo                                                   clarinet                                                   codeine
Buffalo Bill                                              class                                                      codon
Buffalo Bill                                              class                                                      coevolution
buffer                                                    class action law suit                                      cognitive development
bug                                                       class consciousness                                        Cohan, George M.
Bulgaria                                                  classic                                                    cohesion
Bulge, Battle of the                                      classical antiquity                                        cold-blooded animals
bulimia                                                   classical music                                            cold feet
bull market                                               classical mythology                                        cold fusion
Bull Run, Battle of                                       classicism                                                 Cold hands, warm heart
Bumppo, Natty                                             class structure                                            cold shoulder
Bunche, Ralph                                             class struggle                                             cold turkey
Bundestag                                                 clause                                                     cold war
Bunker, Archie                                            claustrophobia                                             Coleridge, Samuel Taylor
Bunker Hill, Battle of                                    Clay, Henry                                                Colette
Bunyan, Paul                                              clean bill of health                                       colitis
buoyancy                                                  Cleanliness is next to godliness                           collapse of communism
bureaucracy                                               clean slate                                                collateral
bureaucrat                                                clear and present danger                                   collective bargaining
Burgess Shale                                             cleavage                                                   collective farm
Burke, Edmund                                             cleft lip                                                  collective unconscious
Burkina Faso                                              Clemenceau, Georges                                        colloid
Burma                                                     Clemens, Samuel L.                                         Cologne
burning bush                                              “Clementine”                                               Colombia
Burns, Robert                                             Cleopatra                                                  colon
burn the candle at both ends                              Cleveland                                                  colon
burn the midnight oil                                     Cleveland, Grover                                          colonialism
burn your bridges behind you                              cliché                                                     Colorado
Burr, Aaron                                               climate                                                    Colorado River
Burr-Hamilton duel                                        climb on the bandwagon                                     coloratura
bursa                                                     Clinton, Hillary Rodham                                    colorblindness
bursitis                                                  Clinton impeachment                                        Colosseum
Burundi                                                   Clinton, William Jefferson                                 Columbia River
bury the hatchet                                          clockwork universe                                         Columbus
Bush, George H. W.                                        clone                                                      Columbus, Christopher
Bush, George W.                                           cloning vector                                             coma
Bushmen                                                   Close, but no cigar                                        combustion
Business before pleasure                                  closed ecosystem                                           comedy
business cycle                                            closed primary                                             come full circle
busing                                                    closed shop                                                Come live with me and be my love
busman’s holiday                                          closed universe                                            come out of the closet
butter someone up                                         closing                                                    comet
buy a pig in a poke                                       cloture                                                    Coming of Age in Samoa
buyer’s market                                            clouds                                                     “Coming Through the Rye”
by hook or by crook                                       cloud seeding                                              comma
Byrd, Richard E.                                          club drugs                                                 commander in chief


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

commissar                                                 Congress party                                             coordination
commission                                                conjugal                                                   Copenhagen
commissioned officer                                      conjunction                                                Copernicus, Nicolaus
commodity                                                 conjunctivitis                                             Copernicus, Nicolaus
common carrier                                            Connecticut                                                Copernicus, Nicolaus
common denominator                                        connective tissue                                          Copland, Aaron
common law                                                connotation                                                copyright
common-law marriage                                       conquistadores                                             copyright
Common Sense                                              Conrad, Joseph                                             coral reef
Commonwealth                                              conscientious objector                                     Corbusier, Le
communicable disease                                      consent of the governed                                    Cordelia
Communion                                                 conservatism                                               core
communism                                                 conservative                                               Corinthian
communist                                                 Conservative Judaism                                       Coriolis effect
The Communist Manifesto                                   consonants                                                 cornea
comparative                                               conspicuous consumption                                    Cornwallis, Charles
complex sentence                                          Constable, John                                            Coronado, Francisco
composite materials                                       constant                                                   coronary
compound                                                  constant dollars                                           coronary arteries
compound-complex sentence                                 Constantine the Great                                      coronary bypass surgery
compound interest                                         Constantinople                                             coronary thrombosis
compound sentence                                         constellation                                              corporation
compression                                               Constitution                                               Corsica
Compromise of 1850                                        constitution                                               Cortés, Hernando
compulsion                                                Constitutional Convention                                  cortisone
computer                                                  constitutional monarchy                                    Cosby, Bill
computer virus                                            Constitution, United States                                cosmic microwave background
concentration camp                                        consumer                                                   cosmic rays
conception                                                consumer goods                                             cosmology
concerto                                                  consumerism                                                cosmology
conciseness                                               consumer price index                                       cosmonaut
condensation point                                        contagious disease                                         Cossacks
conditioned response                                      containment                                                Costa Rica
conduction                                                containment, policy of                                     cost of living
conductor                                                 contempt of Congress                                       cost-of-living allowance
Coney Island                                              contempt of court                                          cotton to
Confederacy                                               content provider                                           counterculture
Confederate                                               Continental Congress                                       counterinsurgency
confederation                                             continental divide                                         counterpoint
confession                                                continental drift                                          Counter Reformation
Confessions                                               continental shelf                                          Counter Reformation
confirmation hearings                                     continents                                                 country and western music
conflict of interest                                      contraband                                                 coup
conformity                                                contraception                                              coup de grâce
Confucianism                                              contract                                                   coup d’état
Confucius                                                 contraction                                                couplet
congenital                                                contralto                                                  courtly love
conglomerate                                              convection                                                 court of appeals
Congo, Democratic Republic of                             convent                                                    Court of St. James’s
Congo, Republic of the                                    convergent evolution                                       covalent bond
Congo River                                               convulsion                                                 covenant
Congregationalists                                        Cook, Captain James                                        covered wagon
Congress                                                  Coolidge, Calvin                                           CPU
Congressional Medal of Honor                              cool one’s heels                                           crème de la crème
Congressional Record                                      Cooper, James Fenimore                                     cranium
Congress on Racial Equality                               coordinates                                                crash, computer


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Crash of 1929, stock market                               cupola                                                     David
Crazy Horse                                               Curie, Marie                                               David
Creation                                                  Curiosity killed the cat                                   David Copperfield
creationism                                               currency                                                   Davis, Jefferson
creation science                                          current, electric                                          Davy Jones’s Locker
creature comforts                                         current, electric                                          Dawes Act of 1887
credit                                                    Currier and Ives                                           Day of Atonement
creditor                                                  curry favor                                                D-Day
credit rating                                             Custer’s last stand                                        DDT
credit union                                              cut the Gordian knot                                       dead bury their dead, Let the
crescendo                                                 cybernetics                                                dead languages
Crete                                                     cyberspace                                                 Dead Sea
Crick, Francis H. C.                                      cyberwarfare                                               Dead Sea Scrolls
Crimea                                                    cyclone                                                    Death, be not proud
Crime and Punishment                                      Cyclops                                                    Death of a Salesman
Crimean War                                               cyclotron                                                  Death Valley
critical mass                                             cymbal                                                     Debs, Eugene V.
Croatia                                                   Cyprus                                                     debt
Crockett, Davy                                            Cyrillic alphabet                                          debtor nation
crocodile tears                                           cyst                                                       Debussy, Claude
Cro-Magnon                                                cystic fibrosis                                            decibel
Cromwell, Oliver                                          cytoplasm                                                  deciduous trees and shrubs
Crosby, Bing                                              cytoskeleton                                               decimal point
cross-breeding                                            czar                                                       decimals
cross-fertilization                                       Czechoslovakia                                             “Deck the Halls”
Cross of Gold speech                                      Dürer, Albrecht                                            Declaration of Independence
cross the Rubicon                                         Dachau                                                     declarative sentence
crown                                                     Daedalus                                                   deduction
crown of thorns                                           Daley, Richard                                             deduction
Crucifixion                                               Dali, Salvador                                             deep-six
cruel and unusual punishment                              Dallas                                                     Deep South
cruel to be kind                                          Damascus                                                   de facto
cruise missile                                            Damascus                                                   de facto segregation
Crusades                                                  damnation                                                  default
crust                                                     Damn the torpedoes                                         defendant
crustacean                                                damn with faint praise                                     defense mechanism
cryogenics                                                Damocles, sword of                                         deficit
cry over spilt milk                                       Damon and Pythias                                          deficit financing
cryptography                                              Daniel in the lions’ den                                   definite article
crystal                                                   Dante                                                      deflation
Crystal Palace                                            Danton, Georges                                            deforestation
Cuba                                                      Danube River                                               Degas, Edgar
Cuban missile crisis                                      Dark Ages                                                  De Gaulle, Charles
Cuban missile crisis                                      dark energy                                                degree
cubism                                                    dark horse                                                 De gustibus non est disputandum
cult                                                      dark matter                                                dehydration
cultivate one’s own garden                                Darrow, Clarence                                           deism
cultural imperialism                                      Darwin, Charles                                            déjà vu
Cultural Revolution, Great                                dash                                                       de jure
     Proletarian                                          Das Kapital                                                de Kooning, Willem
culture                                                   database                                                   Delaware
Cumberland Gap                                            data compression                                           Delhi
Cumberland Mountains                                      data mining                                                Delphic oracle
cummings, e. e.                                           data packet                                                delusion
cumulus clouds                                            data processing                                            demagogue
Cupid                                                     A date which will live in infamy                           demand


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

demand curve                                              developmental psychology                                   “Dixie”
Demeter                                                   devil                                                      Dixieland
democracy                                                 Dewey decimal system                                       Djakarta
Democrat                                                  Dewey, John                                                DNA
Democratic party                                          diabetes mellitus                                          DNA fingerprinting
Democratic party                                          dialysis                                                   DNA methylation
demography                                                diameter                                                   DNA polymerase
demonstrative pronouns                                    diamond in the rough                                       DNA repair
Demosthenes                                               Diana                                                      DNA sequencing
Deng Xiaoping                                             diaphragm                                                  Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The
denial-of-service attack                                  diarrhea                                                       Strange Case of
Denmark                                                   Dickens, Charles                                           Doctor Livingstone, I presume?
denominator                                               Dickinson, Emily                                           dog days
denotation                                                dictatorship                                               dog-eat-dog
dénouement                                                diction                                                    dog in the manger
density                                                   Dido                                                       A dog is a man’s best friend
dentin                                                    dielectric                                                 dogma
Denver                                                    Dienbienphu                                                dollar diplomacy
Department of Agriculture                                 dietary supplement                                         A Doll’s House
Department of Commerce                                    diffraction                                                Dolly
Department of Defense                                     diffusion                                                  dominant trait
Department of Education                                   digestion                                                  Dominican Republic
Department of Energy                                      digestive system                                           domino theory
Department of Health and Human                            digital divide                                             Don Giovanni
   Services                                               digital signal                                             Don Juan
Department of Housing and Urban                           dilettante                                                 Don Juan
   Development                                            Dillinger, John                                            donkey
Department of Justice                                     diminishing returns, law of                                Donne, John
Department of Labor                                       Dinesen, Isak                                              Do not cast your pearls before
Department of State                                       dinosaurs                                                      swine
Department of the Interior                                Dionysus                                                   Do not go gentle into that good
Department of the Treasury                                dioxin                                                         night … Rage, rage against the
Department of Transportation                              diphtheria                                                     dying of the light
Department of Veterans Affairs                            diplomatic immunity                                        Don Quixote
dependent clause                                          direct current                                             Don River
depletion allowance                                       direct object                                              Don’t count your chickens before
depreciation                                              direct primary                                                 they hatch
depression                                                disciples                                                  Don’t cry over spilt milk
Depression, Great                                         discount rate                                              Don’t cut off your nose to spite your
de rigueur                                                Discretion is the better part of valor                         face
dermatitis                                                disfranchisement                                           Don’t fire until you see the whites of
dermatology                                               Disney, Walt                                                   their eyes
desalinization                                            disposable personal income                                 Don’t fire until you see the whites of
Descartes, René                                           Disraeli, Benjamin                                             their eyes
designer drug                                             dissidents                                                 Don’t give up the ship
Des Moines                                                distillation                                               don’t go there
despotism                                                 distribution                                               Don’t hide your light under a bushel
de-Stalinization                                          district attorney                                          Don’t judge a book by its cover
destructive competition                                   District of Columbia                                       Don’t lock the stable door after the
détente                                                   diuretic                                                       horse has been stolen
determinism                                               divestiture                                                Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth
deterrence                                                dividend                                                   Don’t put all your eggs in one
Detroit                                                   The Divine Comedy                                              basket
devaluation                                               divine right of kings                                      Don’t put the cart before the horse
developing nation                                         division of labor                                          Don’t throw out the baby with the
developmental biology                                     Dix, Dorothea                                                  bath water


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Doppler effect                                            Duncan, Isadora                                            ecumenism
Doric                                                     Dunkirk                                                    Eddy, Mary Baker
Dos Passos, John                                          duodenum                                                   Eden, Garden of
Dostoevsky, Feodor                                        durable goods                                              Edinburgh
.com                                                      Dust Bowl                                                  Edison, Thomas A.
dot-com                                                   Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt                         editorial
dot-coms                                                      thou return                                            Edmonton
double bass                                               Dutch treat                                                The Education of Henry Adams
Double, double toil and trouble; /                        duty                                                       Edwardian period
    Fire burn, and cauldron bubble                        DVD                                                        Edwards, Jonathan
double-entendre                                           dyed-in-the-wool                                           EEC
double helix                                              Dylan, Bob                                                 egg
double indemnity                                          dysentery                                                  ego
double jeopardy                                           dyslexia                                                   egocentric
double standard of sexual behavior                        e-                                                         egomania
doughboys                                                 e.g.                                                       egotism
Douglass, Frederick W.                                    E = mc2                                                    Egypt
Douglas, Stephen A.                                       ear                                                        Egypt
Douglas, William O.                                       eardrum                                                    Eichmann, Adolf
Do unto others as you would have                          Earhart, Amelia                                            Eiffel Tower
    them do unto you                                      Early to bed and early to rise makes                       Einstein, Albert
Do unto others as you would have                              a man healthy, wealthy, and                            Eisenhower, Dwight D.
    them do unto you                                          wise                                                   elasticity
Dow Jones Industrial Average                              Earp, Wyatt                                                elasticity
down in the dumps                                         Earth                                                      Elbe River
“Down in the Valley”                                      Earth, evolution of                                        elbow grease
down payment                                              earthquake                                                 El Dorado
downsize                                                  Easter                                                     Electoral College
Down’s syndrome                                           Eastern Bloc                                               Electra
dowry                                                     Eastern Establishment                                      electrical field
Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan                                   Eastern Orthodox Church                                    electricity
Dracula, Count                                            East Germany                                               electrocardiogram
draft                                                     East is East, and West is West, and                        electrocardiograph
draft                                                         never the twain shall meet                             electroencephalogram
draft dodger                                              East is East, and West is West, and                        electrolysis
Drake, Sir Francis                                            never the twain shall meet                             electrolyte
dramatis personae                                         Easy come, easy go                                         electromagnet
draw the line                                             easy come, easy go                                         electromagnet
Dred Scott decision                                       easy-money policy                                          electromagnetic induction
Dreiser, Theodore                                         eat crow                                                   electromagnetic radiation
Dresden                                                   Eat, drink, and be merry, for                              electromagnetic spectrum
Dreyfus affair                                                tomorrow we die                                        electromagnetic waves
Drink to me only with thine eyes                          eat humble pie                                             electron
drive a nail into one’s coffin                            eat someone out of house and                               electron microscope
drone                                                         home                                                   electroplating
Drug Enforcement Administration                           Ebola                                                      electroshock therapy
“The Drunken Sailor”                                      Ecclesiastes                                               elegy
dualism                                                   eclipse                                                    “Elegy Written in a Country
Dublin                                                    ecological niche                                               Churchyard”
DuBois, W. E. B.                                          ecology                                                    element
Dubrovnik                                                 economic indicators                                        Elementary, my dear Watson
due process of law                                        economics                                                  elementary particles
Dulles, John Foster                                       ecosystem                                                  elephant
dummy                                                     ectomorph, endomorph, and                                  eleventh hour
dumping                                                       mesomorph                                              Elijah
Dunbar, Paul Laurence                                     Ecuador                                                    Eliot, George


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Eliot, T. S.                                              enzyme                                                     ethyl alcohol
Elizabeth I                                               epic                                                       Et tu, Brute?
Elizabeth II                                              Epicureanism                                               Eucharist
Ellington, Duke                                           epidemic                                                   Euclid
ellipse                                                   epidermis                                                  eugenics
ellipsis                                                  epigram                                                    eukaryote
Ellis Island                                              epilepsy                                                   eulogy
Ellis Island                                              Epiphany                                                   euphemism
Ellison, Ralph                                            epistemology                                               Euphrates River
Elmer Gantry                                              E pluribus unum                                            Eurasia
El Niño                                                   epoxy                                                      Eureka!
El Paso                                                   Equal Employment Opportunity                               Euripides
El Salvador                                                   Commission                                             euro
elves                                                     equal opportunity                                          Europe
Elysian Fields                                            equal protection of the laws                               European Union
e-mail                                                    Equal Rights Amendment                                     Eustachian tube
Emancipation Proclamation                                 equal time                                                 euthanasia
embargo                                                   equation                                                   evangelical
embedded microchips                                       equator                                                    evaporation
embezzlement                                              equilibrium                                                Eve
embolism                                                  equilibrium                                                Everybody will be world famous for
embryo                                                    equinox                                                        fifteen minutes
embryology                                                equity                                                     Every cloud has a silver lining
embryonic stem cell                                       equity                                                     Every dog has his day
Emerson, Ralph Waldo                                      Erasmus, Desiderius                                        every inch a ___
Émile                                                     ergo                                                       evolution
éminence grise                                            ergonomics                                                 evolutionary medicine
eminent domain                                            Ericson, Leif                                              Excalibur
empathy                                                   Erie Canal                                                 ex cathedra
“The Emperor’s New Clothes”                               Eritrea                                                    exchange rate
emphysema                                                 Eros                                                       excise tax
Empire State Building                                     erosion                                                    exclamation point
empty nest                                                escalation                                                 excretory system
enamel                                                    escape velocity                                            executive branch
encephalitis                                              Escher, M. C.                                              exeunt
encounter group                                           escrow                                                     existentialism
encryption                                                Eskimos                                                    Exodus
encyclical                                                esophagus                                                  exon
endocrine gland                                           esprit de corps                                            expatriation
endocrine system                                          essay                                                      expatriation
end of one’s rope                                         established church                                         expense account
endorphins                                                established church                                         Experience is the best teacher
energy                                                    Esther                                                     expletive
enfant terrible                                           Estonia                                                    exponent
Engels, Friedrich                                         estrogen                                                   exponential growth
England                                                   estuary                                                    export quota
English Channel                                           et al.                                                     ex post facto
engraving                                                 etching                                                    ex post facto
Enlightenment                                             ethanol                                                    ex post facto law
en masse                                                  ethical relativism                                         expressionism
Enron                                                     ethics                                                     expropriation
entangling alliances with none                            Ethiopia                                                   expurgate
entitlements                                              ethnic cleansing                                           extended family
entrepreneur                                              ethnicity                                                  extinction
entropy                                                   ethnocentrism                                              extradition
Environmental Protection Agency                           ethnology                                                  extrapolation


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

extrasensory perception                                   FDA Recommended Daily                                      fingerprint
extraterrestrial                                               Allowance                                             Finland
extrovert                                                 featherbedding                                             fireside chats
eye                                                       feather in one’s cap                                       firewall
eye of a hurricane                                        feather one’s own nest                                     First Amendment
eye of a needle                                           feces                                                      First Amendment
Führer, der                                               Federal Bureau of Investigation                            first come, first served
Fabian tactics                                            Federal Deposit Insurance                                  First in war, first in peace, and first
face that launched a thousand                                  Corporation                                                in the hearts of his countrymen
    ships, Was this the                                   federalism                                                 fiscal policy
face the music                                            The Federalist Papers                                      fiscal year
faction                                                   Federalist party                                           fishes
Fagin                                                     Federal Republic of Germany                                Fish or cut bait
Fahrenheit                                                Federal Reserve System                                     Fish out of water
Fahrenheit                                                Federal Trade Commission                                   fission, nuclear
fair-weather friend                                       Feed a cold; starve a fever                                fits and starts
fait accompli                                             feedback                                                   Fitzgerald, Ella
faith, hope, and charity                                  feet of clay                                               Fitzgerald, F. Scott
Falkland Islands                                          fellow traveler                                            fixed exchange rate
Falkland Islands                                          felony                                                     flappers
fallacy                                                   feminism                                                   flash in the pan
Fall of Man                                               feminism                                                   flash point
Fall of Rome                                              Ferdinand and Isabella                                     flat tax
“The Fall of the House of Usher”                          fermentation                                               flat universe
fallopian tubes                                           Fermi, Enrico                                              Flaubert, Gustave
Falstaff                                                  Ferraro, Geraldine                                         fling (throw) down the gauntlet
Familiarity breeds contempt                               fertilization                                              floating exchange rate
family                                                    fetish                                                     flora
Family and Medical Leave Act of                           fetus                                                      Florence
    1993                                                  feudalism                                                  Florida
family planning                                           fiber optics                                               Florida Keys
FAQ                                                       FICA                                                       flower
Far East                                                  fiction                                                    fluid
Farewell Address, Washington’s                            fiddle                                                     fluid mosaic model
A Farewell to Arms                                        fiddle while Rome burns                                    fluorescence
far from the madding crowd                                fief                                                       fluoride
far from the madding crowd                                Fielding, Henry                                            flute
farm bloc                                                 Fields, W. C.                                              fly-by-night
Farmer, Fannie                                            fife                                                       flying buttress
Farragut, David                                           Fifteen men on the Dead Man’s                              fly in the ointment
Far West                                                       Chest—/ Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle                        fly off the handle
fascism                                                        of rum!                                               fly the coop
fatalism                                                  Fifth Amendment                                            FMRI
Father, forgive them, for they know                       Fifth Avenue                                               focal length
    not what they do                                      fifth column                                               Foggy Bottom
father of his country                                     fifth wheel                                                folklore
fats                                                      Figaro                                                     folk music
fatted calf, kill the                                     fight or flight reaction                                   Food and Drug Administration
Faulkner, William                                         Fiji                                                       food chain
fault                                                     filibuster                                                 food poisoning
fauna                                                     filter                                                     A fool and his money are soon
fauns                                                     Final Solution                                                  parted
Faust                                                     Finders keepers, losers weepers                            A foolish consistency is the
Faustian bargain                                          fin de siècle                                                   hobgoblin of little minds
favorite son                                              fine arts                                                  Fools rush in where angels fear to
                                                          fine kettle of fish                                             tread


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

footprints on the sands of time                           freedom of speech                                          Galápagos Islands
forbidden fruit                                           freedom of the press                                       Galahad, Sir
force                                                     Freedom Riders                                             galaxy
Ford, Gerald                                              free enterprise                                            Galbraith, John Kenneth
Ford, Henry                                               free fall                                                  Galen
foreclosure                                               free market                                                Galileo
foreign exchange                                          Freemasons                                                 gallbladder
Foreign Relations Committee                               free trade                                                 gallstone
Foreign Service                                           free verse                                                 Gallup polls
Forewarned is forearmed                                   free will                                                  galvanizing
forte                                                     freezing point                                             gamete
for the birds                                             French and Indian War                                      gamma radiation
fortissimo                                                French horn                                                Gandhi, Indira
Fortune Five Hundred                                      French Revolution                                          Gandhi, Mahatma
Fort Worth                                                frequency                                                  Ganges River
forty-niners                                              frequency modulation                                       Gang of Four
forty winks                                               fresco                                                     gangrene
For want of a nail the kingdom was                        Fresno                                                     garbage in, garbage out
    lost                                                  Freudian                                                   Garbo, Greta
for whom the bell tolls                                   Freudian slip                                              García Márquez, Gabriel
fossil                                                    Freud, Sigmund                                             Garfield, James A.
fossil fuels                                              friction                                                   gargoyle
fossil record                                             Friday                                                     Garibaldi, Giuseppe
Foster, Stephen                                           Friedan, Betty                                             Garrison, William Lloyd
Founding Fathers                                          Friedman, Milton                                           Garvey, Marcus
Fountain of Youth                                         A friend in need is a friend indeed                        gas
Four Freedoms                                             friend of the court                                        gasohol
Four Horsemen                                             Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend                          gastric
401(k) plan                                                    me your ears                                          gastroenterology
four-letter words                                         frieze                                                     gastrointestinal tract
four-letter words                                         fringe benefit                                             Gates, Bill
Fourteen Points                                           from pillar to post                                        Gather ye rosebuds while ye may
Fourteenth Amendment                                      From the sublime to the ridiculous is                      Gauguin, Paul
Fourth of July                                                 but a step                                            Gawain, Sir
“The Fox and the Grapes”                                  front                                                      gay
fractal                                                   Frost, Robert                                              gay rights
fraction                                                  fruit                                                      Gaza Strip
Frailty, thy name is woman!                               fruits ye shall know them, By their                        Gehrig, Lou
France                                                    fuel cell                                                  geisha
France, fall of                                           Fuentes, Carlos                                            gel electrophoresis
franchise                                                 Fugitive Slave Act                                         gender
franchise                                                 Fulbright scholarships                                     gender gap
Franciscans                                               fulcrum                                                    gene
Francis Ferdinand, Archduke                               full employment                                            gene amplification
Francis of Assisi                                         Fulton, Robert                                             gene mapping
Franco, Francisco                                         function                                                   gene patent
Frank, Anne                                               functionalism                                              gene pool
Frankenstein                                              fundamentalism                                             general anesthetic
Frankfurt                                                 fungal infection                                           general strike
Frankfurter, Felix                                        fungi                                                      generating plant
Franklin, Benjamin                                        Furies                                                     generation gap
Franklin, The Autobiography of                            fusion, nuclear                                            generator
    Benjamin                                              futures                                                    Genesis
freedom of assembly                                       future shock                                               gene splicing
freedom of association                                    Gabriel                                                    gene therapy
freedom of religion                                       Gaea                                                       genetically modified organism


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

genetic code                                              get up on the wrong side of the bed                        Goldberg, Rube
genetic counseling                                        Ghana                                                      golden calf
genetic drift                                             ghettos                                                    Golden Fleece
genetic engineering                                       ghost town                                                 Golden Gate Bridge
genetics                                                  Gibbon, Edward                                             golden mean
genetic testing                                           GI Bill                                                    golden parachute
Geneva                                                    Gibraltar                                                  golden parachute
Geneva Conventions                                        “The Gift of the Magi”                                     gold, frankincense, and myrrh
Genghis Khan                                              GI Joe                                                     “Goldilocks and the Three Bears”
genitals                                                  Gilbert and Sullivan                                       gold rush, California
genital stage                                             gilded cage                                                gold standard
Genius is one percent inspiration                         gild the lily                                              Goldwater, Barry
   and ninety-nine percent                                Gilman, Charlotte P.                                       Golgotha
   perspiration                                           Ginsberg, Allen                                            Gompers, Samuel
genocide                                                  Giotto                                                     gonads
genome                                                    Girl Scouts of the United States of                        Gone With the Wind
genomics                                                      America                                                gonorrhea
genotype                                                  Give him enough rope and he’ll                             Good fences make good neighbors
genre                                                         hang himself                                           Good Friday
Gentile                                                   Give me liberty or give me death                           Goodman, Benny
genus                                                     Give me your tired, your poor                              A good man is hard to find
geological cycle                                          give than to receive, It is more                           Good Neighbor policy
geology                                                       blessed to                                             goods
geometric progression                                     Give the devil his due                                     Good Samaritan
geometry                                                  glacier                                                    Good Shepherd
geophysics                                                glad-hander                                                go off the deep end
George and the Dragon, Saint                              Gladstone, William Ewart                                   [one’s] goose is cooked
George III                                                glands                                                     goose step
Georgia                                                   Glasgow                                                    “The Goose That Laid the Golden
Georgia                                                   glasnost                                                      Eggs”
geosynchronous satellite                                  glass ceiling                                              GOP
geothermal energy                                         glaucoma                                                   Gorbachev, Mikhail
German measles                                            global economy                                             Gordian knot
Germany                                                   global positioning system                                  gospel
germs                                                     global village                                             gospel music
germ warfare                                              global warming                                             Gospels
Geronimo                                                  Globe Theater                                              go the extra mile
gerontocracy                                              Glorious Revolution                                        Gothic
gerontology                                               glucose                                                    go to pot
gerrymander                                               glut                                                       gout
Gershwin, George                                          GMO                                                        government of the people, by the
gerund                                                    go against the grain                                          people, and for the people
gestalt psychology                                        go AWOL                                                    Go west, young man
Gestapo                                                   “God Bless America”                                        go whole hog
Gesundheit                                                Goddard, Robert H.                                         Goya, Francisco
get a dose of one’s own medicine                          God helps those who help                                   Graces
get down to brass tacks                                       themselves                                             gradualism
get in somebody’s hair                                    Godiva, Lady                                               graft
get one’s dander up                                       Godiva, Lady                                               Graham, Billy
get someone’s goat                                        God’s in his heaven—All’s right with                       Graham, Martha
get something off one’s chest                                 the world                                              Grail, Holy
Get thee behind me, Satan                                 Goebbels, Joseph                                           grain of salt
Get thee to a nunnery                                     Goering (or Göring), Hermann                               gram
Gettysburg Address                                        Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von                                grammar
Gettysburg, Battle of                                     go haywire                                                 Granada
get under one’s skin                                      Golan Heights                                              Grand Canyon


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

grand jury                                                Guatemala                                                  Hannibal
Grand Unified Theory                                      guerrilla warfare                                          Hanoi
granite                                                   Guevara, Ernesto “Che”                                     Hanover, House of
Grant, Ulysses S.                                         guilds                                                     “Hansel and Gretel”
The Grapes of Wrath                                       guillotine                                                 Hanukkah
grasp (clutch) at straws                                  guilt by association                                       Hapsburgs
gravitation                                               Guinea                                                     hara-kiri
gravity                                                   Guinevere                                                  hard drive
gravy train                                               guitar                                                     Harding scandals
greatest good for the greatest                            gulag                                                      Harding, Warren G.
    number                                                Gulf of Mexico                                             hardware
greatest happiness for the greatest                       Gulf of Mexico                                             hard water
    number                                                Gulf Stream                                                hardwired
Great Expectations                                        Gulliver’s Travels                                         Harlem
The Great Gatsby                                          gunboat diplomacy                                          Harlem Renaissance
Great Lakes                                               “Gunga Din”                                                harmony
great man theory                                          gung-ho                                                    harp
Great oaks from little acorns grow                        guru                                                       Harpers Ferry
Great Plains                                              Gutenberg, Johann                                          Harpies
Great Salt Lake                                           Guthrie, Woody                                             harpsichord
Great Smoky Mountains                                     gynecology                                                 Harry Potter
Great Society                                             Gypsies                                                    Hartford
Great Wall of China                                       H2O                                                        Hasidim
Great War                                                 habeas corpus                                              Haste makes waste
Greco, El                                                 habitat                                                    Hastings, Battle of
Greece                                                    Hades                                                      hat trick
Greeley, Horace                                           Had we but world enough, and time,                         Havana
greenhouse effect                                             / This coyness, Lady, were no                          have an ax to grind
Greenland                                                     crime                                                  Hawaii
Green Mountains                                           Hagia Sophia, Cathedral of                                 hawks and doves
Greenpeace                                                haiku                                                      Hawthorne, Nathaniel
green revolution                                          hail                                                       Haydn, Franz Josef
green thumb                                               hail-fellow-well-met                                       HDL
Greenwich                                                 “Hail to the Chief”                                        hearsay
Greenwich Village                                         hair of the dog that bit you                               Hearst, William Randolph
Gregorian chant                                           Haiti                                                      heart
Grenada                                                   Hale, Nathan                                               heart attack
Gresham’s law                                             Haley, Alex                                                heartburn
Griffith, D. W.                                           Half a loaf is better than none                            Heart of Darkness
Grimm, the brothers                                       half-life                                                  heat
Grim Reaper                                               “Hallelujah Chorus”                                        heat capacity
Grinch Stole Christmas, How the                           hallucination                                              heat sink
gringo                                                    hallucinogen                                               heaven
Griswold versus Connecticut                               Halsey, William F.                                         heavy water
Gropius, Walter                                           Ham                                                        Hebrew
gross                                                     Hamas                                                      Hebrews
gross domestic product                                    Hamburg                                                    Hector
Groundhog Day                                             Hamilton, Alexander                                        hedging
groundwater                                               Hamlet                                                     hedonism
Group of Eight                                            Hammarskjöld, Dag                                          Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
group therapy                                             Hammerstein, Oscar, II                                     Heisenberg uncertainty principle
groupware                                                 Hammett, Dashiell                                          Heisenberg, Werner
Guadalajara                                               Hammurabi                                                  Helen of Troy
Guadeloupe                                                Hancock, John                                              helium
Guam                                                      Handel, George Frederick                                   helix
Guangzhou                                                 handheld computer                                          hell


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Hellenistic Age                                           Hinduism                                                   homosexuality
Hell hath no fury like a woman                            hip-hop                                                    Honduras
   scorned                                                hippies                                                    Honesty is the best policy
Hellmann, Lillian                                         Hippocrates                                                Hong Kong
Helsinki                                                  Hippocratic oath                                           Honolulu
Hemings, Sally                                            Hirohito                                                   Hook, Captain
Hemingway, Ernest                                         Hiroshima                                                  hook, line, and sinker
hemisphere                                                Hiroshima                                                  Hoover, Herbert
hemoglobin                                                Hiss, Alger                                                Hoover, J. Edgar
hemophilia                                                hit below the belt                                         Hoovervilles
Hendrix, Jimi                                             Hitchcock, Alfred                                          Hope, Bob
Henry, John                                               Hitch your wagon to a star                                 Hope springs eternal
Henry, O.                                                 Hitler, Adolf                                              Hopper, Edward
Henry, Patrick                                            hit the ceiling                                            Horace
Henry VIII                                                HIV                                                        hormones
hepatitis                                                 hives                                                      horse of a different color
Hepburn, Katharine                                        HMO                                                        horsepower
Hephaestus                                                Hobbes, Thomas                                             horticulture
Hera                                                      hobbits                                                    hot spot
herbivore                                                 Ho Chi Minh                                                Houdini, Harry
Hercules                                                  Ho Chi Minh City                                           house arrest
hereditary                                                Hodgkin’s disease                                          “House Divided” speech
heredity                                                  Hoffa, Jimmy                                               House of Commons
heresy                                                    hoi polloi                                                 House of Lords
heretic                                                   hoist by one’s own petard                                  House of Representatives
Here today, gone tomorrow                                 holding company                                            Houston
Hermes                                                    hold water                                                 Houston, Sam
hernia                                                    holistic medicine                                          how many angels can stand (dance)
Herodotus                                                 Holland                                                       on the head of a pin?
Herodotus                                                 Hollywood                                                  HTML
Herod the Great                                           Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.                                Hubble, Edwin
herpes                                                    Holmes, Sherlock                                           Hubble Space Telescope
hertz                                                     Holocaust                                                  Huckleberry Finn, The Adventures
Hesse, Hermann                                            holography                                                    of
heterogeneity                                             Holy Roman Empire                                          Hudson Bay
heterosexuality                                           Holy See                                                   Hudson, Henry
He that is not with me is against me                      Holy Spirit                                                Hudson River
He who hesitates is lost                                  Holy Writ                                                  hue and cry
He who laughs last, laughs best                           homage                                                     Hughes, Langston
hexagon                                                   “Home on the Range”                                        Hugo, Victor
“Hey Diddle Diddle”                                       homeopathy                                                 Huguenots
Hezbollah                                                 homeostasis                                                The Human Comedy
Hiawatha                                                  homeotic genes                                             Human Genome Project
Hiawatha, The Song of                                     Homer                                                      humanist
hibernation                                               Homer, Winslow                                             humanities
Hickok, Wild Bill                                         Homestead Act                                              human rights
“Hickory, Dickory, Dock”                                  “Home, Sweet Home”                                         Hume, David
hidden unemployment                                       homicide                                                   humidity
hieroglyphics                                             hominids                                                   humor
high definition TV                                        Homo                                                       “Humpty Dumpty”
high horse                                                Homo erectus                                               The Hunchback of Notre Dame
Highlands, the                                            homogeneity                                                Hundred Years’ War
high-tech                                                 homologous chromosomes                                     Hungary
high-tech                                                 homonyms                                                   hung jury
Himalayas                                                 homophones                                                 Huns
Himmler, Heinrich                                         Homo sapiens                                               hunting and gathering societies


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

hurricane                                                 If wishes were horses, then beggars                        indulgence
Hurston, Zora Neale                                            would ride                                            industrial relations
Hussein, Saddam                                           If you can’t stand the heat, get out                       Industrial Revolution
Hutton, James                                                  of the kitchen                                        inelastic demand
Huxley, Aldous                                            Ignatius of Loyola                                         inelastic supply
hybridization                                             igneous rock                                               inertia
Hyde, Mr.                                                 Ignorance is bliss                                         I never met a man I didn’t like
hydraulic                                                 I have a dream                                             infallibility, papal
hydrocarbons                                              I have not yet begun to fight                              infection
hydrogen                                                  The Iliad                                                  infectious diseases
hydrogen bomb                                             illegitimacy                                               inference
hydrologic cycle                                          Illinois                                                   Inferno
hydroponics                                               imagery                                                    infinitive
Hymen                                                     Imitation is the sincerest form of                         inflammation
hymen                                                          flattery                                              “In Flanders Fields”
hyperbola                                                 Immaculate Conception                                      inflation
hyperbole                                                 immune system                                              inflationary universe
hyperlink                                                 immunity                                                   inflection
hypersensitivity                                          immunization                                               influenza
hypertension                                              impeachment                                                information economy
hypertext                                                 impedance                                                  information superhighway
hyphen                                                    imperative                                                 information warfare
hypnosis                                                  imperialism                                                infotech
hypochondriac                                             import quota                                               infrared radiation
hypotenuse                                                impresario                                                 inhibition
hypothalamus                                              impressionism                                              in hot water
hypothesis                                                Incarnation                                                injunction
hysterectomy                                              Incas                                                      in loco parentis
hysteria                                                  incest                                                     in medias res
Hz                                                        incisors                                                   in memoriam
i.e.                                                      income                                                     inner city
Iago                                                      income distribution                                        inner ear
iambic pentameter                                         incubation period                                          Innocents, Massacre or Slaughter of
ibid.                                                     incubator                                                      the
Ibsen, Henrik                                             incumbent                                                  inoculation
I came, I saw, I conquered                                indefinite article                                         inorganic chemistry
I cannot tell a lie                                       indentation                                                inorganic molecules
Icarus                                                    indentured servant                                         Inquisition
ice ages                                                  Independence                                               insider trading
iceberg                                                   Independence Day                                           in situ
Iceland                                                   independent clause                                         insomnia
icon                                                      index                                                      installment buying
id                                                        India                                                      instant messaging
Idaho                                                     Indiana                                                    instinct
idealism                                                  Indianapolis                                               institutional investor
ideology                                                  Indian Ocean                                               insulator
ides of March                                             Indian summer                                              insulin
ides of March, Beware the                                 indictment                                                 integers
idiom                                                     indirect object                                            integrated circuit
If at first you don’t succeed, try, try                   individualism                                              integration
     again                                                Individual Retirement Account                              intellectual
If music be the food of love, play on                     Indochina                                                  intelligence quotient
If the mountain will not come to                          Indonesia                                                  intelligentsia
     Muhammad, then Muhammad                              inductance                                                 interactive
     will go to the mountain                              induction                                                  intercontinental ballistic missile
If the shoe fits, wear it                                 induction                                                  interdependence


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

interest                                                  Iowa                                                       Iwo Jima
interest group                                            Iphigenia                                                  “Jack and Jill”
interest rate                                             IPO                                                        “Jack and the Beanstalk”
interference                                              Iran                                                       “Jack, Be Nimble”
interferon                                                Iran-Contra affair                                         Jack of all trades, master of none
interjection                                              Iraq                                                       Jackson, Andrew
intermediate-range ballistic missile                      Ireland                                                    Jacksonian democracy
internal-combustion engine                                Ireland, Republic of                                       Jackson, Jesse
Internal Revenue Service                                  iris                                                       Jackson, “Stonewall”
Internal Revenue Service                                  Irish Republican Army                                      Jacksonville
International                                             Iron Age                                                   “Jack Sprat”
International Court of Justice                            Iron Curtain                                               Jack the Ripper
“Internationale”                                          irony                                                      Jacob and Esau
internationalism                                          Iroquois League                                            Jacobins
international law                                         irrational number                                          Jacob’s ladder
International Monetary Fund                               irregular verb                                             Jakob-Creutzfeldt syndrome
Internet                                                  irrigation                                                 Jamaica
Internet service provider                                 Irving, Washington                                         James, Henry
interrogative sentence                                    Isaac                                                      James, Jesse
Interstate Commerce Commission                            Isaiah                                                     Jamestown
Interstate Commerce Commission                            Iseult                                                     James, William
intestines                                                I shall return                                             Jane Eyre
in the doghouse                                           Islam                                                      Janus
in the hot seat                                           Islamic fundamentalism                                     Japan
in the pink                                               isolationism                                               Japanese Americans, internment of
In the spring a young man’s fancy                         isomers                                                    jargon
     lightly turns to thoughts of love                    isotope                                                    Jason
In this world nothing is certain but                      Israel                                                     jaundice
     death and taxes                                      Israel                                                     Java
intifada                                                  Israelites                                                 jazz
Intolerable Acts                                          Istanbul                                                   Jazz Age
in toto                                                   isthmus                                                    Jeeves
intransitive verb                                         It ain’t a fit night out for man or                        Jeffersonian democracy
intrauterine device                                            beast                                                 Jeffersonianism versus
intravenous                                               italics                                                         Hamiltonianism
intron                                                    Italy                                                      Jefferson, Thomas
introvert                                                 itemized deduction                                         Jehovah
inventory                                                 I think; therefore I am                                    Jehovah’s Witnesses
inversion, thermal                                        It is a far, far better thing that I do,                   Jekyll, Dr.
invertebrates                                                  than I have ever done                                 je ne sais quoi
investment                                                It’s never over till it’s over                             Jeremiah
investment tax credit                                     It’s never too late to mend                                Jersey City
“Invictus”                                                It’s not whether you win or lose, it’s                     Jerusalem
in vino veritas                                                how you play the game                                 Jerusalem
invisible hand                                            It takes a heap o’ livin’ in a house t’                    Jesuits
Invisible Man                                                  make it home                                          Jesus
in vitro                                                  It takes a thief to catch a thief                          jet lag
in vivo                                                   It takes two to tango                                      jet stream
ion                                                       It was the best of times, it was the                       Jews
Ionic                                                          worst of times                                        Jews
ionic bond                                                Ivan the Terrible                                          Jezebel
ionization or ionizing                                    “I’ve Been Working on the Railroad”                        jihad
I only regret that I have but one life                    IVF                                                        Jim Crow
     to lose for my country                               Ivory Coast                                                jingoism
ionosphere                                                Ivy League                                                 Joan of Arc
IOU                                                       I wandered lonely as a cloud                               Job


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Job’s comforters                                          Justice                                                    kilogram
Jobs, Steven                                              justice of the peace                                       kilometer
Johannesburg                                              justification by grace, through faith                      kilowatt
John Birch Society                                        justify the ways of God to men, to                         kilowatt-hour
“John Brown’s Body”                                       juvenilia                                                  kinetic energy
John Bull                                                 Kabul                                                      kingdom
John Doe, Jane Doe                                        Kafka, Franz                                               kingdom come
John Hancock                                              Kaiser                                                     kingdom for a horse!, My
“John Henry”                                              Kama Sutra                                                 King James Bible
John Paul II, Pope                                        kamikaze                                                   King James Bible
Johnson, Andrew                                           Kandinsky, Wassily                                         King Kong
Johnson, James Weldon                                     kangaroo court                                             King Lear
Johnson, Lyndon Baines                                    Kansas                                                     King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Johnson, Samuel                                           Kansas City                                                Kinsey, Alfred
John the Baptist                                          Kansas-Nebraska Act                                        kinship
John, the Gospel According to                             Kant, Immanuel                                             Kipling, Rudyard
John XXIII, Pope                                          Karachi                                                    Kissinger, Henry
joie de vivre                                             karyotype                                                  kitsch
Joint Chiefs of Staff                                     Kashmir                                                    Klee, Paul
joint resolution                                          Kazakhstan                                                 kleptomania
Jolly Roger                                               Keats, John                                                Klondike gold rush
Jonah and the whale                                       Keck Telescope                                             knee-jerk reflex
Jones, John Paul                                          keeping up with the Joneses                                Knesset
Joplin, Scott                                             keep one’s fingers crossed                                 knight
Jordan                                                    keep the wolf from one’s door                              knock on wood
Jordan, Michael                                           Keller, Helen                                              Knowledge is power
Jordan River                                              Kelvin, Lord                                               Know-Nothings
Jordan River                                              Kelvin scale                                               know the ropes
Joseph and his brothers                                   Kennedy, Edward                                            Koran
Joseph, the husband of Mary                               Kennedy, John F.                                           Korea
Joshua                                                    Kennedy, Robert                                            Korean War
“Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho”                        Kent State                                                 kosher
journeyman                                                Kentucky                                                   kosher
Joyce, James                                              Kentucky Derby                                             Kosovo War
Judaism                                                   Kenya                                                      Kremlin
Judas Iscariot                                            Keogh plans                                                “Kubla Khan”
Judge not, that ye be not judged                          Kepler, Johannes                                           Ku Klux Klan
Judgment Day                                              kettledrum                                                 Kuomintang
Judgment of Paris                                         key                                                        Kurds
judicial activism                                         Key, Francis Scott                                         Kuwait
judicial branch                                           Keynesian economics                                        Kwanzaa or Kwanza
judicial restraint                                        Keynes, John Maynard                                       Kyoto Protocol
judicial review                                           KGB                                                        Kyrgyzstan
Juggernaut                                                Khartoum                                                   labor
Julius Caesar                                             Khmer Rouge                                                Labor Day
Julius Caesar                                             Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah                               labor-intensive
jump down someone’s throat                                Khrushchev, Nikita                                         labor market
jumping genes                                             kibbutz                                                    labor movement
Jung, Carl                                                kick the bucket                                            labor union
junk bonds                                                Kidd, Captain William                                      Labrador
“junk” DNA                                                kidneys                                                    Labyrinth
Juno                                                      kidney stones                                              Lafayette, Marquis de
junta                                                     Kierkegaard, Søren                                         Lafayette, we are here
Jupiter                                                   Kiev                                                       Lafitte, Jean
Jupiter                                                   Kilimanjaro                                                La Fontaine, Jean de
jurisprudence                                             kill two birds with one stone                              Lagos


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

La Guardia, Fiorello                                      Leaning Tower of Pisa                                      Lewis, Sinclair
laissez-faire                                             leap second                                                Lexington and Concord, Battle of
Lake Erie                                                 lease                                                      liability
Lake Huron                                                Leaves of Grass                                            libel
Lake Michigan                                             Leave well enough alone                                    liberal
Lake Ontario                                              Lebanon                                                    liberal arts
Lake Superior                                             Leda and the swan                                          liberal arts
Lake Victoria                                             Lee, Robert E.                                             liberalism
lama                                                      Left Bank                                                  Liberia
Lamb of God                                               left brain                                                 Liberty Bell
lame duck                                                 left-handed compliment                                     libido
LAN                                                       left holding the bag                                       Library of Congress
Lancelot, Sir                                             leftist                                                    Libya
land breeze                                               left-wing                                                  Liechtenstein
land flowing with milk and honey                          left-wing                                                  lieder
land of Nod                                               legal tender                                               lien
Laocoon                                                   “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”                              Life is short; art is long
Laos                                                      legislative branch                                         life of Riley
laparoscope                                               legitimate government                                      “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing”
Laplace, Marquis de                                       Legree, Simon                                              ligament
laptop                                                    Leipzig                                                    light
larceny                                                   leisure class                                              lightning
large intestine                                           leitmotif                                                  Lightning never strikes twice in the
larynx                                                    Lenin                                                           same place
laser                                                     Leningrad                                                  light year
laser-guided weapons                                      lens                                                       lilies of the field, Consider the
laser printer                                             lens                                                       Lilliput
LASIK                                                     Lent                                                       Lima
last mile                                                 Leonardo da Vinci                                          limbo
The Last of the Mohicans                                  leprechauns                                                limerick
The Last Supper                                           leprosy                                                    limestone
Las Vegas                                                 lepton                                                     limited liability
latency period                                            lesbian                                                    Lincoln, Abraham
latent heat                                               Les Misérables                                             Lincoln-Douglas debates
Latin                                                     Lessing, Doris                                             Lincoln Memorial
Latin America                                             Let bygones be bygones                                     Lincoln’s second inaugural address
latitude                                                  Lethe                                                      Lindbergh, Charles A.
Latter-Day Saints                                         Let him who is without sin cast the                        line
Latvia                                                         first stone                                           line-item veto
Laugh, and the world laughs with                          Let me not to the marriage of true                         line noise
     you; weep, and you weep alone                             minds / Admit impediments                             Linnaeus, Carolus
laugh up one’s sleeve                                     Let’s cross that bridge when we                            Linnean classification
Laurel and Hardy                                               come to it                                            lion’s share
lava                                                      Let sleeping dogs lie                                      lipids
Lavoisier, Antoine                                        “Letter from Birmingham Jail”                              Lippmann, Walter
Lawrence, D. H.                                           let the cat out of the bag                                 lip service
Lawrence of Arabia                                        Let them eat cake                                          liquid
lay an egg                                                Let there be light                                         liquid asset
layoff                                                    leukemia                                                   liquidation
Lay on, Macduff                                           Levant                                                     liquidity
Lazarus                                                   leverage                                                   Lisbon
LDL                                                       leveraged buyout                                           list price
leading question                                          Leviathan                                                  Liszt, Franz
League of Nations                                         Lewis and Clark expedition                                 litany
Leakey                                                    Lewis, C. S.                                               lithosphere
lean and hungry look                                      Lewis, John L.                                             Lithuania


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

litmus                                                    Love your enemies                                          Maginot line
“Little Bo-Peep”                                          lowbrow                                                    magma
“Little Boy Blue”                                         lower-case letters                                         Magna Carta
“Little Jack Horner”                                      lowest common denominator                                  magnet
Little John                                               LSD                                                        magnetic field
A little learning is a dangerous thing                    Lucifer                                                    magnetic field of the Earth
“Little Miss Muffet”                                      Lucifer                                                    magnetic field reversals
Little pitchers have big ears                             Lucy                                                       magnetic levitation
“Little Red Riding Hood”                                  Luddites                                                   magnetic memory storage
Little Rock                                               Luftwaffe                                                  magnetic north
Little strokes fell great oaks                            Luke, the Gospel According to                              magnetic pole
Little Women                                              lunatic fringe                                             magnetic resonance imaging
Live and learn                                            lungs                                                      magnetic storm
Live and let live                                         lupus                                                      magnetic tape
live in an ivory tower                                    Lusitania                                                  magnetism
liver                                                     Lutheran Church                                            magnum opus
Liverpool                                                 Luther, Martin                                             Mahler, Gustav
Lloyd George, David                                       Luxembourg                                                 Mailer, Norman
loaves and fishes                                         Lyell, Charles                                             Maine
lobby                                                     Lyme disease                                               mainframe
lobotomy                                                  lymph                                                      mainstream
local anesthetic                                          lymphatic system                                           majority leader
“Loch Lomond”                                             lymph nodes                                                make a clean breast of it
Loch Ness Monster                                         lynch law                                                  make a mountain out of a molehill
Locke, John                                               Lyon                                                       make a virtue of necessity
lockout                                                   lyric                                                      make ends meet
lock, stock, and barrel                                   Lysistrata                                                 Make haste slowly
locus                                                     M*A*S*H                                                    Make hay while the sun shines
logic                                                     MacArthur, Douglas                                         make my day
logrolling                                                Macbeth                                                    make no bones about it
London                                                    Maccabees                                                  make-work
“London Bridge Is Falling Down”                           Macedonia                                                  maladjustment
London, Jack                                              Machiavelli, Niccolò                                       malapropism
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth                               machine, political                                         Malaprop, Mrs.
Long, Huey                                                machine politics                                           malaria
Long Island                                               Mach number                                                Malawi
longitude                                                 macho                                                      Malaysia
Long March                                                macrocosm                                                  Malcolm X
Look before you leap                                      macroeconomics                                             Mali
Lord of the Flies                                         Madagascar                                                 Mali empire
Lord’s Prayer                                             Madame Bovary                                              malignant
Lord, what fools these mortals be!                        Madame Butterfly                                           malnutrition
Los Angeles                                               mad cow disease                                            malpractice
lost generation                                           Madison                                                    Malta
Lost Tribes of Israel                                     Madison Avenue                                             Malthusianism
Lot’s wife                                                Madison, Dolley or Dolly                                   Malthus, Thomas
Louisiana                                                 Madison, James                                             mammals
Louisiana Purchase                                        Madonna                                                    mammogram
Louis, Joe                                                Madonna                                                    mammography
Louisville                                                Madrid                                                     mammon
Louis XIV                                                 maestro                                                    management
Louis XVI                                                 Mafia                                                      Manchester
Louvre                                                    Magellan, Ferdinand                                        Manchu dynasty
Love conquers all                                         Magellan, Strait of                                        mandate
Love makes the world go `round                            Magi                                                       Mandela, Nelson
Love thy neighbor as thyself                              The Magic Flute                                            Man does not live by bread alone


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Manet, Edouard                                            Marx, Karl                                                 mechanics
Manhattan                                                 Marx, Karl                                                 Medal of Honor
Manhattan Project                                         Mary had a little lamb                                     Medea
mania                                                     Maryland                                                   median
manic-depressive illness                                  Mary Magdalene                                             median
manifest destiny                                          “Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary”                               mediation
A man is known by the company he                          Mary, the mother of Jesus                                  Medicaid
   keeps                                                  masochism                                                  Medicare
Man is the measure of all things                          Mason-Dixon line                                           Medicare
Manitoba                                                  Mason-Dixon line                                           Medici
manna from heaven                                         Mass                                                       Medici, Lorenzo de
Mann, Horace                                              Mass                                                       medieval
Mann, Thomas                                              mass                                                       Mediterranean Sea
Man proposes, God disposes                                Massachusetts                                              Medusa
Man shall not live by bread alone                         mass extinction                                            meet one’s Waterloo
A man’s home is his castle                                massive resistance                                         megabyte
A man’s home is his castle                                massive retaliation                                        megahertz
manslaughter                                              mass media                                                 megalomania
a man’s reach should exceed his                           mass production                                            megalopolis
   grasp                                                  mass spectograph                                           megawatt
mantle                                                    mastectomy                                                 Meiji Restoration
Many are called but few are chosen                        master race                                                Mein Kampf
Many hands make light work                                Mata Hari                                                  meiosis
Maoism                                                    materialism                                                Meir, Golda
Mao Zedong                                                mathematical induction                                     melanin
Marathon, Battle of                                       mathematics                                                melanoma
Marat, Jean-Paul                                          Mather, Cotton                                             Melbourne
Marbury versus Madison                                    Matisse, Henri                                             melodrama
Marconi, Guglielmo                                        matriarchy                                                 meltdown
Marcus Aurelius                                           matrilineal                                                melting point
Mardi Gras                                                matter                                                     melting pot
marginal cost                                             Matterhorn                                                 Melville, Herman
marginal tax rate                                         Matthew, the Gospel According to                           memory cell
Marianas Trench                                           matzo                                                      memory, computer
Marie Antoinette                                          mausoleum                                                  Memphis
Marion, Francis                                           Maxwell, James Clerk                                       Mencken, H. L.
Maritime Provinces                                        Maxwell’s equations                                        Mendeleev, Dmitri
market economy                                            Mayas                                                      Mendel, Gregor
Mark, the Gospel According to                             Mayflower                                                  Mendelssohn, Felix
The Marriage of Figaro                                    Mayflower Compact                                          meninges
marrow                                                    McCarthyism                                                meningitis
Marry in haste, repent at leisure                         McCarthy, Joseph R.                                        Mennonites
Mars                                                      McCarthy, Mary                                             menopause
Mars                                                      McCullers, Carson                                          menorah
“The Marseillaise”                                        McGovern, George                                           menstrual cycle
Marseilles                                                McGuffey’s Readers                                         menstruation
Marshall, George C.                                       McKinley, William                                          Mephistopheles
Marshall, John                                            McLuhan, (Herbert) Marshall                                mercantilism
Marshall Plan                                             mea culpa                                                  Mercator projection
Marshall, Thurgood                                        Mead, Margaret                                             The Merchant of Venice
Martha’s Vineyard                                         mean                                                       Mercury
Martinique                                                mean                                                       Mercury
Marx brothers                                             mean free path                                             mercury
Marxism                                                   measles                                                    Mercury program
Marxism                                                   Mecca                                                      merger
Marxism-Leninism                                          Mecca                                                      meridian


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

meristem                                                  Midway Island, Battle of                                   Mohammed
meritocracy                                               midwife                                                    Mojave Desert
Merlin                                                    The Mikado                                                 molars
mermaid                                                   Milan                                                      Moldova
meson                                                     miles to go before I sleep                                 molecular biology
Mesopotamia                                               military-industrial complex                                molecular weight
Messiah                                                   militia movement of the 1990s                              molecule
Messiah                                                   milk of human kindness                                     Molière
Messiah                                                   Milky Way                                                  mollusks
metabolism                                                millennium                                                 Moloch
metamorphic rock                                          Miller, Glenn                                              Molotov cocktail
Metamorphoses                                             Mill, John Stuart                                          momentum
“The Metamorphosis”                                       Milne, A. A.                                               Monaco
metamorphosis                                             Milosevic, Slobodan                                        Mona Lisa
metaphor                                                  Milton, John                                               monarchy
metaphysics                                               Milwaukee                                                  Mondrian, Piet
meteor                                                    mind your p’s and q’s                                      Monera
meteorites                                                Mine eyes have seen the glory of                           monetarism
meteorology                                                   the coming of the Lord                                 monetary policy
meter                                                     mineral                                                    Monet, Claude
meter                                                     minerals                                                   money burning a hole in one’s
methadone                                                 Minerva                                                      pocket
Methodists                                                Ming Dynasty                                               Money is the root of all evil
Methuselah                                                minimum wage                                               money market
metric system                                             minister                                                   money supply
Metropolitan Museum of Art                                minister                                                   Mongolia
Metropolitan Opera                                        Minneapolis                                                monism
Metternich, Prince Clemens von                            Minnesota                                                  Monitor versus Merrimack
Mexican War                                               minority leader                                            monks
Mexico                                                    Minotaur                                                   monogamy
Mexico City                                               Minutemen                                                  mononucleosis
mezzo soprano                                             Miranda decision                                           monopoly
Miami                                                     miscarriage                                                monotheism
Michael                                                   misdemeanor                                                Monroe Doctrine
Michelangelo                                              Misery loves company                                       Monroe, James
Michigan                                                  missing link                                               Monroe, Marilyn
Mickey Mouse                                              A miss is as good as a mile                                monsoon
microchip                                                 Mississippi                                                montage
microclimate                                              Mississippi River                                          Montaigne, Michel de
microcosm                                                 Missouri                                                   Montana
microeconomics                                            Missouri Compromise                                        Mont Blanc
microfilm                                                 Missouri River                                             Monte Carlo
microorganisms                                            mitochondrial Eve                                          Montesquieu, Charles, Baron de
microscope                                                mitochondrion                                              Montessori, Maria
microwave communication                                   mitosis                                                    Montevideo
microwaves                                                mixed economy                                              Montezuma
Midas                                                     mixed marriage                                             Montgomery, Bernard
Mid-Atlantic states                                       mobile                                                     Monticello
Middle Ages                                               Moby Dick                                                  Montreal
Middle America                                            mode                                                       Monty Python
middle class                                              modem                                                      moon
middle ear                                                “A Modest Proposal”                                        Moonlight Sonata
Middle East                                               modifier                                                   Moore, Henry
Middle English                                            modus operandi                                             moraine
Middle West                                               modus vivendi                                              moratorium
A Midsummer Night’s Dream                                 Moguls                                                     mores


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

more sinned against than sinning                          Munich Pact                                                National Anthem of the United
more things in heaven and Earth,                          municipal bonds                                               States
  Horatio                                                 mural                                                      National Association for the
More, Thomas                                              Murder will out                                               Advancement of Colored People
Morgan, J. Pierpont                                       Murphy’s Law                                               national debt
Mormons                                                   Murrow, Edward R.                                          National Gallery of Art
Morocco                                                   muscular dystrophy                                         National Guard
Morpheus                                                  muscular system                                            nationalism
morphine                                                  Muses                                                      Nationalist China
morphology                                                musical                                                    Nationalist China
Morrison, Toni                                            musical comedy                                             nationalization
Morse, Samuel F. B.                                       Music has charms to soothe a                               nationalization
mortal sin/venial sin                                        savage breast                                           National Labor Relations Board
mortgage                                                  Muslims, Shi’ite and Sunni                                 national liberation movements
mosaic                                                    Mussolini, Benito                                          National Organization for Women
Mosaic law                                                mutagen                                                    National Origins Act of 1924
Moscow                                                    mutations                                                  National Rifle Association
Moses                                                     mutual fund                                                National Security Council
Moses, Grandma                                            mutual insurance company                                   national self-determination
Moslem                                                    Myanmar                                                    Nation, Carry
mosque                                                    My country, ’tis of thee                                   Native Americans
most-favored-nation                                       My Fair Lady                                               Native Son
most unkindest cut of all                                 My God, my God, why hast thou                              Nativity
Mother Goose rhymes                                          forsaken me?                                            naturalism
Mother Teresa                                             My Lai massacre                                            naturalism
motif                                                     myopia                                                     naturalization
motor development                                         mysticism                                                  natural law
Mount Everest                                             mythology                                                  natural resources
Mount Kilimanjaro                                         N.B.                                                       natural rights
Mount McKinley                                            Nabokov, Vladimir                                          natural selection
Mount Palomar                                             Nader, Ralph                                               nature-nurture controversy
Mount Rainier                                             Nagasaki                                                   Navajos
Mount Rushmore                                            Nairobi                                                    Nazareth
Mount Saint Helens                                        Namibia                                                    Nazis
Mount Vernon                                              Nanjing                                                    Nazism
Mount Vesuvius                                            Nanking                                                    Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Mount Whitney                                             nano                                                       Neanderthal
mouse                                                     nanosecond                                                 Near East
movement                                                  nanotechnology                                             Nebraska
Mozambique                                                Nantucket                                                  nebula
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus                                  Naples                                                     necessary condition
MP3                                                       Napoleon Bonaparte                                         Necessity is the mother of invention
Ms.                                                       Napster                                                    negative income tax
muckrakers                                                narcissism                                                 Nehru, Jawaharlal
mucous membrane                                           Narcissus                                                  Neither a borrower nor a lender be
mucus                                                     narration                                                  Nelson, Admiral Horatio
Muhammad                                                  Narrative of the Life of Frederick                         Nemesis
multiculturalism                                             Douglass                                                neocolonialism
multilateralism                                           narrator                                                   Nepal
multinational corporation                                 narrow construction                                        nephrology
multiple independently targeted re-                       NASDAQ                                                     nepotism
  entry vehicle                                           Nash, Ogden                                                Neptune
multiple sclerosis                                        Nashville                                                  Neptune
multiplier effect                                         Nasser, Gamal Abdel                                        Nero
mumps                                                     National Aeronautics and Space                             Neruda, Pablo
Munich                                                       Administration                                          nerve


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

nervous system                                            Nightingale, Florence                                      Normandy, invasion of
net                                                       NIH                                                        Norse mythology
Netherlands Antilles                                      nihilism                                                   North America
network                                                   Nijinsky, Vaslav                                           North American Free Trade
neural networks                                           Nile River                                                     Agreement
neurology                                                 NIMBY                                                      North Atlantic Treaty Organization
neurons                                                   nimbus clouds                                              North Carolina
neurosis                                                  Nimitz, Admiral Chester                                    North Dakota
neurotransmitter                                          nine days’ wonder                                          Northern Hemisphere
neutrino                                                  9-11                                                       Northern Ireland
neutron                                                   Nineteen Eighty-Four                                       northern lights
neutron star                                              1914 to 1918                                               North Korea
Nevada                                                    1939 to 1945                                               North Pole
Never give a sucker an even break                         Ninth Symphony                                             North Sea
Never-Never Land                                          nip and tuck                                               North Star
Never put off until tomorrow what                         nirvana                                                    Northwest Ordinance
    you can do today                                      Nisei                                                      Northwest Passage
Never say die                                             nitrogen                                                   Northwest Territories
New Age                                                   nitrogen fixing                                            Norway
New Amsterdam                                             nitrogenous wastes                                         nose out of joint
Newark                                                    Nixon, Richard                                             nose to the grindstone
A new broom sweeps clean                                  Nkrumah, Kwame                                             nothing new under the sun
New Brunswick                                             Noah and the Flood                                         Nothing succeeds like success
New Deal                                                  Nobel laureate                                             Nothing ventured, nothing gained
New Delhi                                                 Nobel Prizes                                               Nothing will come of nothing
New England                                               Nob Hill                                                   Notre Dame de Paris, Cathedral of
Newfoundland                                              noble savage                                               Nottingham, sheriff of
New Frontier                                              noblesse oblige                                            noun
New Guinea                                                “Nobody Knows the Trouble I’ve                             nouveau riche
New Hampshire                                                 Seen”                                                  nova
New Haven                                                 no-brainer                                                 Nova Scotia
New Jersey                                                no-fault insurance                                         novel
New Labour                                                nolo contendere                                            Novocain
New Left                                                  nomadism                                                   Now I lay me down to sleep
New Mexico                                                No man can serve two masters                               nuance
New Orleans                                               No man can serve two masters                               nuclear energy
Newport                                                   No man is an island                                        nuclear family
New Testament                                             nom de plume                                               nuclear-free zone
Newton, Isaac                                             nominative case                                            nuclear power
Newton’s laws of motion                                   nonaligned nations                                         nuclear reaction
New World                                                 non compos mentis                                          nuclear reactor
New York                                                  Nonconformists                                             Nuclear Regulatory Commission
New York City                                             No news is good news                                       Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
New York Stock Exchange                                   nonperson                                                  nuclear testing
New Zealand                                               Nonproliferation Treaty                                    nuclear testing
NGOs                                                      non sequitur                                               nuclear weapon
Niagara Falls                                             nonverbal communication                                    nuclear winter
Nicaragua                                                 nonviolent resistance                                      nucleic acids
Nice                                                      No one ever went broke                                     nucleotides
Nice guys finish last                                         underestimating the intelligence                       nucleus
Nicholas, Saint                                               of the American people                                 nucleus
nicotine                                                  No rest for the weary                                      nukes
Nietzsche, Friedrich                                      Norfolk                                                    nullification
Niger                                                     normalcy                                                   number
Nigeria                                                   normal distribution curve                                  numeral
“The Night Before Christmas”                              Norman Conquest                                            numerator


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

nun                                                       “Old Mother Hubbard”                                       ophthalmology
Nuremberg trials                                          Old soldiers never die; they only                          opium
The Nutcracker                                                fade away                                              Oppenheimer, J. Robert
nymphomania                                               Old Testament                                              opportunistic infection
nymphs                                                    Olduvai Gorge                                              opposable thumb
“O Captain, My Captain”                                   Old World                                                  optic nerve
“O Come, All Ye Faithful”                                 olfactory                                                  optics
Oakland                                                   oligarchy                                                  oral personality
Oakley, Annie                                             oligopoly                                                  oral stage
Oak Ridge                                                 olive branch                                               oratorio
O beautiful for spacious skies                            Oliver Twist                                               orbit
object                                                    Olivier, Laurence                                          orchestra
objective case                                            “Ol’ Man River”                                            order
oboe                                                      Olympic Games                                              order of magnitude
obscenity                                                 Olympus, Mount                                             ordinal numbers
obsession                                                 Omaha                                                      ore
obsolescence                                              Oman                                                       Oregon
obstetrics                                                Omar Khayyam                                               Oregon Trail
obtuse angle                                              ombudsman                                                  Orestes
occupational disease                                      omnivore                                                   organ
Occupied Territories                                      Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy                                organelles
Ockham, William of                                        Once bitten, twice shy                                     organic
O’Connor, Sandra Day                                      once in a blue moon                                        organic chemistry
octagon                                                   Once more unto the breach, dear                            organic compounds
octave                                                        friends                                                organic molecule
October Revolution                                        oncogene                                                   organic molecules
ode                                                       oncology                                                   organization man
“Ode on a Grecian Urn”                                    One [or A] picture is worth a                              organization man
Odin                                                          thousand words                                         Organization of American States
Odysseus                                                  One good turn deserves another                             Organization of Petroleum
The Odyssey                                               One if by land, and two if by sea                              Exporting Countries
Oedipus                                                   O’Neill, Eugene                                            original sin
Oedipus complex                                           One man’s meat is another man’s                            original sin
Oedipus Rex                                                   poison                                                 The Origin of Species
off-Broadway                                              One rotten (or bad) apple spoils the                       Orpheus and Eurydice
Office of Economic Opportunity                                barrel                                                 Orthodox Christianity
offshore drilling                                         one that loved not wisely but too                          Orthodox Judaism
Off with her head! Off with his head!                         well                                                   orthopedics
O’Hara, Scarlett                                          “On Liberty”                                               Orwell, George
Ohio                                                      online                                                     Oscar
Ohio River                                                on pins and needles                                        Oslo
ohm                                                       Ontario                                                    Oslo Accord
“Oh! Susanna”                                             on tenterhooks                                             osmosis
Oil and water don’t mix                                   on the Hill                                                osteopathy
oil sands                                                 on the horns of a dilemma                                  osteoporosis
O’Keeffe, Georgia                                         on the level                                               Oswald, Lee Harvey
Okinawa                                                   on the warpath                                             Othello
Oklahoma!                                                 “On Top of Old Smoky”                                      Ottawa
Oklahoma                                                  “Onward Christian Soldiers”                                Ottoman Empire
Oklahoma City                                             open primary                                               Ottoman Empire
Oklahoma City Bombing                                     open shop                                                  Our Town
old boy network                                           open universe                                              Out, damned spot!
Old English                                               opera                                                      outer ear
Old Glory                                                 operating system                                           Out of sight, out of mind
old hat                                                   operetta                                                   Out of the frying pan, into the fire
“Old King Cole”                                           ophthalmic                                                 ova


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Oval Office                                               parameter                                                  Pavarotti, Luciano
ovaries                                                   paranoia                                                   Pavlov’s dogs
overdraft                                                 paranoid schizophrenia                                     Pax Romana
overhead                                                  paraphrase                                                 pay the piper
“Over There”                                              parapsychology                                             pay through the nose
overture                                                  parasite                                                   PCR
Ovid                                                      parathyroid glands                                         Peace Corps
ovulation                                                 parentheses                                                peaker plant
Owens, Jesse                                              pariah                                                     “Peanuts”
“The Owl and the Pussy-Cat”                               Paris                                                      Pearl Harbor
Oxford and Cambridge Universities                         Paris                                                      pearl of great price
oxidation                                                 parity price                                               pearls before swine, Cast not
oxygen                                                    Park Avenue                                                Peary, Robert E.
oxymoron                                                  Parker, Dorothy                                            peasant
ozone hole                                                Parkinson’s disease                                        pecking order
ozone layer                                               Parkinson’s Law                                            pederast
p.c.                                                      Parks, Rosa                                                pediatrics
p53 gene                                                  parliament                                                 peeping Tom
pacemaker                                                 parliamentary system                                       peer group
Pacific Islands                                           Parnassus                                                  peer pressure
Pacific Ocean                                             parody                                                     Pegasus
pacifism                                                  Parthenon                                                  Peking
packet switched system                                    participle                                                 pell-mell
pager                                                     particle accelerator                                       Peloponnesian War
pagoda                                                    particle physics                                           pelvic inflammatory disease
Paine, Thomas                                             Parting is such sweet sorrow                               pelvis
Painted Desert                                            partition                                                  penance
paint the town red                                        partnership                                                Penelope
Pakistan                                                  parts of a sentence                                        penicillin
palate                                                    parts of speech                                            peninsula
paleontology                                              Pascal, Blaise                                             penis
Palermo                                                   passim                                                     penis envy
Palestine                                                 passive resistance                                         Pennsylvania
Palestine Liberation Organization                         passive voice                                              Pennsylvania Dutch
Palestinian Authority                                     Passover                                                   Penn, William
Palladio, Andrea                                          Passover                                                   A penny saved is a penny earned
Palm Sunday                                               pass the buck                                              Pensées
Pan                                                       Pasternak, Boris                                           pension
Panama                                                    pasteurization                                             Pentagon
Panama Canal                                              Pasteur, Louis                                             pentagon
pancreas                                                  pastor                                                     Pentagon Papers
pandemic                                                  pastoral                                                   Pentecost
Pandora’s box                                             pathogen                                                   peonage
Pangaea                                                   pathogenic                                                 People’s Republic of China
pantheism                                                 pathology                                                  People’s Republic of China
papacy                                                    patriarchs                                                 People who live in glass houses
parables                                                  patriarchy                                                     shouldn’t throw stones
parabola                                                  Patrick, Saint                                             Perón, Eva
paradise                                                  patrilineal                                                Perón, Juan
Paradise Lost                                             patronage                                                  per capita
Paradiso                                                  patron saint                                               percent
paradox                                                   Patton, George                                             percussion
paragraph                                                 Paul                                                       per diem
Paraguay                                                  Paul, Alice                                                perfectibility of man
parallel processing                                       Pauling, Linus                                             Pericles
paralysis                                                 “Paul Revere’s Ride”                                       perigee


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

period                                                    Physician, heal thyself                                    play possum
periodic table of the elements                            physics                                                    play Russian roulette
peripheral                                                physiology                                                 play second fiddle
peripheral nervous system                                 pi                                                         play to the gallery
peristalsis                                               pianissimo                                                 plea bargain
Perkins, Frances                                          piano                                                      pleasure principle
Perot, H. Ross                                            pianoforte                                                 plebiscite
perpetual-motion machine                                  piazza                                                     Pledge of Allegiance
Perseus                                                   Picasso, Pablo                                             Plessy versus Ferguson
Pershing, John                                            piccolo                                                    plot
Persian Empire                                            Pickwick, Samuel                                           plural
Persian Gulf                                              Piedmont                                                   pluralism
Persian Gulf War                                          “The Pied Piper of Hamelin”                                Plutarch
person                                                    pie in the sky                                             Pluto
personal computer                                         Pietà                                                      Pluto
personality                                               Pike’s Peak                                                plutocracy
personal pronoun                                          Pilate, Pontius                                            plutonium
personal property                                         Pilgrims                                                   Plymouth Colony
persona non grata                                         The Pilgrim’s Progress                                     Plymouth Rock
perspective                                               Pinafore, H.M.S.                                           PMS
Peru                                                      Pinocchio, The Adventures of                               pneumonia
Peter                                                     pistil                                                     Pocahontas
Peter and the Wolf                                        Pittsburgh                                                 pocket veto
Peter Pan                                                 pituitary gland                                            Poe, Edgar Allan
“Peter Piper”                                             Pizarro, Francisco                                         poet laureate
Peter Principle                                           placebo                                                    Poets are born, not made
Peter the Great                                           A place for everything and                                 pogrom
petrochemical                                                 everything in its place                                point
PET scan                                                  placenta                                                   Poland
pH                                                        plagiarism                                                 Poland, invasion of
phallic symbol                                            plague                                                     polarization
pharaoh                                                   plagues of Egypt                                           polarization
pharaohs                                                  plaintiff                                                  police state
Pharisees                                                 Planck, Max                                                poliomyelitis
phases of matter                                          Planck’s constant                                          politburo
phenotype                                                 plane                                                      political action committees
phenylketonuria                                           plane geometry                                             political science
pheromones                                                planet                                                     Politics makes strange bedfellows
Philadelphia                                              planned economy                                            polka
Philippines                                               planned obsolescence                                       Polk, James K.
Philistines                                               plant kingdom                                              pollen
philosopher                                               plaque                                                     pollination
philosopher-king                                          plasma                                                     Pollock, Jackson
philosopher’s stone                                       plasma                                                     poll tax
philosophes                                               plasmid                                                    Pollyanna
philosophy                                                plastic surgery                                            Polo, Marco
phloem                                                    platelets                                                  polyandry
phobia                                                    plate tectonics                                            polygamy
Phoenicia                                                 platform                                                   polygon
phoenix                                                   platform                                                   polymer
Phoenix                                                   Plath, Sylvia                                              Polynesia
photoelectric effect                                      Plato                                                      polytheism
photon                                                    Platonic or platonic                                       Pompeii
photosynthesis                                            Platonism                                                  Ponce de León, Juan
phrase                                                    play fast and loose                                        pontiff
phylum                                                    play it by ear                                             Pony Express


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Pooh-Bah                                                  Preamble to the Constitution                               program
Poor Richard’s Almanack                                   precedent                                                  programming language
pop art                                                   precipitate                                                program, to
pope                                                      precipitation                                              progressive education
Pope, Alexander                                           predestination                                             Progressive movement
Popeye                                                    predicate                                                  progressive tax
pop the question                                          preemptive strike                                          Prohibition
population control                                        prefix                                                     prokaryotes
population genetics                                       prejudice                                                  proletariat
populism                                                  premier                                                    proletariat
Populist party                                            prenatal                                                   Prometheus
Porgy and Bess                                            preposition                                                Promised Land
pork-barrel legislation                                   Presbyterian Church                                        pronoun
pornography                                               Presley, Elvis                                             propaganda
portal                                                    pressure                                                   property rights
Porter, Cole                                              pressure group                                             prophet
Portland                                                  Pretoria                                                   A prophet is not without honor save
Portugal                                                  prevailing westerlies                                         in his own country
Poseidon                                                  preventive medicine                                        proportional representation
positivism                                                Priam                                                      prorate
positron                                                  price controls                                             prostate gland
possessive                                                price fixing                                               protagonist
Post, Emily                                               Pride and Prejudice                                        protease inhibitors
posthaste                                                 Pride goeth before a fall                                  protective tariff
postindustrial economy                                    priest                                                     protectorate
postindustrial society                                    prima ballerina                                            protein folding problem
postmaster general                                        prima donna                                                proteins
postmodernism                                             primaries                                                  protein structure
postmortem                                                primates                                                   pro tempore
posttraumatic stress disorder                             prime meridian                                             proteomics
postulate                                                 prime minister                                             Protestant
potato famine, Irish                                      prime number                                               Protestant Episcopal Church in the
pot calling the kettle black                              prime rate                                                    United States
potential energy                                          primitivism                                                Protestant work ethic
Potomac River                                             primogeniture                                              Proteus
pound of flesh                                            primrose path                                              protocols
pound of flesh                                            The Prince                                                 Protoctista
pour oil on troubled waters                               Prince Edward Island                                       proton
poverty level                                             Prince of Wales                                            protoplasm
Powell, Colin                                             “The Princess and the Pea”                                 protozoa
power                                                     principal                                                  Proust, Marcel
power elite                                               prion                                                      proverb
power of the purse                                        prism                                                      Providence
Power tends to corrupt; absolute                          privacy, right of                                          Providence, Divine
   power corrupts absolutely                              private enterprise                                         providence in the fall of a sparrow,
power transmission grid                                   private sector                                                There’s a special
Practice makes perfect                                    probability                                                Provisional Wing of the Irish
Practice what you preach                                  probate court                                                 Republican Army
Prado, Museo del                                          Procrastination is the thief of time                       proxy
Praetorian Guard                                          Procrustes                                                 Prozac®
pragmatism                                                Prodigal Son                                               Prussia
Prague                                                    productivity                                               Psalms, Book of
Praise God, from whom all                                 profit motive                                              pseudoscience
   blessings flow                                         profit sharing                                             Psyche
prayer rug                                                pro forma                                                  psyche
prayer wheel                                              prognosis                                                  psychedelic


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

psychiatry                                                quarks                                                     “The Raven”
psychic research                                          quartet                                                    reactionary
psychoanalysis                                            quasars                                                    read between the lines
psychology                                                Quebec                                                     read the riot act
psychopath                                                Quebec City                                                Reagan, Ronald
psychosis                                                 question mark                                              real cost
psychosomatic                                             Quetzalcoatl                                               real income
psychotherapy                                             quid pro quo                                               realism
Ptolemaic universe                                        quintet                                                    realism
Ptolemy                                                   Quisling, Vidkun                                           realpolitik
Ptolemy                                                   quod erat demonstrandum                                    real property
public company                                            quorum                                                     real-time
public defender                                           quotation marks                                            real wages
public sector                                             R.I.P.                                                     Reason, Age of
public utility                                            R.S.V.P.                                                   rebate
public works                                              rabbi                                                      reboot
Puccini, Giacomo                                          Rabelais, François                                         rebuttal
Pueblos                                                   rabies                                                     recession
Puerto Rico                                               Rabin, Yitzhak                                             recessive trait
Pulitzer Prizes                                           Rachel                                                     reciprocal
pull somebody’s leg                                       racism                                                     recitative
pull strings                                              rad                                                        recognition
pulmonary artery                                          radar                                                      recombinant DNA technology
pulp                                                      radiation                                                  Reconstruction
pulsar                                                    radiation damage                                           recorder
pump priming                                              radical                                                    rectum
pun                                                       radical                                                    The Red Badge of Courage
punctuated equilibrium                                    radioactive                                                red blood cells
Punic Wars                                                radioactive dating                                         Red China
punk                                                      radioactive waste                                          Red Cross, International
pupil                                                     radioactivity                                              Red Guards
purgatory                                                 radiology                                                  red herring
Purim                                                     radio waves                                                redistribution
Puritans                                                  radium                                                     red-letter day
purple prose                                              radon                                                      redneck
“Puss-in-Boots”                                           radwaste                                                   Red Scare
Putin, Vladimir                                           RAF                                                        Red Sea
put on the dog                                            ragtime                                                    Red Sea, parting of the
put your foot in your mouth                               rainbow                                                    red shift
Pygmalion                                                 raining cats and dogs                                      red tape
Pygmalion                                                 raise Cain                                                 red tape
Pygmy                                                     raison d’être                                              reduction
Pyongyang                                                 Raleigh, Sir Walter                                        redundancy
pyramids                                                  RAM                                                        reed
pyramids                                                  Ramadan                                                    reference works
Pyrenees                                                  Rand, Ayn                                                  referendum
pyromania                                                 rank and file                                              referendum
Pyrrhic victory                                           ranking member                                             reflection
Pythagorean theorem                                       Rankin, Jeanette                                           reflex
Qaddafi, Muammar                                          rap                                                        Reformation
Qatar                                                     Raphael                                                    Reform Judaism
Quaker                                                    rapprochement                                              refraction
quanta                                                    Rasputin, Grigori                                          refrain
quantum leap                                              ratification                                               refugees
quantum mechanics                                         ratio                                                      regenerative medicine
quarantine                                                rationing                                                  reggae


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

regime                                                    retina                                                     Robin Hood
regression                                                retinal scan                                               Robin Hood
regressive tax                                            retrovirus                                                 Robinson Crusoe
regular verb                                              Revelation, Book of                                        Robinson, Jackie
regulation                                                revenue                                                    rob Peter to pay Paul
rehabilitation                                            revenue sharing                                            Rochester
Reign of Terror                                           Revere, Paul                                               “Rock-a-Bye, Baby”
reincarnation                                             revival                                                    Rockefeller, John D.
rejection                                                 Revolutionary War                                          Rockefeller, Nelson
relativism                                                Revolutions of 1848                                        rock ’n’ roll
relativity                                                Rhapsody in Blue                                           Rockwell, Norman
religious order                                           rhetorical question                                        Rocky Mountains
Religious Right                                           rheumatic fever                                            rococo
rem                                                       Rh factor                                                  Rodgers, Richard
Rembrandt                                                 Rhineland                                                  Rodin, Auguste
Remember the Alamo!                                       Rhine River                                                Roe versus Wade
Remember the Maine                                        Rhode Island                                               Rogers, Ginger
remission                                                 Rhodesia                                                   Rogers, Will
Renaissance                                               Rhodes scholarship                                         role conflict
Renaissance man                                           Rhone River                                                role model
renal                                                     rhyme                                                      A rolling stone gathers no moss
Render unto Caesar the things                             rhythm                                                     ROM
    which are Caesar’s                                    ribonucleic acid                                           roman à clef
Render unto Caesar the things                             ribosome                                                   Roman Catholic Church
    which are Caesar’s, and unto                          Ricardo, David                                             romance
    God the things that are God’s                         Richard the Lion-Hearted                                   Roman Empire
renewable resource                                        rich as Croesus                                            Romanesque
Reno                                                      Richelieu, Cardinal                                        Romania
Renoir, Pierre-Auguste                                    Richmond                                                   Roman numerals
reparation                                                Richter scale                                              Romanovs
repetitive DNA                                            rider                                                      romanticism
repetitive stress injury                                  right angle                                                romanticism
representatives                                           right brain                                                romanticism
reprisal                                                  right-to-work laws                                         romanticism
reproductive cloning                                      right triangle                                             Rome
reproductive systems                                      right-wing                                                 Romeo and Juliet
reptiles                                                  right-wing                                                 Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou
The Republic                                              rigor mortis                                                   Romeo?
republic                                                  “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”                          Rome wasn’t built in a day
Republican                                                Ring-a-Ring o’ Roses                                       Rommel, Erwin
Republican party                                          Ring of the Nibelung                                       Romulus and Remus
Republican party                                          Rings on her fingers and bells on                          Roosevelt, Eleanor
Republic of China                                             her toes                                               Roosevelt, Franklin D.
Republic of Korea                                         Rio de Janeiro                                             Roosevelt’s Court packing plan
Republic of South Africa                                  Rio Grande                                                 Roosevelt, Theodore
Republic of Yemen                                         “Rip Van Winkle”                                           root
Requiem                                                   risk capital                                               root
resistance                                                rites of passage                                           Roots
Resistance, Free French                                   Rivera, Diego                                              Rorschach test
respiration                                               Riviera                                                    rosary
respiratory system                                        RNA                                                        Rose Bowl
respiratory tract                                         Roaring Twenties                                           Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose
Restoration                                               robber barons                                              Rosenberg case
restriction enzymes                                       Robert’s Rules of Order                                    Roses, Wars of the
Resurrection                                              Robeson, Paul                                              Rosetta stone
retail                                                    Robespierre                                                Rosh Hashanah


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Ross, Betsy                                               “Saint Louis Blues”                                        satire
Rothko, Mark                                              Saint Paul’s Cathedral                                     saturated fats
Rothschilds                                               Saint Peter’s Basilica                                     Saturn
Rotterdam                                                 Saint Petersburg                                           Saturn
Rough Riders                                              Sakharov, Andrei                                           satyr
round                                                     salad days                                                 Saudi Arabia
Round Table, knights of the                               Saladin                                                    Saul
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques                                    Salem witch trials                                         savanna
Route 128                                                 saliva                                                     savings and loan association
“Row, Row, Row Your Boat”                                 salivary glands                                            savings bond
Royal Air Force                                           Salk vaccine                                               savoir faire
Royal Navy                                                salmonella                                                 Savonarola, Girolamo
royalty                                                   Salome                                                     saxophone
“The Rubáiyát”                                            salon                                                      say (cry) uncle
rubella                                                   salt                                                       scab
Rubens, Peter Paul                                        Salt Lake City                                             Scala, La
rubeola                                                   salt of the Earth                                          scale
Rubicon                                                   salt of the Earth, Ye are the                              scale
Rubinstein, Arthur                                        salvation                                                  Scandinavia
rugged individualism                                      salvation                                                  scanning probe microscope
Ruhr Valley                                               Samoa                                                      scapegoat
rule of thumb                                             sample                                                     scarcity
rule the roost                                            Samson                                                     scarlet fever
“Rumpelstiltskin”                                         San Andreas Fault                                          The Scarlet Letter
run of the mill                                           San Andreas Fault                                          Scheherazade
run-on sentence                                           San Antonio                                                Schiller, Friedrich von
run the gamut                                             Sancho Panza                                               schism
Rushdie, Salman                                           sanctum sanctorum                                          schizophrenia
Russell, Bertrand                                         Sandburg, Carl                                             Scholastic Aptitude Test
Russia                                                    Sand, George                                               scholasticism
Russian Revolution                                        San Diego                                                  Schubert, Franz
Russo-Japanese War                                        sandstone                                                  Schulz, Charles M.
Rustbelt                                                  San Francisco                                              Schumann, Robert
Ruth                                                      San Francisco Bay                                          Schweitzer, Albert
Ruth, Babe                                                Sanger, Margaret                                           sciatica
Rutherford, Ernest                                        sangfroid                                                  science fiction
Rwanda                                                    San Joaquin Valley                                         scientific method
Rwandan Genocide                                          San Jose                                                   Scopes trial
Rx                                                        San Salvador                                               Scotland
São Paulo                                                 Sanskrit                                                   Scott, Sir Walter
S&P 500                                                   Santa Fe                                                   Scrooge, Ebenezer
Sabbath                                                   Santa Fe Trail                                             scrotum
Sabin vaccine                                             Santiago                                                   Scylla and Charybdis
Sacajawea                                                 Sappho                                                     SDI
Sacco and Vanzetti                                        Sarajevo                                                   sea breeze
sacrament                                                 Sarajevo                                                   sea floor spreading
Sacramento                                                Saratoga, Battle of                                        sea legs
sacred cow                                                Saratoga Springs                                           seamy side
Sadat, Anwar                                              sarcasm                                                    search engine
Sade, Marquis de                                          Sardinia                                                   Sears Tower
sadism                                                    Sartre, Jean-Paul                                          seasonal unemployment
Sahara                                                    Saskatchewan                                               Seattle
Saigon                                                    Satan                                                      sebaceous glands
sail under false colors                                   satellite                                                  secession
saint                                                     satellite                                                  secondary sex characteristic
Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de                                 satellite                                                  Second Coming


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

second messenger                                          settlement houses                                          Siberia
second wind                                               Seuss, Dr.                                                 sic
secretary of defense                                      seven deadly sins                                          Sicily
secretary of state                                        1776                                                       sickle cell anemia
“The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”                         Seventh-Day Adventists                                     Sic transit gloria mundi
Secret Service                                            Seven Wonders of the Ancient                               Sierra Leone
sect                                                         World                                                   Sierra Nevada
secular                                                   Seven Years’ War                                           signal transduction pathway
securities                                                Seville                                                    significant other
Securities and Exchange                                   Seward, William H.                                         sign of the cross
    Commission                                            sex cells                                                  Silence is golden
Security Council                                          sex chromosomes                                            silent majority
sedimentary rock                                          sexism                                                     “Silent Night”
sedition                                                  sexism                                                     silicates
see eye to eye                                            sex-linked trait                                           silicon
Seeing is believing                                       sex roles/gender roles                                     silicon chip
see red                                                   sexual abuse                                               Silicon Valley
segregation                                               sexually transmitted diseases                              simile
Seine River                                               sexual orientation                                         simple sentence
seismic waves                                             sexual reproduction                                        Sinai
seismology                                                sexual revolution                                          Sinai, Mount
Selective Service System                                  sexual selection                                           sine qua non
self-incrimination                                        SGML                                                       Singapore
“Self-Reliance”                                           Shakers                                                    “Sing a Song of Sixpence”
seller’s market                                           Shakespeare, William                                       Singer, Isaac Bashevis
selling short                                             shale                                                      single-celled
Selma                                                     Shall I compare thee to a summer’s                         singular
semantics                                                    day?                                                    sinking fund
semen                                                     shalom                                                     sink or swim
semicolon                                                 Shanghai                                                   Sinn Fein
semiconductor                                             Shangri-La                                                 Sioux
Seminoles                                                 sharecropping                                              Sirens
Semite                                                    shares                                                     Sistine Chapel
Semitic                                                   Shaw, George Bernard                                       Sisyphus
semper fidelis                                            Shawnees                                                   sit-ins
Senate, United States                                     Shays’s Rebellion                                          sit on the fence
Seneca Falls Convention                                   Sheba, Queen of                                            Sitting Bull
Senegal                                                   Sheffield                                                  sitting duck
seniority                                                 Shelley, Percy Bysshe                                      sitting pretty
sensory deprivation                                       Shenandoah Valley                                          Six-Day War
Seoul                                                     Sherman Antitrust Act                                      six of one, half a dozen of the other
separate but equal                                        Sherman’s march to the sea                                 skeletal system
separation of church and state                            Sherman, William Tecumseh                                  skeleton in the closet
separation of powers                                      Sherwood Forest                                            skepticism
September 11 attacks                                      shibboleth                                                 skin
sequel                                                    ships that pass in the night                               Skinner, B. F.
serf                                                      shock therapy                                              skin of one’s teeth
serial processing                                         shoguns                                                    skull and crossbones
Sermon on the Mount                                       Shoot, if you must, this old gray                          slang
serpent                                                      head                                                    slave trade
server                                                    shortage                                                   “Sleeping Beauty”
service industry                                          short circuit                                              sliding scale
services                                                  short-term memory                                          Slovakia
“Sesame Street”                                           shot heard round the world                                 Slovenia
SETI                                                      shot in the arm                                            Slow but steady wins the race
set one’s teeth on edge                                   Shylock                                                    slush fund


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

small intestine                                           sonic boom                                                 split ticket
smallpox                                                  sonnet                                                     spoils system
smart weapons                                             sophists                                                   spontaneous abortion
smart weapons                                             Sophocles                                                  spontaneous combustion
smell a rat                                               soprano                                                    spoonerism
Smith, Adam                                               sound barrier                                              spore
Smith, Captain John                                       soup to nuts                                               spread oneself too thin
Smith, Joseph                                             Sousa, John Philip                                         spreadsheet
Smithsonian Institution                                   sousaphone                                                 Springsteen, Bruce
smog                                                      South Africa                                               Sputniks
smoke-filled room                                         South America                                              square
snail mail                                                South Carolina                                             square root
snare drum                                                South Dakota                                               Sri Lanka
a snowball’s chance in hell                               Southeast Asia                                             SS
“Snow White and the Seven                                 Southern Hemisphere                                        SST
    Dwarfs”                                               South Korea                                                St. Lawrence River
The Social Contract                                       South Pole                                                 St. Louis
social Darwinism                                          South Sea Islands                                          St. Paul
Social Gospel                                             South Seas                                                 St. Petersburg
socialism                                                 sovereignty                                                staccato
socialization                                             Soviet Bloc                                                staff of life
social mobility                                           Soviet Union                                               stage direction
social science                                            Soweto                                                     stagflation
Social Security Administration                            sow wild oats                                              stalactites
Social Security System                                    space shuttle                                              stalagmites
sociobiology                                              space station                                              Stalingrad, Battle of
socioeconomic status                                      space-time                                                 Stalinism
sociology                                                 Spain                                                      Stalin, Joseph
sociopath                                                 spam                                                       Stalin’s purge trials
Socrates                                                  Spanish-American War                                       stamen
Sodom and Gomorrah                                        Spanish Civil War                                          Stamp Act
sodomy                                                    Spanish Inquisition                                        standard deviation
A soft answer turneth away wrath                          Sparta                                                     standard model
soft soap                                                 Spartacus                                                  standard of living
software                                                  Speaker of the House                                       standing orders
soil                                                      Speak softly and carry a big stick                         Stanford-Binet scale
solar cells                                               species                                                    Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
solar energy                                              specific gravity                                           stanza
solar photovoltaic cells                                  specific heat                                              staphylococcus
solar system                                              spectroscopy                                               star
solar wind                                                spectrum                                                   Star Chamber
solid                                                     speed of light                                             star-crossed lovers
Solidarity                                                sperm                                                      star-crossed lovers
solipsism                                                 Sphinx                                                     stare decisis
Solomon                                                   Sphinx                                                     Stars and Stripes
solstice                                                  Spielberg, Steven                                          “The Stars and Stripes Forever”
solution                                                  spina bifida                                               “The Star-Spangled Banner”
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr                                   spinal cord                                                Star Trek
Somalia                                                   Spinoza, Benedict                                          Star Wars
somatic nervous system                                    The Spirit of ’76                                          Star Wars
Something is rotten in the state of                       The Spirit of St. Louis                                    State Department
    Denmark                                               spirituals                                                 State of the Union address
sonata                                                    spirituals                                                 states’ rights
Song of Solomon                                           spleen                                                     static electricity
Song of Songs                                             split hairs                                                statistical significance
sonic barrier                                             split infinitive                                           statistics


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Statue of Liberty                                         straw poll                                                 Sumter, Fort
status                                                    streamline                                                 sun
status quo                                                stream of consciousness                                    The Sun Also Rises
statute of limitations                                    A Streetcar Named Desire                                   Sunbelt
statutory law                                             strep throat                                               Sun King
STD                                                       streptococcus                                              sunspots
steal someone’s thunder                                   stress                                                     Super Bowl
stealth technology                                        stress                                                     superconductivity
Steinbeck, John                                           strike                                                     superconductivity
Steinem, Gloria                                           strikebreaker                                              superconductor
Stein, Gertrude                                           Strike while the iron is hot                               superego
stem cell                                                 string quartet                                             superlative
Stendhal                                                  strings                                                    Superman
Step on a crack, break your                               string theory                                              Superman
     mother’s back                                        strip mining                                               supernova
steppes                                                   stroke                                                     supply
stereotype                                                strong force                                               supply and demand
stereotype                                                structural unemployment                                    supply-side economics
sterilization                                             Stuart, Gilbert                                            Supreme Court
Stern, Isaac                                              Stuarts                                                    surface tension
steroid                                                   Stuttgart                                                  surfing the Web
stethoscope                                               Stuyvesant, Peter                                          surplus
Stevenson, Adlai E.                                       Styx                                                       surrealism
Stevenson, Robert Louis                                   subatomic                                                  surtax
Stewart, James                                            subatomic particles                                        survivor guilt
stillbirth                                                subconsciousness                                           Swan Lake
Still waters run deep                                     subculture                                                 swap (switch) horses in midstream
stimulus                                                  subject                                                    Swaziland
A stitch in time saves nine                               subjunctive                                                sweat glands
stock                                                     sublimation                                                sweatshop
stock exchange                                            sublimation                                                Sweden
stockholders                                              subordination                                              sweeten the kitty
Stockholm                                                 subpoena                                                   sweetness and light
stock market                                              sub-Saharan                                                Swift, Jonathan
stock options                                             subsidy                                                    swing
Stoicism                                                  subsistence farming                                        “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot”
stomach                                                   suburbanization                                            The Swiss Family Robinson
Stone Age                                                 Sudan                                                      Switzerland
Stonehenge                                                sudden infant death syndrome                               Sydney
Stonewall Riot                                            Suez Canal                                                 syllable
Stone walls do not a prison make                          Suez Canal crisis                                          symbiosis
stool pigeon                                              suffer fools gladly                                        symbol
Stoppard, Tom                                             sufficient condition                                       symbol
Stowe, Harriet Beecher                                    suffix                                                     symmetry
Stradivarius                                              suffrage                                                   symphony
strange bedfellows                                        suffragette                                                The Symposium
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks                           suffragist                                                 synagogue
strategy/tactics                                          sugars                                                     synapse
stratification                                            Suharto                                                    syndrome
stratosphere                                              sui generis                                                synfuels
stratus clouds                                            suite                                                      synonyms
Strauss, Johann, the Younger                              Sukarno                                                    syntax
Strauss, Richard                                          Sumatra                                                    synthetic polymers
Stravinsky, Igor                                          Summa Theologica                                           syphilis
straw in the wind                                         “Summertime”                                               Syria
straw man                                                 summit meeting                                             system


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

tête-à-tête                                               telescope                                                  The game is not worth the candle
taboo                                                     Teller, Edward                                             The grass is always greener on the
tabula rasa                                               Tell, William                                                 other side of the fence
Taft-Hartley Act                                          telomere                                                   the green-eyed monster
Taft, William Howard                                      The Tempest                                                The Hague
Tahiti                                                    Temple                                                     the handwriting on the wall
Taipei                                                    tempo                                                      The horror! The horror!
Taiwan                                                    tenant farming                                             the King’s English
Tajikistan                                                Ten Commandments                                           The lady doth protest too much
Taj Mahal                                                 tendon                                                     The land was ours before we were
take a powder                                             Tennessee                                                     the land’s
take-home pay                                             Tennessee River                                            the last laugh
“Take Me Out to the Ball Game”                            Tennessee Valley Authority                                 The last shall be first
Take the bitter with the sweet                            Tennyson, Alfred, Lord                                     the last straw
take the bull by the horns                                tenor                                                      The Last Supper
take the cake                                             tense                                                      The leopard cannot change its
take the rap                                              1066                                                          spots
Taliban movement                                          terra firma                                                The letter killeth, but the spirit giveth
talk turkey                                               terrorism                                                     life
tall tale                                                 testes                                                     The love of money is the root of all
Talmud                                                    testosterone                                                  evil
The Taming of the Shrew                                   tetanus                                                    the Low Countries
Tampa                                                     Tet offensive                                              The mass of men lead lives of quiet
tango                                                     Texas                                                         desperation
Tantalus                                                  Thailand                                                   theme
Tanzania                                                  thalamus                                                   The medium is the message
Taoism                                                    Thales                                                     The meek shall inherit the Earth
tapeworm                                                  thalidomide                                                The meek shall inherit the Earth
taproot                                                   Thames River                                               The more the merrier
tariff                                                    Thatcher, Margaret                                         The Netherlands
Tarzan                                                    The bad workman always blames                              The Occident
Tarzan                                                        his tools                                              theocracy
taste buds                                                The best-laid plans of mice and                            theologian
taxation                                                      men often go awry                                      theology
Taxation without representation is                        The best of friends must part                              The one who pays the piper calls
     tyranny                                              The best things in life are free                              the tune
tax break                                                 The bigger they come, the harder                           The only thing we have to fear is
tax deduction                                                 they fall                                                 fear itself
tax haven                                                 the Big Three                                              theorem
tax loophole                                              The Bronx                                                  The Orient
taxonomy                                                  The buck stops here                                        theory
tax shelter                                               The Buddha                                                 The pen is mightier than the sword
Taylor, Elizabeth                                         The business of America is                                 the Pill
Tb test                                                       business                                               The proof of the pudding is in the
T-cell                                                    The chickens have come home to                                eating
Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyich                                     roost                                                  The public be damned
technocracy                                               The course of true love never did                          The quality of mercy is not strained
technocracy                                                   run smooth                                             The quality of mercy is not strained
technological unemployment                                The Czech Republic                                         therapeutic cloning
tectonic plates                                           The devil can cite Scripture for his                       therapeutic virus
Tecumseh                                                      purpose                                                therapy
“Te Deum”                                                 The devil is in the details                                the real McCoy
Te Deum                                                   the devil to pay                                           There are plenty of fish in the sea
Teheran                                                   The early bird catches the worm                            There is no joy in Mudville
telemetry                                                 The female of the species is more                          The reports of my death are greatly
telepathy                                                     deadly than the male                                      exaggerated


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

There’s many a slip ’twixt the cup                        Thomas, the doubting apostle                               Titans
    and the lip                                           Thomism                                                    tit for tat
There’s method in his madness                             Thor                                                       tithe
There’s more than one way to skin                         thorax                                                     Titian
    a cat                                                 Thoreau, Henry David                                       Tito, Marshal
There’s no accounting for taste                           Thorpe, Jim                                                titration
There’s no fool like an old fool                          Those who cannot remember the                              Tobacco Road
There’s no place like home                                      past are condemned to repeat it                      To be, or not to be
There was a little girl / Who had a                       “Three Blind Mice”                                         Tocqueville, Alexis de
    little curl                                           Three Mile Island                                          To err is human, to forgive divine
“There Was an Old Woman Who                               Three Mile Island                                          toga
    Lived in a Shoe”                                      The Three Musketeers                                       Tokyo
thermal equilibrium                                       “The Three Pigs”                                           Toledo
thermal pollution                                         three sheets to the wind                                   Tolkien, J. R. R.
thermocouple                                              thriller                                                   Tolstoy, Leo
thermodynamics                                            thrombosis                                                 Tom, Dick, and Harry
thermonuclear                                             through a glass darkly                                     tomography
thermonuclear reaction                                    Through the Looking-Glass                                  Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of
thermostat                                                through thick and thin                                     Tom Thumb
The road to hell is paved with good                       throw in the towel                                         tongue-in-cheek
    intentions                                            thrown to the lions                                        tonsillitis
the Salvation Army                                        throw the book at someone                                  tonsils
These are the times that try men’s                        throw-weight                                               Too many cooks spoil the broth
    souls                                                 Thucydides                                                 too many irons in the fire
Theseus                                                   thumbs up                                                  tooth
the Seven Seas                                            thunder                                                    tooth and nail
The show must go on                                       Thurber, James                                             toot one’s own horn
thesis                                                    Thus Spake Zarathustra                                     topic sentence
the Ugly American                                         thymus gland                                               topsoil
The voice of one crying in the                            thyroid                                                    Torah
    wilderness                                            Tiananmen Square                                           Tories
the Western Wall                                          Tibet                                                      tornado
the winter of our discontent                              tide in the affairs of men, There is a                     Toronto
The wish is father of the deed                            tides                                                      Torquemada, Tomás de
The wolf shall also dwell with the                        Tiffany glass                                              Torquemada, Tomás de
    lamb                                                  Tiger! Tiger! burning bright                               “The Tortoise and the Hare”
The world must be made safe for                           tight-money policy                                         Toscanini, Arturo
    democracy                                             Tijuana                                                    totalitarianism
The worm turns                                            till the cows come home                                    totem
They also serve who only stand and                        Timbuktu                                                   totemism
    wait                                                  Timbuktu                                                   totem pole
thief in the night, like a                                Time and tide wait for no man                              to the manner born
thing-in-itself                                           time dilation                                              totipotency
A thing of beauty is a joy forever                        Time heals all wounds                                      touch and go
The Thinker                                               Time is money                                              Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de
think tank                                                Time is of the essence                                     tour de force
Third Reich                                               Times Square                                               town and gown
Third World                                               Time’s wingéd chariot                                      toxic waste
thirteen colonies                                         A time to be born and a time to die                        toxins
Thirty days hath September                                timpani                                                    trachea
Thirty-nine Articles                                      Tin Pan Alley                                              trade
thirty pieces of silver                                   Tiny Tim                                                   trade barriers
Thirty Years’ War                                         tip of the iceberg                                         trade deficit
“This Land Is Your Land”                                  Tippecanoe and Tyler too                                   tradeoff
“This Little Piggy Went to Market”                        Tiresias                                                   Trafalgar, Battle of
Thomas, Dylan                                             Titanic                                                    tragedy


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Trail of Tears                                            Tudors                                                     Uncle Sam
transcendentalism                                         Tulsa                                                      Uncle Tom’s Cabin
transcontinental railroad                                 tumor                                                      unconscious
transfer payment                                          tundra                                                     Underground Railroad
transformer                                               Tunisia                                                    understatement
transfusion, blood                                        Turing test                                                under the weather
transgenic species                                        Turkey                                                     under the wire
transistor                                                Turkmenistan                                               Uneasy lies the head that wears a
transitive verb                                           Turnabout is fair play                                          crown
transposon                                                Turner, Joseph Mallord William                             unemployment compensation
transubstantiation                                        Turner, Nat                                                unicorn
transvestite                                              turn over a new leaf                                       unified field theory
trapezoid                                                 Turn the other cheek                                       unilateralism
Trappists                                                 turn the tables                                            Union
trauma                                                    Tutankhamen                                                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Treasure Island                                           Twain, Mark                                                union shop
Treasury bills                                            Tweedledum and Tweedledee                                  unison
tree of knowledge of good and evil                        Tweed, William Marcy                                       Unitarian Universalist Association
“Trees”                                                   Twelfth Night                                              United Arab Emirates
trench warfare                                            24/7                                                       United Kingdom
trial and error                                           Twenty-third Psalm                                         United Kingdom of Great Britain and
trial balloon                                             Twin Cities                                                     Northern Ireland
trichinosis                                               “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”                            United Nations
Trinidad and Tobago                                       twin paradox                                               United Nations Educational,
Trinity                                                   Two heads are better than one                                   Scientific, and Cultural
triple point                                              Two’s company, three’s a crowd                                  Organization
Tripoli                                                   two shakes of a lamb’s tail                                United States Information Agency
Tristan and Iseult                                        two strings to one’s bow                                   universal time
Trojan Horse                                              Two wrongs don’t make a right                              unsaturated fats
Trojan War                                                tycoon                                                     Upanishads
Trojan War                                                type A personality                                         upper-case letters
trolls                                                    type B personality                                         upper crust
trombone                                                  typhoid fever                                              upward mobility
Tropic of Cancer                                          Typhoid Mary                                               Urals
Tropic of Capricorn                                       Typhoid Mary                                               uranium
troposphere                                               typhoon                                                    Uranus
Trotskyism                                                typhus                                                     urbanization
Trotsky, Leon                                             Tyrannosaurus rex                                          urban renewal
troubadours                                               U-boats                                                    urban renewal
Troy                                                      Uffizi Gallery                                             ureters
Trudeau, Pierre Elliott                                   UFO                                                        urethra
Truman, Harry S.                                          UFO                                                        urinary bladder
Truman-MacArthur controversy                              Uganda                                                     urinary tract
trump card                                                “The Ugly Duckling”                                        urine
trumpet                                                   UHF                                                        URL
trust                                                     Ukraine                                                    urology
trust busting                                             ukulele                                                    Ursa Major
Truth is stranger than fiction                            ulcer                                                      Ursa Minor
Truth, Sojourner                                          Ulster                                                     Uruguay
Truth will out                                            ultimatum                                                  USSR
tsunami                                                   ultrasound                                                 usury
tuba                                                      ultraviolet radiation                                      Utah
tubal pregnancy                                           Ulysses                                                    uterus
tuberculosis                                              umbilical cord                                             utilitarianism
Tubman, Harriet                                           un-American                                                Utopia
Tucson                                                    uncertainty principle                                      Uzbekistan


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

vaccination                                               Veterans of Foreign Wars                                   voyeurism
vaccine                                                   veto                                                       Vulcan
vacuum                                                    veto                                                       vulcanization
vagina                                                    VHF                                                        Vulgate Bible
valence                                                   Vichy government                                           vulva
valence electrons                                         vicious circle                                             wages
Valencia                                                  victimless crime                                           wage scale
Valhalla                                                  Victorian                                                  Wagner, Richard
valium                                                    Victorian period                                           wake
Valley Forge                                              Victoria, Queen                                            Walden
valley of the shadow of death                             Vienna                                                     Wales
value-added tax                                           Vienna, Congress of                                        Walesa, Lech
value judgment                                            Viet Cong                                                  Walker, Alice
vampires                                                  Vietnam                                                    walking on water
Van Allen belt                                            Vietnam Memorial                                           walking papers
Vancouver                                                 Vietnam War                                                walk-out
Vandals                                                   Vikings                                                    Wallace, George
Vanderbilt, Cornelius                                     Viking spacecraft                                          Walls have ears
van Gogh, Vincent                                         “The Village Blacksmith”                                   Wall Street
Vanity Fair                                               Villa, Pancho                                              wampum
Vanity of vanities; all is vanity                         Villon, François                                           wanderlust
vaporization                                              viola                                                      War and Peace
vapor pressure                                            violin                                                     war crimes
Variety is the spice of life                              VIP                                                        Warhol, Andy
vasectomy                                                 viral infection                                            war horse
vassal                                                    Virgil                                                     War is hell
Vatican City State                                        Virginia                                                   warm-blooded animals
Vatican II                                                Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions                          warm the cockles of one’s heart
vaudeville                                                Virginia dynasty                                           War of 1812
V-chip                                                    Virgin Islands                                             War on Poverty
vector                                                    virtual reality                                            warp and woof
V-E Day                                                   virulence                                                  warranty
veins                                                     virus                                                      Warren, Earl
Velázquez, Diego de                                       virus                                                      Warsaw
velocity                                                  virus                                                      Warsaw Pact
venereal diseases                                         vis-à-vis                                                  wash dirty linen (laundry) in public
Venezuela                                                 viscosity                                                  Washington
Venice                                                    Vishnu                                                     Washington and the cherry tree
ventricles                                                vital signs                                                Washington, Booker T.
Venus                                                     vitamins                                                   Washington Crossing the Delaware
Venus                                                     Vivaldi, Antonio                                           Washington, D.C.
Venus de Milo                                             vivisection                                                Washington, George
verb                                                      V-J Day                                                    Washington Mall
Verdi, Giuseppe                                           vocal cords                                                Washington Monument
Vermeer, Jan                                              voice recognition technology                               WASP
Vermont                                                   volcano                                                    “The Waste Land”
Verne, Jules                                              Volga River                                                Waste not, want not
Versailles                                                Volgograd                                                  A watched pot never boils
Versailles, Palace of                                     volt                                                       watered stock
Versailles, Treaty of                                     Voltaire                                                   Watergate
verse                                                     volume                                                     Waterloo, Battle of
vertebrates                                               Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr.                                        Water Music
Vesta                                                     voodoo                                                     water off a duck’s back
vestal virgins                                            Voting Rights Act of 1965                                  water pollution
vested interest                                           voucher                                                    watershed
Veterans Administration                                   vowels                                                     water table


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

Water, water everywhere, / Nor any                        Wharton, Edith                                             Wind in the Willows
   drop to drink                                          What’s good for the country is good                        Windsor, duke of
Watson and Crick                                              for General Motors, and vice                           Winnie-the-Pooh
watt                                                          versa                                                  Winning isn’t everything; it’s the
Watt, James                                               What’s good for the goose is good                              only thing
Watts riots                                                   for the gander                                         Winnipeg
wave                                                      What’s in a name? That which we                            Win this one for the Gipper
wavelength                                                    call a rose / By any other name                        Winthrop, John
wave-particle duality                                         would smell as sweet                                   wireless technology
Wayne, John                                               What will be, will be                                      Wisconsin
Ways and Means Committee                                  When in Rome, do as the Romans                             wisdom teeth
weak force                                                    do                                                     Wise Men
weapons of mass destruction                               When it rains, it pours                                    witchcraft
We are such stuff / As dreams are                         “When Johnny Comes Marching                                withdrawal symptoms
   made on                                                    Home”                                                  withholding tax
wear one’s heart on one’s sleeve                          When the cat’s away, the mice will                         Wittgenstein, Ludwig
weather                                                       play                                                   Wizard of Oz, The Wonderful
weathering                                                When the going gets tough, the                             wolf in sheep’s clothing
weather map                                                   tough get going                                        wolves in sheep’s clothing
weather satellite                                         “When the Saints Go Marching In”                           A woman’s work is never done
Web                                                       Where are the snows of yesteryear?                         Women’s Christian Temperance
Web address                                               Where there’s a will, there’s a way                            Union
Web browser                                               Where there’s smoke there’s fire                           women’s movement
Weber, Max                                                Whig party                                                 Woods, Tiger
Web page                                                  While there’s life, there’s hope                           Woodstock
Web site                                                  whip                                                       woodwinds
Webster, Daniel                                           Whisky Rebellion                                           Woolf, Virginia
Webster, Noah                                             Whistler, James                                            Wordsworth, William
We have met the enemy, and they                           Whistler’s Mother                                          A word to the wise is sufficient
   are ours                                               white blood cells                                          work
We have met the enemy, and they                           “White Christmas”                                          Work expands to fill the time
   are us                                                 white-collar                                                   available for its completion
weight                                                    white dwarf                                                working class
Weimar Republic                                           white elephant                                             Workmen’s Compensation
welfare                                                   White House                                                Works Progress Administration
welfare state                                             white man’s burden                                         World Health Organization
welfare state                                             White Mountains                                            “The World Is Too Much with Us”
Well begun is half done                                   Whither thou goest, I will go                              World Series
Welles, Orson                                             Whitman, Walt                                              World Trade Center
Wellington, duke of                                       Whitney, Eli                                               World War I
Wells, H. G.                                              whole numbers                                              World War II
Welty, Eudora                                             wholesale                                                  World Wide Web
werewolves                                                whole tone                                                 worth one’s salt
“We Shall Overcome”                                       whooping cough                                             Wounded Knee
Wesley, John                                              wildcat strike                                             Wren, Christopher
West Bank                                                 Wilde, Oscar                                               Wright brothers
westerly                                                  Wilder, Thornton                                           Wright, Frank Lloyd
Western Europe                                            Wilhelm II                                                 Wright, Richard
West Germany                                              William and Mary                                           write-in candidate
West Indies                                               William Pitt, the Elder                                    Wuthering Heights
West, Mae                                                 Williams, Roger                                            WWW
Westminster Abbey                                         Williams, Tennessee                                        Wyeth, Andrew
West Point                                                William the Conqueror                                      Wyoming
West Virginia                                             Wilson, Woodrow                                            xenophobia
wet behind the ears                                       windfall                                                   xenotransplantation
wet blanket                                               wind instruments                                           x-ray


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
                                               What Every American Should Know

x-ray                                                     Zephyr
xylem                                                     zero population growth
Yahoos                                                    zero-sum game
Yalta agreement                                           Zeus
Yangtze River                                             Zhou En-lai
Yankee                                                    Zimbabwe
“Yankee Doodle”                                           Zionism
“Yankee Doodle Dandy”                                     Zion, Mount
yarmulke                                                  zodiac
Yeats, William Butler                                     zodiac
yellow journalism                                         Zola, Émile
Yellow Peril                                              zoning
Yellowstone National Park                                 zoology
Yeltsin, Boris                                            Zurich
Yemen                                                     zygote
Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus
yield
yin and yang
yoga
Yom Kippur
Yorktown, Battle of
Yosemite National Park
You can catch more flies with honey
    than with vinegar
You can lead a horse to water, but
    you can’t make him drink.
You cannot serve God and
    mammon
You can’t fit a round peg in a square
    hole
You can’t go home again
You can’t have your cake and eat it
    too
You can’t make an omelet without
    breaking eggs
You can’t make a silk purse from a
    sow’s ear
You can’t squeeze blood from a
    turnip
You can’t take it with you
You can’t teach an old dog new
    tricks
You can’t unscramble an egg
Young, Brigham
Young Turk
You’ve made your bed, now lie in it
Yucatán
Yucca Mountain
Yugoslavia
Yukon Territory
Zaire
Zambia
Zapata, Emiliano
Zeitgeist
Zen
Zeno’s paradox


The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin
Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

								
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