The Ancient Civilizations and Government Structures by 669p9n

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									The Ancient Civilizations and
  Government Structures
  Standard 10.1 Students relate the moral and
     ethical principles in ancient Greek and
     Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in
   Christianity to the development of Western
                  political thought.
            Influences on Western
                  Civilization
                                         •      Western governments are the
                                                product of thousands of years of
                                                trial and error. Many of our ideas
                                                that we use to govern today were
                                                taken from the Greeks and the
                                                Romans.
                                         •      In this power point we are going to
                                                look at various civilizations and
                                                their practices that have shaped
                                                our thinking and the way we live:
                                                 –   The Mesopotamians
                                                      •   Law
                                                 –   The Hebrews
                                                      •   Morals
                                                 –   The Greeks
                                                      •   Civil Duty and democracy
                                                 –   The Romans
                                                      •   Early Romans (polytheistic)
Finland is ranked the                                        –     Republic/senate and Law
most free, the U.S. is                                •   The early Christians
                                                             –
ranked 15th, and
                                                                   Values and Morality

Myanmar is ranked 150th

6/13/2012                 Page 1 Introduction
Hammurabi the Law Giver

                           In 1792 B.C., Hammurabi
                           ruled in Babylon. He was
                           known for building temples,
                           and irrigation canals, but
                           mostly for his law code
                           called The Code of
                           Hammurabi.
             This
             picture               282 Laws
             shows
             Shamash,              Strict Justice
             the sun
             god, giving           “Eye for an Eye”
             the laws to
                                   Vicarious Punishments
             Hammurabi.
                                   Social Inequality


       Page 2 Code of Hammurabi
    Hammurabi’s Law Code REVIEW
•   The code had 282 specific laws.
•   The law dealt with contracts, inheritances,
    leases, perjury, debts, theft, murder,
    adultery, marriage, children, and property.
•   Punishments were harsh, usually requiring
    the criminal to lose a limb, or to lose his or
    her life.

•   Social Inequality in punishments.
•   Slaves
     –    Born into slavery
     –    Sold into Slavery
     –    Captured (their country lost)
     –    Sold oneself or child into slavery to pay off
          debts



         Why did the Ancient                              To Keep track of
         Sumerians write down their                       trade!
         language (Cuneiform)?
              The Hebrew Civilization

• Called the Hebrews, Jews or
  the Israelites (today Israelis)– a
  Semitic speaking people.
• Location – Israel (Palestine)
• Religion – Credited as the first
  monotheistic religion
• Government and Law – based
  on morality, equality, and
  justice.
   – Ten Commandments
         The Religion of the Hebrews
• Monotheistic – They
 believed in one god they called
 Yahweh.
  – Their religion is called Judaism.
  – A stateless religion: God can
     follow you!
  – He punished his people, but was
     also merciful.
  – A personal relationship with God
     called a covenant (promise).
  – Prophets – religious teachers
      • Predicted the future            Their holy scripture is
      • Thought the rich should share   called the Torah – the first
        with the poor.                  5 books of the Christian
      • Social Justice                  Bible.
                     Hebrew Law
• The Ten
  Commandments:
  – If you follow God’s laws, he
    will bless you, if you don’t,
    he will punish you.
  – God does not have human
    attributes.
  – Social Justice – no social
    distinction.
  – God expects you to be
    good and moral.
      • Morals – a distinction
        between what is right or
        wrong.
  Judeo-Christian Influence on the West
• Judaism                       Both    • Christianity
   – Covenant with
     God             Individual Worth      – Brotherly love
   – The Ten         Morality              – Charity
     Commandments                          – Humility
   – The Torah       Monotheism
                                           – The early church
                     Social Equality         – becomes the
                                             Catholic Church
                                           – Doctrine derived
                                             from the Old and
                                             the New
                                             Testament
       Legacy of the Monotheistic
               Religions:
       Islam, Christianity, Judaism
• It is the duty of the
  individual and the
  community to combat
  oppression.
• The individual has worth
  regardless of his or her
  social status.
• People are equal before
  God.
• Sparta and
  Athens
  – Location
  – The Polis
  – Culture
  – Government
  – Law (Civic
    Duties)
  – Philosophy
  – Contributions to
    Western Political
    Thought
                        Ancient Greek Theater
Geographical Location – Athens and Sparta are located in
modern day Greece on the Peloponnesus.




                                                 Xerxes from the
                                                 movie 300
           The Polis (City-state)
                        • Characteristics:
                           – Where the people lived.
                           – Economically independent
                           – Protected by a deity
                           – Governed by a set of laws.
                           – Small (Athens had only
                             250,000 people)
                           – Different types of
                             governments.
                                 • Sparta – Oligarchy
                                 • Corinth – Tyranny
                                 • Athens – Direct
                                   Democracy

City –State of Athens          Acropolis (Parthenon)
   • Spartan Men
       – Left their mothers at
         the age of seven.
       – Taught self-discipline
         and military training.
       – Entered the military at
         age 20 and served
         until age 60.
       – Taught to die for their
         country.
                                   Check out the movie 300,
For more info see page 142         but only with your parent’s
of your textbook.                  permission!
                                        Sparta’s
                                       Government
                                  Oligarchy – government ruled by a
                                  few powerful people – usually
                                  wealthy merchants, or in some
                                  cases the military.




Two Kings- headed military         •   Aries and
campaigns.                             Artemis
                                       are
Five Ephors (supervised                associated
education). Elected!                   with
                                       Sparta as
Council of Elders - 28 citizens        patron
                                       deities.
over the age of 60.
                                      Corinth
• Government – Tyranny
    – Rulers who seized power by force and
      did not have to obey the same laws
      their subjects did.
    – They had the support of rich traders
      and poor peasants.
    – Hired soldiers to help them keep power
    – Betrayed their people
         • Self-interest and greed
The Culture of Athens
  • Center of learning for the
    Ancient Greek world –
    “The School of Greece.”
  • Men were educated,
    women were not.
  • Birth of philosophy.
  • Home to many of the
    great poets and writers
    such as Sophocles.
  • Athena was the patron
    deity and her temple was
    called the Parthenon.
                  Acropolis (City
                  of the Gods)
                   The Greek Tragedies
• Sophocles (496-406 B.C.)
   – Wrote the Oedipus Cycle:
     Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at
     Colonus, and Antigone.
   – Antigone was the daughter
     of Oedipus and his mother
     Jocasta.
   – The book is about
     Antigone’s attempt to give
     her brother Polynices a
     proper burial.
   – Takes place in Thebes
• Direct Democracy – Citizens of
  Athens participated directly in
  the decision making process.
   – Laws
   – War or peace
   – Elections
• Only males 18 or over that
  were born in Athens and had
  parents that were born in
  Athens could be citizens and
  therefore vote.
• Out of 250,000 only 6,000
  actually participated in
  government.
                                    Choosing by Lot = one year
                                    of service.
       Different Democracies
• Athenian Democracy              • U. S. Democracy
   – Citizens: male at least 18      – Citizens: born in the U.S. or
     years of age, with citizen        completed citizenship
     parents.                          process.
   – Only people born in Athens      – Representatives elected to
     could be a citizen.               propose and vote on laws
   – Laws voted on and               – Elected president
     proposed directly by            – Executive branch made up
     assembly of all citizens.         of elected and appointed
   – Leader chosen by lot –            officials
     most served only I year.        – Juries composed on 12
   – Executive branch was a            jurors
     council of 500 men              – Defendants and plaintiffs
   – Juries varied in size             have attorneys; long
   – No attorneys; no appeals;         appeals process.
     one-day trials
          Athens – History Makers
• Solon (638 - 594 B.C.)           • Cleisthenes (508 B.C.)
   – Gave order to Athens             – Called the father of
     during their crisis period.        democracy.
   – Released farmers from
                                      – Balanced power between
     slavery.
                                        the rich and the poor.
   – Cancelled land debts.
                                      – Created the Council of Five
                                        Hundred
                                         • Legislation was debated
                                           openly in the assembly.
                                         • All male citizens voted on
                                           it.
The Golden Age of Pericles
             • 461-429 B.C.
             • The Golden Age of Greece.
             • People became very attached
               to the idea of civic duty
               (participating in your
               community/government).
             • The center of learning – art
               flourished.
             • The birth of philosophy.
                – Death of Socrates
             • War between Sparta and
               Athens resulted in the downfall
               of democracy!
               The Greek Philosophers
• Philosophy – An
  organized system of
  thought!
   – The use of logic and
     reason to investigate
     the nature of the
     universe, human
     society, and morality.
      •   Socrates
      •   Plato
      •   Aristotle
      •   Mr. Mudd
                   Socrates       Socrates, who set the
                                  foundations of
                                  western philosophy
                                  was executed for
                                  corrupting the youth
                                  of Athens.
                                  He was forced to
                                  drink poison.
                                  He was considered a
                                  gadfly, an annoying
                                  thorn in the side of
                                  the Athenian
                                  government,
Socrates taught his students
                                  constantly
through the Socratic Method-
                                  questioning
the idea that all knowledge is
                                  democracy and what
present in each person, it just
                                  was moral and just.
takes questioning and critical
thinking to bring it out.         He was your modern
*Question and answer method.      day Michael Moore.
                                                    Guardians


      Mrs. Thayer is
                       Plato
       always right

• .                       Everyone Else


                                                       Warriors

                          • Wrote Republic
                          • Plato did not trust democracy!
                               – He believed that most people
                                 were too immoral and stupid
                                 to make rational decisions.
                               – Ideal government =
                                 Philosopher King
                               – Three classes of people
                                   • The Guardians (Educated)
                                   • The Warriors (Protectors)
                                   • Everyone else – motivated
                                     only by their own selfish
                                     desires.
               Aristotle’s Politics
• Distrusted Democracy –          • “…intelligence, above all else,
  because it only had at heart      is man.”
  the interests of the needy.
• He said that an Aristocracy     • “Man is by nature a political
  only had the interests of the     animal: it is his nature to live in
  wealthy.                          a state.”
• He said that a kingship or          – An excerpt from The Politics
  Monarchy only had the
  interests of the ruler.
• A Constitutional
  Government was the
  best form.
                 The Philosophers- Review
• Socrates              Plato              Aristotle
 Encouraged his        Did not trust       Used reason to answer
 students to examine      democracies.     life’s mysteries.
 their most closely       He thought
 held beliefs.                             Said man is a political
                          that society
                                           animal and has the ability
 Used the question        should be
                                           to reason.
 and answer               governed by a
 approach known as        philosopher      Distrusted democracy said
 the Socratic             king.            it had the tendency to only
 Method                                    cover the needs of the
                       Three classes:
                                           poor.
 Distrusted            1. The Guardians.
 Democracy – Just                          A middle class is vital!
                       2. The Warriors.
 because the                               Thought a constitutional
 majority says it’s    3. Everyone else
                                           government was the best
 right, does that                          form of government.
 mean that it is?
       Rome (509 B.C. to 476 B.C.E)
• Rome as a republic
   – Government
   – Society
   – Law
• Rome as an empire
   – Administration
   – Achievements
• Christianity
• Roman influences on
  Western Political
  Thought.
• Christian influences
  on the West.
                          Julius Caesar
               Type of Government
•   Government: A republic is a form of
    government in which the leader is not a
    king, citizens can elect representatives,
    and certain citizens have the right to
    vote.
     – Two Consuls ran the government
        and led the Roman army. They
        were elected every year.
     – The praetor was in charge of civil
        law.
     – The Senate was a group of 300
        landowners who served for life.
         • Centuriate assembly – elected
           officials, was made up of the
           wealthy.
         • Council of the Plebs – for
           commoners only.
                                                Julius Caesar
  Roman Society – Two Groups
• Patricians:               • Plebeians: Council of
  Centuriate Assembly         the Plebs - farmers,
                              artisans and merchants.
• Landowning aristocrats.
 Roman Law – The Twelve Tables
• An important victory for
  the Plebeians was the
  written law code called
  the Twelve Tables.
   – The laws were written
     down for everyone to see.
   – The Plebeians were given
     more power and were
     allowed to hold public office
   – Everyone had to obey the
     laws, and citizens had
     rights that the government
     had to protect.
                                     These tablets were publicly
                                     displayed for people to read.
              Contributions of Roman Law
• Even though the Roman
  Empire came to an end,
  elements of their criminal
  and civil law still exist in
  our government today!
   – Everyone is innocent until
     proven guilty.
   – The right to try your case
     before a judge.
   – The right to representation if
     you can’t properly represent
     yourself.
   – The jury system.
     The Influence of the Roman Empire
1.    THE LATIN LANGUAGES: ITALIAN, FRENCH, AND
      SPANISH.
2.    SENATE/Republic
3.    The Court system/law
4.    Equal treatment for citizens
5.   The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused.
6.   A law that is unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
7.   ELECTED OFFICIALS SERVING TERMS OF OFFICE.
8.    RHETORIC (THE ART OF PERSUASIVE SPEAKING)-
      POLITICIANS AND LAWYERS.
9.   Architecture and engineering
                         Rome and Christianity
• During the early years of the
  Roman Empire a prophet named
  Jesus spread a new message to
  the Jews that spread rapidly
  throughout the West (following
  Roman trade routes).
    – Love one another
    – Be Humble
    – Be charitable



                                     They always ask you how
                                     Christianity spread
                                     throughout Europe!
      The Appeal of Christianity
• Offered eternal life and
  happiness.
• Close, personal
  relationship with God.
• Contained elements from
  other popular religions.
   – Cult of Mithra
• Individual worth.
• The feeling of belonging
  to a community.
• Equality – Christianity
  appealed greatly to the
  poor classes.
         Christianity and the Roman Empire

• Since Jesus preached
  that man should only
  follow man’s laws if
  they don’t interfere
  with God’s laws, the
  early Christians were
  persecuted.
  – Nero
     • Punished them by
       torture or death.
Christianity
 Spreads
• In 313 C.E the
  emperor
  Constantine
  issued the Edict
  of Milan allowing
  for religious
  tolerance of
  Christians.
• By 395 C.E.,
  Christianity
  became the
  official religion of
  the Roman
  Empire under
  Theodosius.            Picture of Constantine’s vision of the
                         Cross that led him to convert to
                         Christianity.
                     CONTRIBUTIONS
•   Greco-Roman (pre-                     •   Judeo-Christian values
    Christian) values                          – Be good people
     – Obligations to the                      – One God (monotheism)
        state
                                Both           – Covenant with God
     – Emphasis on
        wealth, status and                     – Brotherly love
        material gain                          – Humility
     – Pantheon of Gods
                             Individual        – Charity
        that were              worth!          – Emphasis on the afterlife
        associated with a                      – Equality
        particular area
                                               – Emphasis on religious
     – Concerned with life                       scripture
        on earth
                                               – You must obey man’s laws
     – Philosophy/                               and God’s laws – if man’s
        individualistic                          laws contradict God’s laws,
        thinking                                 don’t obey them.
     – Your allegiance is                      – Social Equality before God
        to the state.
     – Equality under the
        law
            Justinian Code
• 528 C.E.
• 5,000 Roman
  Laws
• Became a guide
  on legal matters
  for Western
  Europe.
• Rulers were held
  accountable under
  the law just like
  common people.
                The Crusades
• After the fall of Rome,
  many of the Greek
  and Latin texts were
  destroyed. Some
  were hidden by
  monks, others hid
  them in secret
  personal collections,
  and many were stored
  in libraries and in
  Jerusalem to be
  discovered by the
  Crusaders.
             The Roman Catholic Church
• The Roman Catholic
  Church controlled most of
  everyday life, and most
  European governments.
   – Banned certain books
   – Did not encourage learning
     beyond the sacred texts
   – Controlled Kings
   – Only people who could
     read Latin could read the
     Bible.


               The                The Vatican In
               Pope               Rome (Italy)
The Renaissance weakened the power of the church by changing the emphasis on the afterlife to life here on
Earth.
                                 The Renaissance
   • As more and more of
     the Greek and Latin
     texts were discovered
     and copied (due to
     the invention of the
     printing press) people
     began to read Greek
     philosophy, Roman
     Law, and science
     flourished, along with                                        Lorenzo De
     art and literature.                                           Medici
 All that was lost during the dark ages came back during the Renaissance and changed the way people
 thought about life here on earth, learning, and man’s ability to be rational and rule govern himself.
Michelangelo
The Birth of Venus
Botticelli
                    The Reformation
  • The Reformation of
    the 1500s further
    weakened the church.
      – 95 thesis
      – Vernacular (common
        Language)
      – Public Education (for
        boys and girls)

Protestant faiths stem from the
Protestant Reformation! They
PROTESTED the abuses of the
Catholic Church.                  Martin Luther
          Forms of Government
• Monarchy – King or Queen rules
• Aristocracy – a small group of people who own a lot of land rule
  the country.
• Oligarchy – small, powerful elite (usually from the business
  class- merchants) rules the country. SPARTA
• Democracy – government gets its power from the people
  (popular sovereignty) U.S.
• Direct Democracy (in Athens) – the citizens took part in the
  day to day affairs of government (everybody was involved daily).
• Republic – government in which officials (representatives) are
  chosen by the people to rule the government. ROME
• Tyranny – a person seizes power, usually with the support of the
  poor, and then rules as he/she wants without laws betraying
  his/her people. CORINTH
                  Timeline Assignment
•   In groups of two, create a horizontal
    timeline using your lecture notes and
    your textbook. Include the date, a
    brief description, and a picture for
    each:
     –   Mesopotamia and Hammurabi’s Law
         Code
     –   The Hebrews – Moses and the Ten
         Commandments, King David, King
                                            Date Event and Picture
     –
         Solomon, and the Great Diaspora
         The Greeks
                                                 description
           •   Sparta
           •   Greeks
           •   Peloponnesian War
     –   The Romans
     –   Christianity
     –   Justinian’s Law Code
     –   The Crusades
     –   The Renaissance
     –   The Reformation

								
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