Offline Modelling Of Earthquake Using Matlab

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					International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering &Technology (IJSRET)
Volume 1 Issue2 pp 045-048 May 2012          www. ijsret.org  ISSN 2278 – 0882




                    Offline Modelling Of Earthquake Using Matlab
                                  Kapil Mangla1, Richa Saluja2, Mandeep Beri3
                           1,3
                            Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
                      Satya College of Engineering & Technology, Palwal, Haryana, India
                            kapilmangla005@gmail.com, mandeepberi@gmail.com
                                     2
                                       Department of Electrical Engineering
                    Rawal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Faridabad, Haryana, India
                                          richa.saluja098@gmail.com



ABSTRACT                                                 we can achieve some breakthrough success. Among
                                                         the natural calamities, earthquakes are the most
The Earthquake has been a major natural calamity
                                                         destructive, in terms of loss of life and destruction of
for centuries. The loss of human life and
                                                         property. Often, they occur without any warning,
infrastructure has been tremendous. The latest
                                                         which make them the most feared and unpredictable
earthquake in Japan left hundreds of people dead,
                                                         natural phenomena. On an average, two earthquakes
infrastructure destructed, thousands peoples
                                                         of magnitude 8 are reported to occur globally every
homeless and many other problems generate. The
                                                         year. Japan, the United States and China have
Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) of the State of Gujarat on
                                                         experienced several damaging earthquakes in the
January 26, 2001, that occurred in most disastrous
                                                         past. These countries have also done some of the
earthquake in India’s history. While the actual
                                                         pioneering studies on earthquakes. Many destructive
figures of death and injury remain uncertain, going
                                                         earthquakes have occurred in India in the recent past,
by the official figures, at least 20,000 people were
                                                         causing damages worth crores of rupees and
dead and more than 200,000 were injured. Nearly
                                                         claiming many thousands of human lives. More than
400,000 houses were destroyed. The worst
                                                         650 earthquakes of magnitude >5.0 have been
earthquake in the history of the world struck in
                                                         reported in India since 1890 Seismology. As
China on 23 January 1556, leaving 830,000 peoples
                                                         described in section [1], describe the science behind
died and even more homeless. This paper is an
                                                         the Earthquake. This is further divided in three
attempt to simulate and analyze the Earthquake,
                                                         phases. The first phase, define the faults that may
motivated by the current series of Earthquake hitting
                                                         cause an earthquake. In second phase, the waves are
different parts of the earth. Toward this end we have
                                                         created when stress is released as energy in
used MATLAB for this work because of its
                                                         earthquake. The third phase, referred as magnitude
flexibility and high level User Interaction (UI).
                                                         of the earthquake and finally in section [2], we
Specifically we have tried to analyze the level of
                                                         define how we can analyse the different sensitive
destruction/losses by earthquake in India. This work
                                                         region.
thus forms a basis for having a coarse idea of impact
of the earthquake.
                                                          II.    SCIENCE BEHIND EARTHQUAKE
  I.    INTRODUCTION                                     An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor, or
                                                         temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in
This work provides a basis for simulating EQ using
                                                         the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
MATLAB. MATLAB has been used as it provides
                                                         Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also
lots of benefits as compared to other tools available
                                                         known as a seismograph. The expression “on solid
in the market. Predicting earthquake has obvious
                                                         ground” is often used to describe something as stable.
advantages. If done with more accurate seismic data
                                                         Usually the solid ground underfoot seems very stable.




                                                IJSRET @ 2012
   International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering &Technology (IJSRET)
   Volume 1 Issue2 pp 045-048 May 2012          www. ijsret.org  ISSN 2278 – 0882



    But sometimes it is not. Earthquakes of the greatest             The rock on one side of the fault is moved
    intensity happen about once a year and major              down relative to the rock on the other side of the
    earthquakes (7.0-7.9) occur about 18 times a year.        fault.
    Strong earthquakes (6.0-6.9) occur about 10 times a              Normal faults will not make an overhanging
    month and moderate earthquakes (5.0-5.9) happen           rock ledge.
    more than twice daily. Sometimes an earthquake                   In a normal fault it is likely that you could
    under the ocean can be so severe; it will cause a         walk on an exposed area of the fault.
    tsunami, responsible for far greater damage.
    Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of
    geological faults, but also by other events such as
    volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear
    tests.
    In spite of extensive research and sophisticated
    equipment, it is impossible to predict an earthquake,
    although experts can estimate the likelihood of an
    earthquake occurring in a particular region.                           Fig. 2 Normal Dip-Slip Fault

                                                              B.      Reverse Dip-Slip Fault
                                                                      Reverse faults happen in areas where the
                                                              rocks are pushed together (compression forces) so
                                                              that the rocky crust of an area must take up less
                                                              space.
                                                                      The rock on one side of the fault is pushed
                                                              up relative to rock on the other side.
                             Fig. 1
                                                                      In a reverse fault the exposed area of the
                                                              fault is often an overhang. Thus you could not walk
    This diagram shows an earthquake along a fault. The
                                                              on it.
    focus of the earthquake is where the energy is
                                                                      Thrust faults are a special type of reverse
    released underground. The epicentre is the spot on
                                                              fault. They happen when the fault angle is very low.
    the Earth’s surface directly above the focus. The
    location inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
    is called the focus or hypocenter. The point at the
    Earth’s surface directly above the focus is called the
    epicentre. The strongest shaking happens at the
    epicentre.
    II.1. Geological Fault
    A fault is a crack in the Earth's crust. Typically,                    Fig. 3 Reverse Dip-slip Fault
    faults are associated with, or form, the boundaries
    between Earth’s tectonic Plates. In an active fault,
                                                              C.      Transform (Strike-Slip) Faults
    the pieces of the Earth Crust along a fault move over
                                                                     The movement along a strike slip fault is
    time. The moving rocks can cause earthquake.
                                                              horizontal with the block of rock on one side of the
    Inactive faults had movement along them at one time,
                                                              fault moving in one direction and the block of rock
    but no longer move. The type of motion along a fault
                                                              along the other side of the fault moving in the other
    depends on the type of fault. The main types of
                                                              direction.
    faults are described below.
                                                                     Strike slip faults do not make cliffs or fault
A. Normal Dip-Slip Fault                                      scarps because the blocks of rock are not moving up
 Normal faults happen in areas where the rocks are           or down relative to each other.
   pulling apart (tensile forces) so that the rocky crust
   of an area is able to take up more space.


                                                    IJSRET @ 2012
International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering &Technology (IJSRET)
Volume 1 Issue2 pp 045-048 May 2012          www. ijsret.org  ISSN 2278 – 0882



                                                                 The application will divide the map into
                                                                  several equal parts. This division is done of
                                                                  the basis of the soil properties of the region.
                                                                 Every region thus has a particular index.
                                                                 We select an epicentre, which sends seismic
                                                                  waves to near different region similarly a
                                                                  real earthquake.
                Fig. 4 Strike-Slip Faults                        The region effectiveness depends upon the
                                                                  magnitude of seismic wave and the property
II.2. Seismic Waves                                               index at that particular region.
In earthquake studies, we generally deal with Body               Finally the regions are colored according to
Wave and Surface wave. Body waves travel through                  their sensitivity.
the Earth. P-wave and S-wave are the Body waves.
P-waves are the fastest type of seismic wave. As P-          V.     RESULT ANALYSIS
waves travel, the surrounding rock is repeatedly
compressed and then stretched. P wave is the                In this work we have simulated a simple model of
primary or the fastest wave travelling away from an         earthquake.
earthquake source. S-waves arrive after P-waves
because they travel more slowly. The rock is shifted
up and down or side to side as the wave travels
through it. S wave is the secondary wave, travelling
more slowly than the P wave and consisting of
elastic vibrations transverse to the direction of travel.
Surface waves travel over the Earth’s surface with a
speed less than the S waves. Rayleigh wave and love
wave are Surface waves. Rayleigh waves, also called
ground roll, travel like ocean waves over the surface
of the Earth, moving the ground surface up and                           Fig. 5 Select a Reference Map
down. They cause most of the shaking at the ground
surface during an earthquake. Love waves are fast                                     MORE
and move the ground from side to side.                                              SENSITIVE
 III.   EARTHQUAKE MEASUREMENT                                                      SENSITIVE
                                                                                      LEAST
The strength of an earthquake can be measured by a                                  SENSITIVE
device called a seismograph. Seismometers are
instruments that measure motions of the ground,             The user selects a map of Delhi, and selects an
including those of seismic waves generated by               Epicentre, the origin of the earthquake. As a result of
earthquakes. When an earthquake occurs this device          the simulation, different regions of different
converts the wave energy into a standard unit of            sensitivities are highlighted; red being the most
measurement like the Richter scale. In the Richter          sensitive region and yellow being the least sensitive
scale, units of measurement are referred to as              one.
magnitudes. The Richter scale is logarithmic. Thus,
each unit increase in magnitude represents 10 times
(Energy in joules = 1.74 x 10(5 + 1.44*M)) more
energy released.

 IV.    STEPS FOR SIMULATION
     User selects an image of a map.
                                                                    Fig. 6 Select Epicenter of Earth Quake


                                                  IJSRET @ 2012
International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering &Technology (IJSRET)
Volume 1 Issue2 pp 045-048 May 2012          www. ijsret.org  ISSN 2278 – 0882



                                                        [3] Phoenix, Arizona “Visualizing Very Large-Scale
                                                        Earthquake Simulations” Proceedings of the 2003
                                                        ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing, Arizona.

                                                        [4] Earthquake engineering handbook by Wai-Fah
                                                        Chen, Chaeles Scawthom in 2003.

                                                        [5] Geotechnical Earthquake engineering Handbook
                                                        by Robert W. Day in 2002.
       Fig. 7 Select the place where we find the
                  distortion factor.                    [6] Geotechnical Earthquake engineering by Steven
                                                        L. Kramer in 1996.

                                                         [7] IGARSS’04.        Proceedings.    2004    IEEE
                                                        International.

                                                        [8]
                                                        http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/measure.php

                                                        [9]
    Fig. 8 Color indicates the level of earthquake.
                                                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake#History
Using the powerful MATLAB tool we were able to
                                                        [10] http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/eq1.htm
simulate earthquake in addition to getting useful
insights. In particular this work forms a warning
                                                        [11] http://www.answers.com/topic/earthquake
signal for people living in sensitive regions in the
city. Thus administration & government can take
                                                        [12]
some precautionary measures. This work again
                                                        http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/qu
empathizes that studies related to earthquake can get
                                                        ake_1.html
great befits by simulations; especially by using
MATLAB which provides easy and high level User
                                                        [13]
Interaction. Thus, encouraging students and
                                                        http://www.cessind.org/earthquakedistributionandty
researchers to participate in R & D in EQ
                                                        pes.htm#eqdistrib
simulations and analysis.
                                                        [14]
REFERENCES                                              http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10
[1] Chi-Jan Huang; Che-hao Chang; Kuan-Yung             m.html
Chang “Uncertainty propagation of Earthquake Loss
Estimation System on the early seismic damage           [15]
evaluation” Geoinformatics, 2009 17th International     http://www.eeri.org/site/?gclid=CJemiYvF56cCFUF
conference on 12-14Aug,2009.                            66wodz2QraA

[2]    Xiaoqing Wang, Huicheng Shao “Study on
earthquake losses assessment model considering the
uncertainties of earthquake location and other
factors” Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Symposium, 2004. IGARSS’04. Proceedings. 2004
IEEE International.




                                               IJSRET @ 2012

				
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Description: The Earthquake has been a major natural calamity for centuries. The loss of human life and infrastructure has been tremendous. The latest earthquake in Japan left hundreds of people dead, infrastructure destructed, thousands peoples homeless and many other problems generate. The Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) of the State of Gujarat on January 26, 2001, that occurred in most disastrous earthquake in India’s history. While the actual figures of death and injury remain uncertain, going by the official figures, at least 20,000 people were dead and more than 200,000 were injured. Nearly 400,000 houses were destroyed. The worst earthquake in the history of the world struck in China on 23 January 1556, leaving 830,000 peoples died and even more homeless. This paper is an attempt to simulate and analyze the Earthquake, motivated by the current series of Earthquake hitting different parts of the earth. Toward this end we have used MATLAB for this work because of its flexibility and high level User Interaction (UI). Specifically we have tried to analyze the level of destruction/losses by earthquake in India. This work thus forms a basis for having a coarse idea of impact of the earthquake.