Gem Cutters News
Award Winning Bulletin of the Gem Cutters Guild of Baltimore, Inc.
Volume 60, Number 6 June – July, 2011
Program Notes Our Favorite Tools
from Pat Baker by Carolyn Weinberger
Calvert Cliffs, on the western Our April meeting featured a Bernie Emery told us that some
shore of our Chesapeake Bay, is fa- unique topic -- “my favorite tools”. cell phone screens can be used as a
mous for its President Mary asked members to polarizing filter to help look at gem-
Miocene age bring in and talk about the tools that stones and gemstone rough. Turn
geological they use in creating their cabs, facet- the table down on the screen and
strata that ed stones and jewelry. Needless to slowly turn the stone.
contain nu- say, we had an eclectic assortment
merous fos- of “professional” and “home-made” Linda Goldberg’s favorite tool
sils. The deposits are exposed in gadgets and tools. is an ordinary knitting needle. It’s
cliffs up to 100 feet high between useful in a variety of applications.
Chesapeake Beach and Drum Point Leading off, Mary described sev-
in Calvert County, just north of the eral pairs of small pliers that she finds Steve Weinberger had three
nuclear power plant. These cliffs indispensable in making her bead tools - an Andre Aligner®, used to
contain the most complete section necklaces and earrings. She also dis- help align stones if they become
of Miocene deposits in the eastern played a Pantone® Color Guide that misaligned after transferring during
U.S. Although the cliffs have be- she uses. faceting. He also had a dop handle
come more unstable in recent years, used to keep fingers from being
you may have collected there -- or Richard Meszler brought in a burned during stone transfers and a
at least in the waters lapping their bezel pusher he’d made from acrylic gizmo that allows for miniscule ad-
shore looking for shark’s teeth. material. The acrylic helps prevent justment of height under a micros-
damage to metal bezels. He also
We’re in for a treat this month as brought an burnisher that he’d made continued on page 5
Lloyd Gleason, a member of the Chesa- from agate.
peake Gem & Mineral Society Maryland
Geological Society and American Fossil
Federation will talk with us about this
national treasure. He promises to bring In Search Of...
images of the cliffs, fossils that he’s from Bernie Emery
found there along with several of the
fossils that he’s personally collected.
We don’t do programs on fossils
very often - come and broaden your
knowledge base (and perhaps see
what you’ll look like in a couple mil-
lion years!). Our meeting as usual,
begins at 7:30 pm.
by Mary Keller, President
Thank you to everyone who brought their fa-
vorite hand tool(s) to the May meeting. The fact
The Gem Cutters Guild is a founding that some were not usually allowed out of their
member of the Eastern Federation of Min- home studios made the pleasure of their being
eralogical and Lapidary Societies, Inc. and shared with the rest of us even more gratifying.
affiliated with the American Federation of Thank you again.
About our Guild: It was great to have another well attended meeting with lots of goodies
The Gem Cutters Guild of Baltimore, for Show and Tell. Looks like lots of members and prospective members have
Inc. was established in order to allow its been very busy.
members to gain knowledge and skills in
gem cutting, jewelry making and in iden-
tifying and evaluating lapidary materials. Some upcoming activities include another “Bead N’ Brunch” June 12, the
Through field trips, exhibitions, and coop- September 24 and 25th show, and fall classes. If there are any classes you
eration with other societies, we endeavor would like to see offered, or perhaps teach, please let Richard Meszler, me, or
to further not only our own knowledge, but one of the board members know. The successful basic beading class was the
also that of the general public.
Meetings are held on the first Tuesday
result of member requests. As of this writing, we have not heard if InterGem
of each month except January, July and will make a booth available to us at the July Timonium show. If they do, this
August at our workshop which is located will be a good opportunity to talk to potential members and talk about our
at Meadow Mill at Woodbury, 3600 Clipper classes and show. Not to mention free parking and admission to the show. I
Mill Rd, Suite 116; Baltimore, MD 21211.
usually bring projects to work on, but rarely get time to do much work.
Meetings begin at 7:30 P.M. Visitors are al-
ways welcome. Dues are $30 per year for
families and $18 for individuals. More in- I look forward to seeing everyone at the June meeting.
formation and directions to our meetings
can be found on our website, <www.gem- Mary
President - Mary Keller
Vice President -Joe Gehring Nibbles & Noshes
Recording Sec’y - Sallie Miller
Corresponding Sec’y - Trinh Phan We had a groaning table of goodies at the May meeting. Thank you to
everyone who brought something. I doubt if anyone went away hungry!
Treasurer - Steve Weinberger
For our June meeting Jen Wilde, Lani Miller and Steve Page have signed up
Past President - Richard Meszler
to bring the caloric (or maybe non-caloric) repast.
20010 - 2011 2011 - 2012 We’re still looking for a volunteer to help
Jan Anderson Wayne Homans
Richard Hoff Anne Millar set-up and take-down the food table at our
Gene Miller Dave Mitchell meetings. It’s really not a tough job and would
give Pres. Mary one less thing to have to worry
Editor: about each month. Please give her a call and
Carolyn Weinberger volunteer.
PO Box 302
Glyndon, MD 21071-0302
Deadline is the 15th of each month
Non-commercial reprint permission
granted to non-profit organizations
unless otherwise noted.
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 2
May Meeting MInutes Board Notes
by Carolyn Weinberger from the Board of Directors
The May 2nd meeting of the Unfinished Business – none
Gem Cutters Guild
was called to order New Business – none
by President Mary Items in the Show & Tell display
Keller at 7:35 pm. were introduced by Pat Baker.
Minutes of the April
meeting were ap- Mary announced that she had
proved as printed in Gem Cutters brought a cake in honor of the Our Board of Directors met at
News. Treasurer Steve Weinberger Guild’s 61st anniversary. the Workshop on May 9th. The en-
indicated that the Guild remains tire board was in attendance plus
solvent and that members wishing Following the coffee break, sev- Parliamentarian Carolyn Weinberger
a full report should see him during eral members described the tools and Show Chair Bernie Emery.
the meeting break. that they considered their favorites
when working on various creations Items discussed included the ac-
Linda Goldberg, Membership in their shops. quisition of some equipment from
Chair, introduced visitors. She in- member Joe Sobrio. The Board will
dicated that many had applied for The meeting was adjourned at make an offer for two faceting ma-
membership. 9:10 pm. chines plus a 10” Raytech saw. The
other equipment and materials from
Sunshine Chair Pat Baker reported Submitted by Joe will be sold at auction sometime
that she had not heard of any illness Carolyn Weinberger later this summer or fall with the
among members. Carolyn Weinberg- Secretary pro tem Guild retaining a percentage of the
er said that she learned that Bob Hud- sales total and the rest going to Joe
gins was in the hospital with a bone and his family.
infection that would sideline him for
several months. A brief discussion about the up-
coming ACGME was held. Dave has
Class Planning chair Richard
Meszler reported that classes were
Sunshine already had several members volun-
teer for committee chairs:
from Pat Baker
going well and that the committee Wishing Well- Richard Hoff
would begin work on the fall 2011 The only news I’ve heard is that Gem Mine - Wayne Homens
line-up shortly. Bob Hudgins has a Ticket Sales - Sallie Miller
nasty bone infection. Information - S. & C. Weinberger
Bernie Emery reported that con- He’s at Kernan’s, but Displays - Pat Baker
tracts for our September show were should be coming Printed Material - C. Weinberger
signed and that all dealer spaces home once the infec-
were filled. The question of whether tion is out of his system. Then he’ll Additional help is needed for demos,
or not the Fairground air-condition- have several months of inactivity ticket takers, set up and take down,
ing system would be operational was while he recovers. decorations and media advertising.
yet to be determined. Dave Mitchell
asked members to begin thinking Please remember to call or e- A brief discussion about future
of volunteering as committee chairs mail me with your news --- good relatively local field trips was held
and to start planning their displays or bad, so that we can let the rest with Mary expressing a desire to
of the club know what’s going on have a group trip to DC for a visit to
The Guild is tentatively set to in your world. the Smithsonian.
have a booth at the InterGem show
at Timonium this July, but as yet have The next Board meeting will be
not received a contract. held on Monday, June 13 at 7 pm.
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 3
Welcome New Members!
fromLinda Goldberg, Membership Chair
We’re delighted to welcome Andrea Shipley Matthew (Matt) Zimmerman
eleven new members this month.
A native of Germany, she and her Matt was born in Athens, Geor-
Bob Hixson joins husband have two children. An- gia and he and his wife have two
wife Margye as a drea’s interests include jewelry, lapi- children. Matt is an attorney with
member. Bob’s a na- dary, travel and languages. interests in lapidary and jewelry.
tive of Texas and is a
retired city planning
specialist. His inter- Pepi & Michael Shongo
ests include minerals,
fossils and jewelry Pepi and Michael are natives of Bal-
fabrication as well timore. Both are involved in early
as photography and childhood education. Interests in-
travel. clude minerals, lapidary, jewelry and Birthdays
from Linda Goldberg
fossils as well as helicopters, para-
normal investigations, photography Wonderful birthday wishes this
and the Civil War. month go out to:
Lani & Charles (Chaz) Miller Anne Millar - 6
Yolanda Griffin - 7
Lani and Chaz are both natives of Emily Brooks - 9
New York state. They have three chil- Nathaniel Weiss Adam Block - 10
dren and both are employed as studio Jill Gansler - 12
jewelers. Both interested in jewelry, A native of Maryland, Nathaniel is Stanley Dorf - 19
minerals, lapidary, fossils and Lani is currently employed as a bench jew- Joy Woelfer - 20
also interested in the textile arts. eler. His interests include jewelry Rochelle Coleman - 21
and lapidary as well as a art. Sans Gundlach - 23
The birthstones for June are
Manzar Moghbeli a choice of Pearl, Alexandrite and
Zoe Whitman Moonstone.
A native of Tehran, Iran, she and her
husband have three children. Her A native of Oscoda Michigan, Zoe For July celebrants include
interests include lapidary, jewelry, has two children and is employed as Nathaniel Weiss - 3
sewing, knitting and calligraphy. a hairstylist. Her interests include Tim Baker - 4
lapidary, jewelry, gardening and Mary Keller - 4
baking. Marge Lake - 12
Steve Weinberger - 18
Vida Shams Jackie Orsini - 19
Lani Miller - 19
Also a native of Tehran, Iran, Vida is Theo Pinette - 20
married with three children. Like her Wayne Homens - 26
mother Manzar, her interests include
jewelry and lapidary. Birthstones for July are Ruby and
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 4
May Show and Tell Favorite Tools
from Pat Baker continued from page 1
Once again the talents of our ope that is used for photographing Pat Baker demonstrated a mini
members were on display in our microscopic specimens to avoid butane and oxy-
Show & Tell case at the May meet- depth of field problems. gen run torch as
ing. well as a shank
Carolyn Weinberger brought a sizer and brace-
Joy Woelfer, just back from EF- jig that’s used for folding liners for let gauge.
MLS Wildacres showed off some of micromount boxes.
the emerald crystals she collected Pam Jeffries brought in a piece
on a field trip to the Hoot Owl Mine. Stan Dorf told us that he uses a of oak step tread that she’d carved
She also proudly showed the two bicycle spoke as a poker tool for sol- out to make a jig for fabricating pod
cabs she cut during class taught by dering. It’s embedded into a dowel shaped metal forms.
Bernie. rod to make it easier to handle.
Joe Gehring talked about using
Kyle Raddin, one of our guests, Lois Schwartz uses paper corundum wheels to work on grind-
displayed a ring he’d carved in Lois’ wrapped covered with tape in- ing metal shapes.
wax carving class. The casting was side of a ring. The wax is rolled
done by Shelly Walck. around the paper cone to form Wayne Homens mentioned the
the wax ring shape, then the pa- tube shaped covers on the edges of
Linda Goldberg displayed ex- per is easily removed. the Genie water containers as his fa-
amples of the seven projects that vorites because they save his wrists
participants in the PMC Certifica- Hattie Wolf loves her bent from bruising.
tion class had to make along with chain-nosed pliers.
finished jewelry made by teacher
Barbara Becker Simon and Dina Al-
exander. (See Linda’s article about
the class on page 6).
Matt Zimmerman had several
silver rings that he’d polished and
shaped by hand.
Joe Gehring displayed a not-
yet-finished bracelet made during
Pat’s Reactive Metals class.
Pat Baker had several samples Pam J’s necklace
from her Reactive Metals classes and
the PMC Certification class. Joy Woelfer’s cabochons
Pam Jeffries brought in several
more pendants she’d made.
Dave Mitchell had an etched
metal tray made by his Aunt Henri-
etta Mace who was one of the char-
ter members of the Guild.
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 5
Precious Metal Clay at the Gem Cutters Guild
by Linda Goldberg
On April 8, 9 and 10, 2011, about class in PMC™. Participants learned the certification. Certification brings
a dozen women techniques of working with PMC™ enrollment in the Rio Rewards spe-
from the greater through completion of seven proj- cial purchase program (discounts
Baltimore area ects. Course objectives learned (and on PMC™ purchases) and a one-year
spent 24 intense mastered) included: membership in the PMC Guild. By
hours with a true • Making and using simple tools hosting the certification class, the
national treasure, • Creating organic forms Guild received a new kiln which can
Barbara Becker Si- • Working with geometric preci- be used for PMC™, lampworking
mon, learning the sion and enameling, among other uses.
techniques to work with Precious • Assembling dry sheet to make Best of all, we had an opportunity to
Metal Clay (PMC™). a form learn these new techniques which
• Working on a hollow form so beautifully complement the oth-
PMC™ (as described in the PMC™ • Carving dry PMC er jewelry making crafts and tech-
RioRewards booklet) “is a pliable, • Making and using a rubber niques.
putty-like compound containing ac- mold
tual silver powder. It can be molded, • Setting a stone Watch the class fliers for an an-
textured and layered using simple • Rehydrating dry PMC nouncement of an introductory PMC
modeling tools to make pendants, • Using PMC paper class to be held at the Guild.
earrings and other types of jewelry • Double firing and torch firing
- even small sculptures. A product PMC™
of Mitsubishi Materials Corporation • Creating a mirror polish
of Japan, PMC™ looks and feels like • Applying liver of sulfur black
children’s modeling clay, though in patina
fact there is no ceramic content in it • Sizing rings
at all. Instead, a non-toxic binder and • Soldering sterling findings into
water are mixed in careful propor- place
tion with tiny particles of pure silver. • Using shrinkage creatively
The resulting material can be han- • Making slip
dled just like clay - rolled, stretched, • Using Aura 22
formed and assembled into intricate • Using the PMC™ syringe
designs. Once the design is com-
pleted and the piece has dried, it can Whew!!
then be safely fired in a compact,
bench top kiln where the water and Working through lunch, stu-
binder are driven off. The resulting dents completed seven projects,
piece is identical to including a fine sil-
the object that was ver ball point pen.
crafted, but now of We also benefit-
100% pure silver” ted from the artis-
and reduced in size, tic sensibilities of
shrinking between Barbara, who was
12% and 28% de- honored in 2007
pending on the with second place
product formula- for metal clay in the
tion used. prestigious Saul Bell Design Award
Competition. An engaging and high
A first for the Gem Cutters energy instructor, the time flew by
Guild, the Guild partnered with Rio as each participant presented com-
Grande in holding a certification pleted projects for credit towards
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 6
A Look Back – 61 Years of History, Part 2
by Carolyn Weinberger
The bond of friendship among bulletin. Another dozen members here in Baltimore. Elsie Kane White
those pioneer- were added to the roster and the was chairman of the show which
ing members Guild co-hosted (with the two other featured fantastic displays includ-
who joined founding clubs), the first ever EFMLS ing gems from the Smithsonian – a
during 1950 Convention which was held at the 4700 carat golden Burmese sap-
was strong. There were lots of field Willard Hotel in Washington DC. phire, a phenomenal rubelite tour-
trips where members searched for maline from the Roebling Collection
Williamsite, cuprite, garnets, un- Things hummed along well dur- and some fabulous dioptase crystals
akite, calcite, pyromorphite, and ing 1952, 1953, and 1954. During from Tsumeb, Namibia. Other dis-
many more specimens both lo- this period, the Guild decided to plays included a jade carving valued
cally and in Virginia and Pennsyl- have a speaker at the monthly club at $20,000 (1956 value), gems from
vania. There were open house par- meetings. These speakers came to both the Walters Art Museum and
ties at the homes of members too discuss gems, minerals, jewelry, min- Baltimore Museum of Art and the
and participants enjoyed viewing ing and many other related subjects Smyth diamond collection. This was
the varied collections of individual and included some very well known quite an impressive assemblage and
members. James W. Anderson, the individuals including local jewelers generated considerable coverage in
“father of the Guild” was chosen as and personnel from the Smithso- the media and with the public. Liv-
the first president and David Wallis nian Institution. Another 50 people ing in a more open and less litigious
as vie president. joined the Guild during those three society made it possible for muse-
years and Clinton Davison became ums and private collectors to display
During the first few months the the first “two term” president. these valuable gems which today
Guild also became cannot be so easily done because of
involved with the Our first show (called an Exhibi- insurance regulations and the addi-
founding of an um- tion) was held in February, 1955 at tional cost of security guards which
brella group – the the Roosevelt Park Recreation Cen- many museums now require to be
Eastern Federation of ter in Hamden where the Guild met stationed at their displays.
Mineralogical and Lapidary Societ- for meetings. This was a one day
ies (EFMLS). Gem and mineral clubs affair and members had displays Speakers at the Convention in-
throughout the country ahd previ- of their work arranged on tables. cluded Paul Desautels of the Smith-
ously organized “federations” in an There were no dealers present and sonian, Mary Mrose from the US
effort to further share ideas. Clubs no members were allowed to sell Geological Survey and Dr. Theodore
on the east coast felt that a similar either. The event was open to the Lowe from the Walters.
organization was needed to serve public at no charge...and from all
their needs and so representatives of reports, the hall was very crowded Membership continued to grow
the Gem Cutters Guild met in Wash- with those wishing to learn more as did our annual “exhibitions”, now
ington, DC with representatives of about our hobby. being held at Dumbarton School.
the Mineralogical Society of the Dis- These subsequent shows followed
trict of Columbia and the Lapidary Later that year the Guild once the same routine as the first one --
Club of Washington, DC (now the again joined the two Washington with members displaying their cre-
Gem, Lapidary & Mineral Society of clubs in hosting the EFMLS Conven- ations, minerals and gems and no
Washington, DC). Representing the tion in Washington, DC, but this time admission being charged.
Guild were David Walls, Leslie Mihm the AFMS also held its convention at
and Edward Geisler. the same time. The Guild was defi- By the early 1960’s the Guild
nitely moving...and definitely get- was well established and meetings
The year 1951 was a momentous ting recognition! were alive with excitement, fabulous
one for the Guild too. Besides club speakers, sharing and learning.
meetings and trips, the first issue The following year, 1956 was an-
of Gem Cutters News rolled off the other important year in our growth Next month we’ll look at the
press. True, it was only 2 pages long, as the Guild hosted the EFMLS in 1960’s.
but it is the forerunner of our current convention at the Emerson Hotel
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 7
Mineral IQ Test Internet Resources
by Anita Westlake by Lorraine Johnston
from Tips & Trips, April 2011
Inspirations, Part Two: Faceting! Jim Perkins, whose work has
1. What is black mica called been featured in Lapidary Journal,
Among the prettiest of pretty designs stones such as the stunning
2. What color streak rocks are the clear faceted stones. atypical Portuguese cut. You can
does hematite leave If admiring them is not enough of see Jim’s work and that of others at
on an unglazed por- a delight, you can learn to cut your Lapidary Journal’s instructional site,
celain tile? own, about which more is said be- <www.jewelrymakingdaily.com> –
low. But first, the inspirations. We’re enter ‘faceting’ in the search box.
3.What does pseudo- fortunate to live in the Internet era
morph mean? that offers easy, instant access to tal- Designs by Jim, Wayne Emery,
ented faceters. and Ernie Hawes, all members of the
4. What is the purple US Faceter’s Guild <www.usfaceters-
variety of quartz called? One of the most impressive of guild.org>, are featured at the Fac-
faceters is John Dyer, who specializ- ette manufacturers’ website, <www.
5. Are diamonds found in me- es in concave and fantasy-cut stones. fac-ette.com>.
teorites? John has won thirty-six faceting
awards since 2002—six awards in Award-winning work by numer-
6. In the mineral kingdom, what 2011 alone. See <www.johndyer- ous other designers can be found
is a halfbreed? gems.com>. at the American Gem Trade Asso-
ciation’s website, <www.agta.org>,
7. Johann Wolfgang von Geothe Andrew Gulij produces aston- under their “Spectrum Awards” link.
had what mineral named after him? ishing gem-intrusion work consist- You can begin faceting in Steve
ing of smaller stones embedded in Weinberger’s Gem Cutter’s Guild or
8. What mineral is 4 on the Mohs larger stones. There are no words for Wildacres faceting classes. A more
Hardness scale? the beauty of the outcome. See to patient, fair, and tactful teacher can-
believe: <www.gemfix.com/gem_ not be found. Steve’s class not only
9. Which mineral is a natural intrusion_1.html>. sees one through faceting that first
magnet? stone from start to finish, he also in-
cludes comprehensive information
10. Which is the stalagmite and about purchasing the right faceting
the stalactite? meteor showers? machine and evaluating rough.
11. What is another name for 19. Where in outer space do me- If after mastering basic facet-
pyrite? teorites originate? ing, you’d like to travel farther into
the territory of concave and fantasy
12. What is a “thin section”? 20. Which mineral has variable cuts, see concave machines made by
hardness? Ultra-tec (www.ultratec-facet.com)
13. What’s the difference be- and poly-metric instruments (www.
tween magma and lava? 21. What is the principle use of polymetricinc.com). The latter also
bauxite? includes several intriguing photos
14. What is silver/clear mica called? of marbles that have been faceted ...
22. What is “quicksilver”? who knew?
15. Is amber a mineral?
23. Why is Rancho La Brea fa- To share websites or topics for
16. What are aa and pahoehoe? mous? future columns, Guild members can
contact me using the information in
17. What’s the difference be- 24. What common natural glass the Guild roster. Arrivederci!
tween a meteorite and a meteor? is still used in eye surgery?
18. Do meteorites come from answers on page 16
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 8
by Richard “Pete” Peterson from Pueblo Rockhounds, May 2011
INTRODUCTION: Catlinite [Pip- formed by the metamorphism of pouches or in wrapped bundles
estone] is a rock that was a favorite sandstone. In some areas, 12 feet of along with other sacred parapherna-
material of Native Americans for quartzite must be removed to reach lia. After smoking the tobacco ashes
making pipe bowls, especially those the layer of Catlinite. were disposed of in special places.
tribes who lived on the Plains, Other Pipes had an identity, were a valued
decorated items for ceremonial and The quarries are located in possession, and were frequently
religious purposes, and articles for southwestern Minnesota in Pip- buried with their owner.
personal adornment, were also made estone County, near the city of Pip-
from the stone. By ca 1700, the Da- estone. The location was reported as Pipe designs varied over time
kota Sioux controlled the Minnesota early as 1702. The rock is also found and by the time of Catlin’s visit in
pipestone and distributed the stone in Minnehaha County, South Dakota 1835, the simple tube of earlier
only through trade; it found its way (southwest of Pipestone). The South times had developed into elbow and
as far east as Georgia and west to Dakota stone is cut from the same disk forms, as well as elaborate ani-
the Pacific coast. Catlinite from the geologic strata as that quarried at mal and human effigies. In the 19th
Minnesota quarries is sometimes re- Pipestone, Minnesota. The word pip- century, the pipes found their way
ferred to as sacred pipestone. estone is frequently misused to de- through trade into white society.
scribe a wide range of materials used Bowls were sometimes carved effi-
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: The in crafting pipes. True Catlinite can gies honoring white politicians and
name Catlinite was derived from be distinguished from other pipe- explorers; sometimes the images
the artist George Catlin (b 1796 -.d making materials by using a streak were far from flattering. The Pawnee
1872). Catlin traveled and painted plate (a small tile, of unglazed porce- and Sioux were master effigy carvers.
extensively in the American West lain) and the Munsell Soil Color Chart. The T-shaped bowl we recognize to-
and visited the Minnesota quarries Catlinite has a streak which falls, only day became widely associated with
in 1835. Catlin is generally credited within hue 5R on the color chart. peace pipes because the white ne-
with first bringing the stone to the gotiators usually encountered them
attention of mineralogists ca 1839. THE PIPE IN ITS SPIRITUAL CON- at treat ceremonies.
TEXT: Ceremonial smoking marked
THE ROCK: Catlinite is a meta- important activities of the Plains Ceremonial pipes were used by
morphic claystone, a type of argil- people; rallying forces for warfare the Lakota Sioux as a means of con-
lite. It is a fine-grained rock, com- against rival groups, prior to the veying prayers or wishes to the cre-
monly colored by hematite. The trading of goods and hostages, ation forces or beings. The tobacco
often mottled or speckled stone is ritual dancing, and in medicine cer- mixture that was burned in a pipe
grayish to brownish-red to dark red emonies. The pipe bowl, stem and and the resultant smoke was thought
in color. It occurs embedded as a tobacco were stored in animal skin to carry those prayers. The pipe was
12 - 18 inch layer in a hard matrix of smoked in personal prayer, as well
Sioux quartzite. The quartzite was as at collective rituals. It served as
a means of conveying the thoughts
of the smoker. Assembling the pipe
(i.e. connecting the bowl with the
stem) and the smoking mixture sym-
bolically formed a bridge believed
necessary for successful communi-
cation with non-humans that influ-
enced fates and outcomes.
CRAFTING AND SHAPING: Cat-
Sioux Catlinite Effigy Pipe linite is soft enough to be carved
Bowl circa 1880
Catlinite blocks, ready for carving continued on page 10
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 9
Catlinite Huge Gold Nugget Found
continued from page 9 by Steve Weinberger
with stone or metal knives and Another huge gold nugget has lbs.) and is believed to be the larg-
drills. Native Americans tradition- been found, this time by a landown- est nugget from California still in ex-
ally used bow drills; the tip of the er on his property istence. (Who knows
drill was fashioned with a quartz north of Nevada how many others
point which (when combined with City, California. Us- were melted down
water) could bore out even the ing a metal detector during the gold rush
hardest pipestone. They then em- in an ancient stream days?) By compari-
ployed moistened, thin rawhide bed near the old son, the largest Cali-
strips rolled in pulverized quartz, Mother Lode min- fornia gold nugget
that were stretched with a bow ing camp of Wash- owned by the Smith-
handle. The bow saw was used to ington, he found the nugget in Feb- sonian weighs 80 troy ounces.
rough-shape the blanks for the pipe ruary, 2010.
bowl. Bowls could then be shaped Placer nuggets are the product
with gradations of sandstone. After The “Washington Nugget” has of erosion in a modern or ancient
shaping, the bowls were polished been described as a placer nugget streambed. They usually have well
using water and progressively finer and is thick and oblong and resem- -worn surfaces with rounded edges.
abrasive grits, then worked with an- bles a “squished loaf of bread”. It
imal hide, and finally hand rubbed weighs 100 troy ounces (approx. 8 The Washington Nugget was
with buffalo tallow or facial oils to sold at auction in Sacramento, CA
complete the polishing. this March to an anonymous buyer
for $460,000, well above the actual
Today, the rough rock can be value of the gold at todays market
cut and shaped using common, price (May 20th) -- approximately
carpenter hand tools. A regular REFERENCES $150,000. Why the higher than spot
hacksaw blade can rough-shape DeMallie, Raymond J.(ed.) 2001. value price? The nugget has much
the blank. The blank can then be Handbook of North American Indi- more value as a collectors item than
scraped with a file, rasp, or knife ans. Plains, Vol. 13 Parts 1 & 2. Smith- it would were it to be melted down.
blade, then smoothed with various sonian Institution: Washington, DC, Perhaps one day it will be on display
gradations of sandpaper. If de- Holmes, William H. 1907. Catlin- at a gem show or in a museum.
sired, the piece can be incised us- ite. Handbook of American Indians
ing any thin, sharpened tool. The North of Mexico. References:
piece can then be gently heated Bureau of American Ethnology Press-Telegram, Long Beach, CA.
and rubbed with beeswax (fat and Bulletin 30. p. 217- 219 in Pt./vol. 1. January 9, 2011.
facial oils still work). The item can Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Govern- Bloomberg Business Week,
then be immersed in cold water to ment Printing Office: Washington, DC. March 17, 2011
harden the wax that was worked King, J. C. H. 1977. Smoking Pipes
into pores of the rock. Finally, the of the North American Indian. British
item can be polished with a soft Museum: London, England. 63p.
cotton cloth. Sigstad, John S. 1970. A Field Washington
Test for Catlinite. American Antiquity
org/wiki/Catlinite, Also see nicoti-
ana, peace pipe, various others.
Woolworth, Alan R.(ed.) 1983. The
Red Pipestone Quarry of Minnesota:
Catlinite pipe bowl probably
Archaeological and Historical
used by Chief Black Hawk
Reports. Minnesota Archaeologist
Black Hawk State Historical California Gold Country
42(1-2). Minneapolis, MN
Site, Rock Island, IL
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 10
Star Stones Digital Antique Metalsmithing Books
by Mary Prosek by Carolyn Weinberger
from The Opal, October 2007
Charles Lewton-Brain and the Ga- with easy access through an interac-
The optical phenomena of some noksin Project (www.ganoksin.com) tive table of contents. The $1.35 fee per
gem materials to display a single have announced a their plan to digitize eBook will allow you to install, read and
ray of light on their surface is called more than 40 complete rare antique print the material on a single computer.
chatoyancy, a French word meaning metalsmithing books and make them Proceeds will be used towards the Ga-
cat or catís-eye. available to the public. There will be noksin Project.
a minimal charge for each download -
Gems displaying this character- currently $1.35 per volume. Thus far, the following volumes
istic exhibit a single are available.
undulating narrow The books being digitized cover • Educational Metalcraft by P.
band of white light special techniques including chas- Wylie Davidson, 1913
with a changeable ing, repousse, engraving, soldering, • Metal-Work, Chasing and Re-
luster. Another opti- construction, patination, silversmith- pousse for Home Art Workers by Frank
cal effect is shown ing and more. Included in the books G Jackson, 1903
when some gem are a variety of “recipes” for alloys • Decoration of Metals - Chasing,
materials exhibit more than one ray and metal surface treatments. Some Repousse and Saw Piercing by John
of light. These rays will cross or inter- are handwritten, others typeset. Harrison, 1894
sect each other at some central point • Watchmakers’ and Jewelers’
or points on the surface of a cut and Plans are to release volumes grad- Practical Receipt Book, 1892
polished gem. This phenomena is ually over the next few • The Private Book of Useful Alloys
called asterism or is more commonly months. The books will and Memoranda for Goldsmiths, Jew-
known as a star. be available as pdf files ellers by James Collins, 1871
and the reader will be • Repousse Work for Amateurs by
The cause of asterism or chatoy- able to search for spe- L. L. Haslope
ancy is attributed to tubes, or cific text and images
needlelike inclusions within the
gem. When these foreign inclusions
are highly uniform in alignment
within the gem, they will be capable
of concentrating and reflecting or Gem materials which are ca- the gem’s physical shape and optical
transmitting the light which enters pable of displaying a ray or rays of properties. Any change in the physi-
the gem. However, this potential will concentrated light will usually show cal shape of the gem will also exert
not be effectual in the form of a ray some indication of this phenom- a change in directions, focus and
or rays if the gem does not have the enon in the form of a satin sheen or magnification of the ray or rays. Spe-
optical shape necessary for focus silkish luster while in the rough state cial care and star-making cups must
and magnification of the light. When and when exposed to an incandes- be used when lapping the stones in
the foreign inclusions are aligned cent type of light. The area in which order to achieve the desired effects.
only in one direction with the gem, the sheen or silk is most intense
a single ray of light will be possible. will usually yield a star or catís-eye Read up on this technique be-
If the alignment is in two directions, effect. This area should be tested fore attempting to cut a star stone.
then the gem will have the potential with a testing fluid such as STP mo-
of emitting two rays of light which tor oil and marked prior to shap- Source:
will intersect each other at a central ing. The gem is shaped so that this “Star Gems” - author Douglas L.
point or points on the gem creating area will become the approximate Hoffman, 1967.
a star with four legs. When the align- apex of the gem’s dome or curved
ment is in three directions, three in- surface. Approximate is mentioned
tersecting rays can be emitted which because the ray or rays will tend to
will produce a six legged star. shift their location slightly as shap-
ing progresses. This shifting is at-
tributed to the relationship between
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 11
from Micromounters of New England Newsletter, November, 2010
Ultrasonic cleaners are built to tures, but these are the very basic about 50—65 °C (149 °F), however,
serve different purposes. While in- parts of a unit. The ultrasound is in medical applications it is gener-
dustrial use has a large market, we not effective without the clean- ally accepted that cleaning should
are here to discuss ing solution; it en- be at temperatures below 38C to
the options avail- hances the effect of prevent protein coagulation.
able to a hobbyist a solution appropri-
and more specifi- ate for the item to What is cavitation?
cally, a micro enthu- be cleaned and the Cavitation is the name of the
siast. You can find soiling. While micro- process where numerous gas
jewelry cleaners, mounters may be bubbles are formed and expand
weapons cleaners, perfectly happy with in the liquid during the expansion
tabletop models distilled water, some phase. This is a low-pressure phase
and models made debris may be better that in essence “cold boils” the wa-
just for your dentures. Obviously, addressed with Super Iron Out or a ter. The water vapor in the bub-
you should not do double duty few drops of household dish wash- ble condenses rapidly creating a
by using the same piece of equip- ing liquid. Other fields of cleaning vacuum-filled ‘cavity’. In the com-
ment to get the iron stains off your may use many different types of pression phase, the great amount
Palermoite that you would use to cleaners, many of which would not of pressure exerted on the newly
remove blueberry stains from your work for our needs at all. expanded bubble leads to a sud-
second set of choppers. den implosion of the bubble. The
They are often employed for liquid molecules collide releasing
We will be looking at table- cleaning of jewelry, lenses and a vast amount of impact energy
top cleaners in this article. This other optical parts, coins, watches, that rapidly increases the local
distinction is in place because dental and surgical instruments, temperature producing a high-
some industrial-oriented models fountain pens, industrial parts and energy liquid stream that collides
are “recess mounted”, sort of like electronic equipment. In everyday with the surface of the object be-
a sink built into the counter top. use such devices may be found in ing cleaned. This collision agitates
The main advantage of tabletop use in most jewelry workshops, contaminants adhering to the
ultrasonics is portability. While watch makers establishments, or surface, effectively and efficiently
some of the larger units can be in electronic repair workshops dislodging them at micron levels.
extremely heavy when filled with (where it could be used for clean-
solution (and shouldn’t be moved ing an electronic device that has Manufacturers
until emptied), when empty they been exposed to particles which In addition to Branson (Bran-
can be moved to any location in hinder its operation). sonic), there are also models built
the shop, lab, or wherever ultra- by Crest, GemOro, Hagerty, Soni-
sonics are needed. Ultrasonic cleaning uses high cor, Sharpertek and SonixIV.
frequency sound waves to agitate
What IS an Ultrasonic Cleaner? an aqueous or organic compound. What specifications are impor-
An ultrasonic cleaner is a clean- Cavitation bubbles induced by the tant to you?
ing device that uses ultrasound agitation act on contaminants ad- • Capacity: How big are
(usually from 20–400 kHz) and an hering to substrates like mineral the specimens that need to be
appropriate cleaning solution to specimens, metals, plastics, glass, cleaned, and how many do you
clean delicate items. Typically, an rubber, and ceramics. This action wish to clean at a time? This is a
ultrasonic cleaning machine may also penetrates blind holes, cracks, very important question as it will
include the following basic com- and recesses. The intention is to be one of the main factors de-
ponents: cleaning tanks and bath, thoroughly remove all traces of termining the size of ultrasonic
baskets, transducers, filter and a contamination tightly adhering or you will need. If you will only be
control panel. Obviously, every embedded onto solid surfaces. So-
model has many additional fea- lutions are mostly used warm, at
continued on page 13
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 12
continued from page 12
cleaning micros and don’t expect • Use the basket: objects placed
anything larger than a thumbnail Prices in direct contact with the bottom
specimen, the minimal capacity You can buy a small ultra- of the tank may reduce the effec-
will save you some money. sonic jewelry cleaner at Walmart tiveness of the cleaner, and pre-
for about $20. This will be plastic, maturely wear out the transducer.
• Heat: What manner of soil won’t have heat or variable speeds. • Hot water may take the lus-
are you trying to remove? This is a It comes with a small basket capa- ter off some minerals, particularly
very important question, as it will ble of cleaning small items such as carbonates such as azurite.
determine whether or not a “heat” rings and thumbnail specimens.
option will be necessary. Most The consensus on Mindat’s mes- Safety
tabletop ultrasonic cleaners come sage boards is that it will not last, As with all tools, precautions
in a standard, heated, and digital- is not big enough and may put the are always necessary! Keep your
heated models. It may be neces- uninitiated into believing that all fingers out of the unit when it is
sary because certain soils or clay ultrasonic cleaners are worthless. running!
may be very difficult to remove
without heat. The larger 1/4 gallon models Bibliography
that are made of stainless steel are Branson Corp.: <www.bran-
Ultrasonic transmission works quite a bit more rugged, come with son-plasticsjoin.com/how_tech_
best between 140 and 170 de- 1 year warranties, and with a bit of works.asp>
grees Fahrenheit. Temperature care can be relied upon to last for a Cleanosonic.com: Cleanosonic
plays a crucial role in the cleaning very long time. A 1/4 gallon model (Toll Free: 877-962-6847 ) is owned
process. The number of cavitation will cost from $175 - $235. and operated by WA Brown, a
bubbles increases proportion- Virginia Corporation, which dis-
ally to temperature increase. This Some Best Practices While Using tributes manufacturing, R&D and
happens up to about 60°C beyond an Ultrasonic Cleaner inspection equipment to govern-
which cavitation begins to decline • Some recommend using dis- ment and industry nationwide.
and stops completely when the tilled or (cooled down) boiled water. Sonicor.com: toll free 800-
liquid’s boiling point is reached; • Many always work with a drop 864-5022, located in Connecticut,
as the temperature and vapor of unscented dish washing soap. Sonicor has been designing and
pressure increase the cavitation Others add a drop of ammonia. manufacturing Ultrasonic Clean-
energy decreases. • Always test first on a lesser ing Systems since 1966.
quality specimen. Wikipedia.com: <en.wikipedia.
Variable Speed Frequency • Remember that the ultra- org/wiki/Ultrasonic_cleaner>
variation, modulation, or sweep sonic bath will get warm quickly Tovatech.com: Tovatech, (973)
prevents formation of standing while the machine is running. 913-9734
waves in the tank. A fixed frequen- • Be careful not to shock your Mindat.org: Mindat message
cy can produce a harmonic vibra- specimens after removing from boards.
tion that damages delicate parts the ultrasonic bath. Member discussions at the Oc-
like electronic components. When • Be careful cleaning fluorite in tober Micromounters of New Eng-
operating in sweep mode, the ul- an ultrasonic some brittle pieces land monthly meeting.
trasonic generator’s frequency is may turn out with internal cracks.
modulated slightly above and be- • Hydrogen peroxide also
low the central frequency, typical- helps loosen up some things, but
ly ± 1-4 kHz. Until recently, sweep careful with carbonates.
ultrasonics were only available in • Some put the hydrogen per-
industrial and high end profes- oxide in a yogurt cup or a small
sional cleaning systems. glass, then place that in the water
in the ultrasonic.
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 13
Major Mining Districs of Colorado
from Rock Lore, March 2010
Colorado’s largest gold discov- Golden and Boulder. As recently monly known as soda ash – used
ery was the Cripple Creek district as 1997 the mine produced about primarily in the glass industry).
in 1893. This one district alone 500,000 pounds of uranium oxide. American Soda plans to produce a
produced over 22 million ounces The mine was closed in 2000. million tons of soda ash in 2001, its
of gold. The Cripple Creek district first full year of operation.
contains the sole remaining gold Colorado is famous for its aqua-
mine in Colorado with an estimat- marine, rhodochrosite, beryl, and Coal mining in Colorado be-
ed annual production of 240,000 diamond gem- gan soon after the first settlers and
ounces in 2000. stones. Diamonds miners arrived in the Front Range.
were discovered in The area around Boulder and Weld
Gold prospectors in the Lead- 1975. The Kelsey counties once had over 100 produc-
ville area kept finding an unknown Lake Mine in Lar- ing coal mines. Coal is still produced,
dark mineral in their gold pans. This imer County began primarily from open cut and under-
was later recognized as silver ore Kelsey Lake Diamond commercial pro- ground mines in the northwest part
and lead to the development of duction in 1996 and of the state. Production in 1999 was
the Leadville, Gilman, and Kokomo quickly produced some outstand- almost 30 million tons making Colo-
districts, which produced about ing gem quality diamonds-as large rado number 11 out of 30 coal-pro-
1.9 million tons of zinc, 1.3 million as 14 and 26 carats. ducing states.
tons of lead, 333 million ounces
of silver, and 3.6 million ounces of Sand and gravel, crushed stone, Reference:
gold through 1998. The Black Cloud gypsum, limestone, clay, and other Mineral Information Institute
Mine was the last working mine in rock materials are important com- <www.mii.org>
the district and it closed in 1999. modities that provide the basic in-
frastructure materials for Colorado’s
Molybdenum was discovered booming economy of the late 1990s
in the Climax area around Fremont and 2000s. Production of these com-
Pass north of Leadville in 1879. The modities has increased steadily over
strange greasy metal had no known the past decade. The Yule Marble
uses at the time of its discovery; quarry in central Colorado produc-
however, by World War I, it had come es some of the finest white marble
to be used as an alloy for hardening in the world. Marble from the Yule
steel for armaments. The Climax quarry was used for the Tomb of the
Mine continued to increase produc- Unknown Soldier and part of the Lin- Aquamarine
Mt. Antero, Chaffee Co. CO
tion through World War II and into coln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
the 1970s. The state of the art Hen-
derson Mine in Clear Creek County Two companies are
opened in 1976. Both mines pro- using a solution mining
duced until a price crash occurred process to produce so-
in the mid-1980s. The Climax Mine dium bicarbonate (bak-
was shut down in 1986, and only the ing soda) from bedded
Henderson Mine continues to pro- nahcolite deposits in the
duce molybdenum in Colorado. Piceance Basin of north-
west Colorado. The new-
Many uranium deposits were est operator, American
discovered in the southwestern por- Soda LLC, plans to use
tion of Colorado and in the Front an additional process
Range during the 1950s. The most to convert the sodium
significant uranium mine was the bicarbonate to sodium
Major mining districts of Colorado
Schwartzwalder Mine between carbonate (more com-
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 14
Hints and Tips Splash Casting
from Ed Wengerd’s Notebook, 1975 and other sources as noted by Leo Hoffman,Wildacres, 2000
Another use for Elmer’s Glue stones. This same scribe can also If you have some scraps of silver,
Make a 50/50 solution of El- give you an idea as to the hard- you can use them to create unusual
mer’s Glue and water to help you ness of a stone. If you can see the castings that can be used for pen-
maintain that “wet look” on all mark, but have to look carefully, dants etc. You will need a crucible to
types of materials, including shells the stone is about 7 on the Mohs hold the metals as it is heated, tongs
and slabs. Just brush it on and let scale. If the mark is very bold, the to hold the heated crucible, water in
it dry. If the specimen becomes stone is about 5 and if the mark an unbreakable container, and a bit
dusty or dull, just immerse in warm cannot be seen, then the stone is of borax to act as a flux.
water to remove the coating and above 7 on the scale.
then reapply. (Note: Do NOT use Heat an ounce or two of silver in
this for water soluble materials!) Eliminating Flats the crucible until it liquefies. Add the
A while back, someone was borax to minimize oxidation. When
Ivory is one substance that saying that he was having prob- the metal is liquid, pour the metal
needs light and therefore should lems with getting “flats” on his into the water in one quick motion
never be stored in the dark. If it cabs, that there was insufficient so all the metals comes out at once.
has started to yellow, take 1/2 “give” in his wheels, and it didn’t
a lemon and rub it in some salt, seem to make any difference no Each drop casting is unique. By
then rub it all over the ivory. The much pressure he applied. That changing the water
lemon will work on the yellow dis- was his first mistake. Diamond depth, you can influ-
coloration. After the piece has and corundum are two differ- ence the shape of the
dried, dampen a soft cloth with ent animals; relatively speaking, finished casting. By
lukewarm water and rub the ivory about the same difference be- adding pine needles
to give it a bright finish. tween quartz and chalk. or rock salt in the bot-
tom of the water, you
Stabilizing porous stones If you “lean into” a diamond can create interesting patterns.
Stones that are porous are wheel, you will get lousy results
difficult to cut or carve. Here’s a (flats, etc) on your stone, and your The finished castings can be tum-
method of stabilizing them that wheel will wear out long before bled or hand finished, drilled for pen-
you may want to try. Be sure to their time. On diamond, you try to dants, or fused to another surface.
do this out of doors or in a very do your cutting (and everything
well ventilated area. Please note else) by almost not touching the
that acetone is a highly flammable wheel. Use essentially no force.
substance. Don’t “grind” the stone, let the
Take a jar with a lid and add diamond wear it away, but keep it
one pint of acetone. To this, add spinning. form, you are going to have them
the complete contents of both the on the final piece - can’t help it.
resin and hardener tubes of epoxy The technique is simply to use
glue. Mix well and add the well- the whole face of the wheel, and And finally, practice, practice,
dried stones that you want to sta- keep your cab moving. Any time practice. Machines, like people,
bilize. Cover the jar and let it sit you stop, you just bought a “flat”. take some acquaintanceship be-
for at least four days. Remove the Can’t help it ! It is the same prin- fore your really know what you
stones and allow them to dry for a ciple as sharpening a knife on an can get out of them.
week. Your stones should now be emery wheel. If you don’t want by Ted Robles
ready to work. notches in your blade, you keep it via Calgary Lapidary Journal. May
Using an aluminum scribe to tell
hardness Do almost all your cutting
An aluminum scribe is often on the coarsest wheel you have.
used with a template to outline If you leave any flats on the pre-
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 15
From the Federations Mineral Test Answers
from Ye Olde Editor
Eastern Federation: 1. Biotite
Candidates for office in the upcoming year (Novem- 2. Red to Brownish Red
ber 1, 2011 - October 31, 2012 are introduced. They are: 3. False-Form
President - RJ Harris, 1st VP - Cheryl Neary, Treasurer - Lou 4. Amethyst
Budell, Editor - Carolyn Weinberger and members of the 5. Yes, most notably in Canyon
Nominating Committee - Wayne Sukow and Loren Patter- Diablo
son. A candidate for 2nd Vice President will be announced 6. A specimen of half silver and
at the annual meeting in Syracuse. Secretary Gerry Cox and Asst. Treasurer half copper
Michael Patterson have an additional year to go on their two year term. 7. Goethite
With the combined EFMLS / AFMS Convention scheduled for this coming 9. Magnetite
July in Syracuse, last minute information about the weekend activities is avail- 10. Stalagmite grows up mighty
able. Deadline for getting in reservations for meals etc. is June 1, however, if from the ground. Stalactites have to
you are a day or two late, please give Ye Olde Ed a call and I’ll find out if they hang on tight to drip from the ceiling
are still able to accept reservations. 11. Fool’s Gold
12. A wafer thin slice of a miner-
There is still room for you to attend the September session of the Wilda- al or meteorite that is virtually trans-
cres Workshop. Information about classes being offered and a registration parent. It is placed in a polarized
form are included. Go to <www.amfed.org/efmls> and click on Wildacres for microscope to identify individual
forms and information. minerals and their crystal structures.
13. Magma forms inside the vol-
Safety Chair Ellery Borow discusses tool safety - the importance of using canic chamber lava flows outside the
the proper tool for the job at hand. chamber and is visible to the eye.
Auction Chair Cheryl Neary encourages donations for the EFMLS Auction 15. No it does not pass one of
in Syracuse and discusses a few of the items already received. the five characteristics of a mineral
most specifically “inorganic”
16.Types of lava. Aa is named for
American Federation: the sound one makes when walking
Last call for purchasing tickets for the Endowment upon its rough surface pahoehoe is
Fund drawing. Now with an unprecedented 33 prizes, ropy lava.
tickets are $5 each or 5 for $20. Proceeds are invested and 17. A meteorite is a rock from
the interest from these investments is used to fund vari- space that makes it to the ground.
ous AFMS projects - including donation of programs to the A meteor is the LIGHT you see when
EFMLS library and badges for the juniors program. Tickets are available from the meteoroid hits the earth’s atmo-
yours truly and will be available at the June meeting. sphere and briefly catches fire.
18. No-Meteor showers are cycli-
Scholarship Foundation honorary recipients and the students they have cal and are the result of comet trails
selected along with their field of study are introduced. intersecting with earth’s orbit.
19. The asteroid Belt between
Dick Pankey, President of the American Lands Access Association comments Mars and Jupiter
on how important it is to write letters to our own representative even if an issue 20. Kyanite
before congress isn’t one that will change how things are in our own back yard. 21. Aluminum
ALL of our representatives end up voting for ALL federal legislation that will have 22. Mercury (the liquid metal
an effect on our hobby and our ability to easily collect on public lands. that used to be in thermometers)
23. The La Brea Tar Pits where
You can download the AFMS Newsletter at <www.amfed.org/news/ hundreds of animals were found
default.htm>. preserved in tar
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 16
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Possible Open Shop*
begins at 2:30 pm
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Possible Open Shop *
Possible Open Shop *
EFMLS / AFMS Convention & Show, Syracuse, NY
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Possible Open Shop * Possible Open Shop *
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Possible Open Shop * Possible Open Shop *
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Possible Open Shop * Possible Open Shop *
Possible Open Shop *
* For Those Paying 2011 Shop Fees
via T-Town Rockhound, October 2004
• In George Washington’s days, are “limbs”, therefore painting them would carve out a loaf of bread, put
there were no cam- would cost the buyer more. Hence the wig in the shell, and bake it in the
eras. One’s image the expression, “Okay, but it’ll cost oven for 30 minutes. The heat would
was either sculpt- you an arm and a leg.” make the
ed or painted. wig big and
Some paintings of fluffy, hence
George Washing- • As incredible as it sounds, men the term “big
ton showed him and women took baths only twice wig”. Today
standing behind a desk with one a year! (May and October). Women we often use
arm behind his back while others kept their hair covered, while men the term “here comes the Big Wig”
showed both legs and both arms. shaved their heads (because of lice because someone appears to be or
Prices charged by painters were not and bugs) and wore wigs. Wealthy is powerful and wealthy.
based on how many people were to me could afford good wigs made
be painted, but by how many limbs from wool. The wigs couldn’t be
were to be painted. Arms and legs washed, so to clean them they
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 17
Carolyn Weinberger, Editor
PO Box 302
Glyndon, MD 21071-0302
Visit us on the web at
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1 2 3 4
Possible Open Shop*
begins at 2:30 pm
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Possible Open Shop* Guild Meeting AUCTION Faceting Class
7:30 pm at the Chesapeake
Club meeting Possible Open Shop*
Refreshments: Women’s Club of Ca- begins at 2:30 pm
J. Wilde, L. Miller, tonsville- 7:30 pm
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Bead “N Brunch Board of Directors Faceting Class
11 am Meeting
7:00 pm Possible Open Shop*
NO Open Shop Meadow Mill begins at 2:30 pm
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Possible Open Shop* Faceting Class
Possible Open Shop*
begins at 2:30 pm
26 27 28 29 30
Possible Open Shop*
* For Those Paying 2011 Shop Fees
Gem Cutters News – June-July, 2011 Page 18