TRAINING _ DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL MBA HR PROJECT REPORT

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					          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

                                 TABLE OF CONTENT


 1. Executive summary
 2. Introduction to Training and Development
 3. Importance of Training and Development
 4. Need for the study
                   Title of the project
                   Statement of the problem
                   Purpose of the study
                   Scope of the study
                   Objectives of the study
 5. Research methodology
                   Sampling plan
                   Area covered
                   Methodology
 6. Data collection
                   Primary data
                   Secondary data
 7. Data Analysis
                   Statistical tool
                   Statistical package
 8. Limitation of the study
 9. Theoretical aspects of training and development
 10. Introduction to the company
 11. Analysis and interpretation
 12. Findings
 13. Suggestions
 14. Conclusion
 15. Bibliography
 16. Annexure


BABASAB PATIL                                         Page 1
                       TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

                               TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL


                                                      Strongly   Somewhat   Neither     Some       Strongly
S.N                    QUESTIONS                      disagree   disagree   agree nor   what       agree
                                                                            disagree    agree

      Training helps in increasing productivity of    1          2          3           4          5
1.
      employees, to achieve organizational goals.

2.    Training programs are well-planned.             1          2          3           4          5
3.    Training programs are of sufficient duration.   1          2          3           4          5

       Training is periodically evaluated and         1          2          3           4          5
4.
      improved.
      Training programs emphasis on developing        1          2          3           4          5
5.    technical & managerial capabilities of
      employees.
      Training of workers is given adequate           1          2          3           4          5
6.
      importance in your organization.
      Employees are sponsored for training            1          2          3           4          5
7.    programs after carefully identified
      developmental needs.
      Those who are sponsored for the training        1          2          3           4          5
8.
      programs take the training seriously
9.    Employees in the organization participate in    1          2          3           4          5
      determining the training they need.
      The quality of training programs in your        1          2          3           4          5
10.
      organization is excellent.

       External training programs are carefully       1          2          3           4          5
11.   chosen after collecting enough information
      about their quality and suitability.

       There is a well-designed and widely shared     1          2          3           4          5
1.
      training policy in the company.




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                         Page 2
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Telecommunication is a technology intensive industry with a high probability of
obsolescence. Our country has witnessed a number of technologies varying from magneto
exchanges to the modern New Technology Digital Switches. We have also seen changes
in the transmission technology starting from carrier systems to the DWDM systems
providing long distance circuits across the length and breadth of the country.
Telecommunications today is both a public utility and a vital infra-structure. Therefore an
in house training center is an essential institution for continuous training of the officers
and employees in this key technological field.


Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency,
capacity and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and
understanding the skills relevant to perform his or her job.


Training also helps a person cultivate appropriate and desired behavior and attitude
towards the work and people. Unless training is provided, the jobs and lives of employees
in organizations are at stake.


It gives people an awareness of the Rules & Procedures to guide their behavior. It is an
application of knowledge to improve the performance on the Current job or to prepare
one for an intended job.
Organization & individual for their survival & attainment of mutual goals should
develop & progress simultaneously; this can be done mainly through training technique
because training is the most important technique & it is a value addition to the
organization through Human Resource Development for the development of the
employee. The employee she/he been selected, placed & introduced in an organization
should be provided with training facilities in order to adjust & make them suitable for the
Job as no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job &
organizational requirements.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 3
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



The trained employees are the valuable assets to any organization. Training at BSNL is
given when there is a difference between the job requirements & employees present
specifications. Thus employee training is the most important sub-system, specialized &
one of the fundamental operative functions of Human Resource Development.
Organizational efficiency, productivity, progress & development, also organization
viability, stability & growth to greater extent depend on training. If the required training
is not provided it leads to the performance failure of the employees. Training enhances
the Competence, Commitment, and Creativity & Contribution to the organization.
The first step in my study is to find out the effectiveness of training and development in
achieving the goals of the company, to study the different methods of training followed at
BSNL, The basis on which training programmees are planned and scheduled and how the
performance appraisal helps in identifying training needs.


The second step was data collection through various sources I used both primary and
secondary data for the study as both are quiet essential in any type of survey.
primary data was collected through survey and personal interview, whereas secondary
data made use of certain reports from the HRD department provided the information as to
the total no of employees, schedule of training programs, number of persons attending it
and other such things. The secondary data also included textbooks, company data,
internet.
The analysis of the questionnaire was carried out through which the purpose of the study
was served. The analysis was done by using statistical tool in which the study made use
of two test that is : frequency test and correlation.
These tests gave the clear idea about the most significant factors which are positively
correlated and those factors which are not so significant and are not positively correlated.
Hence it helped the study to identify the important factors which are quiet essential for
effective training and development in the organization.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 4
          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



This study gives a detailed idea about the employee’s attitude towards the training
program and how the employees apply the knowledge, skills and attitude in job
performance.




Therefore through the analysis the study could be interpreted that the training and
development programs are quiet effective but still needs to be improved on some of the
aspects mentioned above.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                  Page 5
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage
organization. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining,
training, developing, and compensating the employees in organization. It is also
applicable to non-business organizations, such as education, healthcare, etc Human
Resource Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are
designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness……………
……………………
Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of
his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM.The
divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training
and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions, one such
important division is training and development.


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that
randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured
format.


TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND
DEVLOPMENT


Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in
training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made.
There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth.
Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to
be changing.



BABASAB PATIL                                                                      Page 6
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have
realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of
retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to
create a smarter workforce and yield the best results


                                    TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the
availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there
are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.


Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn,
enhances the individual contribution to an organization.


Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing
individual effectiveness.


Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the
organization’s needs.


Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to
the needs and challenges of the society.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                         Page 7
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



Importance of Training and Development


• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in
optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve
the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.


• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an
opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and
behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal
growth.


• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing
the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons
of Human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.


• Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the
employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.


• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,
team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within
the employees.


• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture
within the organization.


• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive
perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from
leaders, subordinates, and peers.



BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 8
             TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and
work-life.


• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy
working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual
goals aligns with organizational goal.


• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety
of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.


• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.


• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.


• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more
positive attitudes towards profit orientation.


• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets
more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and
carrying out organisational policies


• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty,
better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 9
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



Training in Public Sector



Indian Public Sector is passing through massive changes due to advancement in science
and technology and competition from private sector. India has nearly one-sixth of the
world's population. This over abundant human resource needs to be converted to asset.
This is possible only through proper training and development. The former Prime
Minister Rajiv Gandhi rightly sensed this need and had established a separate Ministry
for Human Resource Development in 1985. He stressed on the development of human
resources and because of his initiatives, training had taken a front seat in the national
economy. Later on, most of the PSEs realized the need and importance of training their
employees for better and improved results. The human resource development approach is
essential in order to have the optimum utilization of manpower for the benefit of both, the
employees and the organization.

After opening up of the economy, there has been tremendous amount of pressure on the
PSEs to increase productivity of their employees on one hand and reduce surplus
manpower on the other. PSEs have found out the route to reduce their manpower strength
by adopting Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS). The biggest challenge in VRS is to
safeguard talent drain. Talented employees see this as an opportunity and are moving
away from PSEs in search of high paid jobs in private and multinational companies,
which leads to scarcity of trained manpower. On the one side they get lump sum
compensation package by opting for VRS and on the other side they will be attracted by
MNCs and other private sector enterprises (The Indian Express, January 25, 2001;
Business Line, June 08, 2000; www.syndicatebank.com). Nearly 40% of the employees
in Reliance Petroleum were drawn from the public sector (Vittal, 2001). This again
emphasizes the need and importance of training and employee retention in PSEs.
Research conducted by TVRLS on VRS also proves that good outside opportunity is one
of the important reasons for employees opting for VRS (www.tvrls.com).




BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 10
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

Government of India promoted PSEs to fulfill the social objectives since the time of the
first Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. As a result, reservation for socially and
educationally weaker sections of the society was introduced in public sector jobs. The
government has banned de-reservation of vacancies meant for the reserved categories
since 1989 and reservation for other backward classes were introduced in 1993. Now
PSEs are required to recruit up to 50% of their manpower from the reserved categories. In
the event of candidates from reserved categories not meeting the required standards,
reserved seats are filled after relaxing the standards (Naik, 1998). This is another reason
to concentrate more on training and development activities in PSEs and to provide proper
training and development opportunities to persons recruited on relaxed standards, so that
they can come up on par with the required standards.

In the year 2000, 11th Finance Commission emphasized that the second phase of
structural reforms should concentrate on the extensive restructuring of PSEs. This
restructuring should not only give PSEs the same benefits of autonomy and freedom as
the private sector, but also free them from the shackles of ministries from which they
originally emerged. In one of its recommendations, this Commission said that it a public
sector enterprise fails to demonstrate its sustainability and cannot come out of the zone of
chronic losses after five years of structurally reformed existence, it should be sold of at
whatever price it can fetch. This further emphasized the need for training and
development in PSEs to improve their performance. (Sudhman, 2000)




BABASAB PATIL                                                                      Page 11
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AT TELECOM SECTOR


Telecom is one of the fastest growing sectors in India with a growth of 21% and revenue
of Rs 86,720 crore in the year 2006. The sector is expected to grow over 150% by 2012.
With increase in competition between the major players like BSNL, MTNL, Hutchison
Essar, BPL, Idea, Bharti Tele services, Tata, etc, the requirement for mobile analysts,
software engineers, and hardware engineers for mobile handsets has increased. However,
holding an engineering degree is not enough to survive in the Telecom Sector. There is
constant need of updating of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.


With this rapid growth in Telecom Sector, the need for trained professionals in bound to
rise and so is the training need. The total training market in Telecom Sector is estimated
to Rs 400 crore.


Many top players are spending a huge amount on training and development, for example
BSNL alone spends more than 100 crore on training and development of its employees
through the Advanced Level Telecommunications Training Centre (ALTTC) and 43
other regional training institutes. Reliance has also established Dhirubhai Ambani
Institute of Information and Communication Technology. In addition to that, Bharti has
also tied-up with IIT Delhi for the Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology and
Management.


With the increase in competition, availability of huge amount of information through
internet, magazines, newspapers, TV, etc, and increased awareness among customers, the
demand to impart proper training in non-technological areas like customer care and
marketing has increased too.


Rapid technological changes, network security threat, mobile application development,
growing IP deployment in the sector have brought back the training and development in
the priority catalog.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                    Page 12
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL)

DoT-BSNL MoU: Training of minimum 20% BSNL officials-: BSNL has signed MoU
with DoT vide which at least 20% staff has to imparted training in 2006-07. To achieve
this, all BSNL units have been asked to fix the target to train 25% of their staff &
officers. The training report has to be compiled under various heads such as indu ction,
seminar, workshop, behavior & Attitudinal etc.


Computerized Training Management System at ALTTC: This system with online
nomination facility has been made operational after clearance by IT cell of BSNL. This
software eases the process of nomination by SSAs, Circles and other BSNL units, as it is
a paperless system with capability of online nomination & approval. A-circular and
approved nomination list are available online. Through online post training evaluation
module Trainees and their controlling officers can give their feedback regarding
effectiveness of the training. In the last two months many BSNL units have started
reaping the benefit of this system.


E-learning implementation: Keeping pace with technological changes, leveraging the
IT infrastructure, e-learning methodology is being put in place at major training centers
of BSNL.


JTO Induction program: BSNL corporate office has approved the JTO Induction
Training Structure & Syllabus vide its letter no 4-1/04/Trg dated 23/6/2006.


Field courses: It is always the endeavor of ALTTC to take all possible steps to meet the
training needs of BSNL family. Many times BSNL Circles have special need for
customized trainings. ATTC is always willing to conduct customized field
course/programs as per the need of BSNL field units. Circle HQ of field units may write
to CGM ALTTC for such requests. Summary of field programs conducted by ALTCC in
the last quarter is given for reference.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                   Page 13
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



Training of all BSNL officials in Customer interface on GSM & Broadband: BSNL
Corporate office has directed ALTTC to conduct courses on training of trainers for all
RTTC/CTTC so that training on GSM & broadband is disseminated to all BSNL officials
working in positions of customer interface. The feature of this training is not just
technical inputs but also the focus on information from customer’s point of view. One
batch of trainers has already been trained in GSM & Broadband. Two more batches will
be trained soon.


Behavior and Attitude revitalization Training: BSNL corporate office has reiterated
its drive to train all BSNL executives in this program vide its letter 2-4/05-Trg dated
5/1/2006.


Panel of volunteers for posting in ALTTC, Ghaziabad,         BRBRAITT, Jabalpur and
NATFM, Hyderabad: BSNL Corporate office has again sought applications of willing
officers having B.Tech & MBA qualification for -JAG/ DEs/ SDEs /TTS Group ‘B’ &
Group ‘A’ officers its letter NO.22-6/2005 - Trg Dated: 21.3.2006




BABASAB PATIL                                                                 Page 14
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

Training Methods At Bharatiya Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL)
a) Seminars & Workshops
The institute conducts seminars on the latest topics in new telecommunication
technologies. The institute also conducts workshops on important topics concerning DoT.
For the seminars and workshops luminaries from leading technical organisations and
academic institutions are called.


b) Induction Training
The induction training is imparted in various disciplines for the newly recruited staff as a
pre-job training. The cadres for which the training is given in the training centre are
ADET (Probationers), Asstt. Manager (Probationers)(Telecom Factory) , Junior
Engineers (Telecom Factories) and Junior Accounts Officers.


c) Inservice Training
The purpose of inservice training is to give the necessary knowledge and know how
about the new systems/technologies inducted into the network from time to time. The
institute offers in-service training in latest technologies and techniques. JTO
specialization batches conducted are a part of in-service training. The courses are
monitored continuously and the utility of these in-service courses is assessed from time to
time and courses which are not in demand are weeded out and new courses are
introduced.


d) Field Training Programmes
Considering the need to update the knowledge and skills of the technical maintenance
personnel in specific disciplines of technology from time to time, a system of short-term
practical oriented training programmes has been developed by this institute. For
conducting these courses the trainers go to the field stations. These programmes called
Field Training Programmes (FTPs) are for a maximum of 5 days duration and conducted
with the help of the equipment available in the field. Besides training the lower staff on
job, this also helps the trainers getting acquainted with the day to day problems in the
field which can later be taken care of in the training modules being developed in the
Training Centre.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 15
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



Infrastructure


In the main building all the administrative offices, class rooms and laboratories etc. are
housed. There are several faculties viz. Electronic Switching I (OCB - 283, E-10B),
Electronic Switching -II (C-DOT, ILT, NEAX), Radio Transmission, Transmission lines,
Telecom External Plant, Computer, ITMS. The technical faculties are supported by the
three sections namely Programming, Works and Administration.
There are 15 class rooms for lecture sessions fully equipped with facilities like
overhead/slide projectors.
There are 66 laboratories for practicals. They are equipped with a wide variety of latest
technology telecommunication equipments like OCB-283, E-10B, C-DOT 512P, ILT
512P, Digital Microwave, Optical Fibre, V-SAT, Digital UHF, EKB & EKBC, SFMS,
Local Area Network, Pentium/486 computers, Window based PC software , Commercial
service and other latest software.
The Support facilities for teaching/labs, available in the BRBRAITT are :


i) A big library having about 32189 books and 236 technical journals.


ii) A Video lab, equipped with sound proof studio, editing video and audio chain &
Computerised video animation.


iii) Instructional Technology (I.T.) lab fully equipped with micro teaching equipment like
Video Cameras, TV monitors, VCRs etc.


iv) Desk Top Publishing unit fully equipped with Computers, Laser Printers, Scanner,
where the text processing of course material / handouts is done.


v) A seminar hall with a capacity of about 40 participants fully equipped with P.A.
system, Video and Computer projector on a wide screen and slide/tape projector.



BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 16
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

vi) Screening room with facility for projecting 16 mm films and video films with a
capacity of 25 audience.


vii) An Audio Visual hall for bigger gatherings upto 200 persons for A/V programmes
and cultural functions.




                                TRAINING FACILITIES


The institute plays a key role in human resource development for telecom services. To
make the training effective, a good infrastructure of well equipped laboratories with
experienced teaching staff has been provided. The equipments are in live condition and
the trainees are free to handle the same to have clear concepts about the working of the
system. It is always endeavoured that the personnel trained should gain such knowledge
and skill that they are in a position to install, operate and maintain the systems without
any difficulty after completion of the training.


Keeping in view the rapid development in telecom technologies throughout the world,
new labs are being added to the training centre. These are installed and commissioned by
the faculty members. Each lab is maintained by a S.D.E. with the help of J.T.Os.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                      Page 17
               TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



TRAINING PLANNING


The training opportunities outlined here allow you and your subordinates to develop
knowledge and skills which are consistent with departmental goals and career plans. As
individual training needs are identified, the subordinate should be an integral part of the
planning process.
As a preliminary step in planning a complete training program, you should seek answers
to the following questions.
What are the job requirements ?
What past training, job experience and/or education contributes to job performance ?
What performance deficiencies or problems could be attributed to a lack of knowledge
and / or skills ?
What related job functions would be useful to know ?
In what areas is knowledge needed in order to develop potential for future assignments ?
Answers to these questions should provide you with sufficient information to identify
training requirements. As part of the planning process, you should perform the following
activities :
Step 1 : Identify the areas in which training is needed.
Step 2 : Determine which courses address those needs.
Step 3 : Determine pre-requisites and ensure that they are met.
Step 4 : Map out the appropriate sequence of courses to be taken.
Step 5 : Document training planned and scheduled.
Step 6 : Schedule of training.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 18
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



REGISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR THE COURSES


The Course Directory 1999 gives the necessary information about the various training
courses planned to be conducted in the different RTTCs & BRBRAITT Jabalpur.
The HRD officers of the Telecom Circles are requested to assess the training needs of
their circles and submit to this office the consolidated requirements of seats for each
course, for the entire year 1999 with specific remarks that how many candidates can be
spared at a time for each batch. The requirement of seats from your Circle must reach this
office before 31.12.98 if not submitted earlier.
Requirements received from subordinate Units/Minor Telecom District/SSAs of your
Circle will not be considered for allotment.
Seats are allotted to your Circle for each course through separate allotment orders called
'A' Circular which are normally released three months in advance to the actual dates of
commencement of each batch. You may depute the participants for the respective courses
after the fulfillment of various conditions as laid down in the allotment orders and
confirmation of the nomination in 'B' Circular.
For trainees from other Departments and organisations in non DOT a fee of
Rs. 10,950/- per trainee per week excluding boarding and lodging shall be charged. The
lodging charges are Rs. 100/- to 200/- per bed per day & are likely to be revised. For
foreign trainees a fee of U.S. Dollar 650 (six hundred fifty U.S. Dollar only) per trainee
per week excluding boarding and lodging shall be charged. For boarding and lodging
charging will be done separately. In addition charges for study tours outside Jabalpur are
also payable. (The above rates are under revision and latest rates may be checked at the
time of nomination of candidates).




BABASAB PATIL                                                                    Page 19
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



LOCATION OF REGIONAL TELECOM TRAINING CENTRES OF BSNL
        Ahmedabad              Bhubaneshwar       Chennai

        Guwahati               Hyderabad          Jaipur

        Kalyani                Lucknow            Mysore

        Nagpur                 Patna              Pune

                               Thiruvanathapura
        Rajpura
                           m


     LOCATION OF CIRCLE TELECOM TRAINING CENTRES OF BSNL


        Ahmedabad              Bhopal             Bhubaneshwar

        Calcutta               Chennai            Guwahati

        Jaipur                 Jammu              Kakinada

        Kurukshetra            Lucknow            Mysore

        Meerut                 Nasik              Patna

        Rajpura                Shillong           Sunder Nagar

        Thiruvanantpuram




     LOCATION OF DISTRICT TELECOM TRAINING CENTRES OF BSNL


        Ahmedabad              Bangalore          Calcutta

        Chhenai                Hyderabad          Pune




BABASAB PATIL                                                    Page 20
          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




NEED FOR THE STUDY


  i.   For the organizational viability & transformation process the organization has to
       train its employees to impart specific skills & knowledge in order to contribute to
       organizational efficiency & to cope with the changing environment.
 ii.   For the organizational complexity which occurs because of the increased
       mechanization & automation manufacturing the products & by-products or
       dealing in services of diversified lines extension of operations to various regions
       & overseas countries. This creates a complex problem & this situation calls for
       training in the skills of coordination, integration, & adaptability to the
       requirement of growth, diversification & expansion.
iii.   Training is necessary when existing employees are promoted to higher level in the
       organization or when there is some new job due to transfer. It is also necessary to
       equip the old employees with the new techniques or technology & advanced
       disciplines.
iv.    It is necessary for maintaining human relation besides maintaining sound
       industrial relations & also to deal with the human problems.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                    Page 21
          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Title of the project: A study on “Effectiveness of Training and Development” in
Public Sector - BSNL Belgaum”


Statement of the problem: The study is conducted to find out the overall impact of
training and development on the job performance of employees working in different
cadre groups in each department.


Purpose of the study: The main purpose is to know the effectiveness of training in
relation to the job performance of employees and to reduce the resisting forces in
employees to new technological advancement.


Scope of the study: The scope of the study is restricted to the employees working in
different cadre groups in each of the department in the organization - BSNL Belgaum.


Objectives:
 1. To find out the relevance of training and development in achieving goals of the
     organization.
 2. The basis on which the training is planned and scheduled.
 3. To study the different methods of training at BSNL
 4. To find out whether the training activities is aligned with overall goals of the
     organization
 5. To study the relationship between performance and training




BABASAB PATIL                                                                  Page 22
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Research methodology.


According to this study investigation was conducted for some definite purpose with the
help of a structural & personal interview to gather primary information as much as
possible than the most appropriate research design for the study is descriptive research
design.


The study is an evaluative & diagnostic attempt to discover empirically the nature of
relationship between performance appraisal and training and development within the
extensively draw domain of the problem of the question.


Following are the steps in the research design.


Sampling Plan
                  Sampling frame: the respondents are the employees of the public
                   sector –Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) Belgaum SSA.


                  Sampling unit: the sampling unit is an individual employee of all the
                   departments of the organization – Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd(BSNL)


                  Sample size: sample size taken for this study is 100 employees
                   covering all the departments of the organization.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                  Page 23
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Area covered


For this survey I have covered all the departments of the organization - BSNL Belgaum.


Following are the number and name of departments.
Sl no Department                                              No. of employees
1     Planning                                                20
2     Administration                                          20
3     Operations                                              20
4     Accounts                                                20
5     HRD                                                     20
      Total                                                   100




Methodology:
A list of questions was prepared by me under the guidance of my mentor.


Following were the steps in my study.


    1. Questionnaire: a questionnaire was served to all the employees asking their
       opinion about the effectives of training and development programs at BSNL.
    2. Personal interview: a face-to-face talk is carried out with the employees where I
       asked several employees about their feelings and opinions on various aspects of
       their jobs and organization.
    3. Company data and reports: certain reports from the HRD department provided the
       information as to the total no of employees, schedule of training programs,
       number of persons attending it and other such things, which indicated the
       employee performance on the job after attending these training programs.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 24
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Data collection:


To produce a reliable questionnaire both primary and secondary information was used.
Primary data is the first hand information; the questionnaire was prepared by me under
the guidance of the mentor wherein I used likert five-point scale and closed ended
questions for measuring attitudes of the employees for my study.


The questionnaire comprised     12 questions which covered all the aspects of measuring
“the effectiveness of training and development”.


                                     PRIMARY DATA
An instrument is used to collect the required information from the employees and also
interact the employees personally.


Primary data helps us in making observation of employee’s behaviors, talk gestures
which helped me in identifying any the attitude of employees towards the training
program and the effectiveness of the training program in the organization.


                                SECONDARY DATA
It was collected from the website of the company, and the compaby personnel, certain
reports from the HR department. The research also took the help of the books and
journal.


Both primary and secondary data served the purpose in measuring the effectiveness of
training and development at BSNL. Both are equally essential for any type ofsurvey.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                   Page 25
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




DATA ANALYSIS


Statistical tool:
                  Correlation test
                  Frequency test
Statistical package
                      SPSS software




Procedure for Analysis
       Administering questionnaire to all the employees
       Analyze the rating of employees using the statistical tool (spss software)
            (i)        simple frequency test(mean & standard deviation)
            (ii)       correlation


       Interpretation of analyzed information




    Limitations of the study:
    1. Due to restriction to enter into some of the departments at BSNL I could not cover
        some of the aspects required for my study.
    2. Interaction with the company executive was limited due to their busy schedule.
    3. The information collected is mainly primary data and the accuracy is subject to
        the responses received.
.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                        Page 26
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Theoretical aspects of Training and Development


It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills,
concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of
employees.


Training is an organized procedure which brings about semi-permanent changes in
behavior, for a definite purpose. The three main areas involved are skills, knowledge and
attitudes (sometimes called social skills) but always with a definite purpose in mind.


Training also helps a person cultivate appropriate and desired behavior and attitude
towards the work and people.
Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency,
capacity and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and
understanding the relevant skills relevant to his or her job.
Unless training is provided, the jobs and lives of employees in organizations are at stake.


Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.


• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it


• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there


• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off


• It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome




BABASAB PATIL                                                                      Page 27
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

• It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it


• It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision


• It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it


Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current
situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.


Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through
professional development.




OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING:
     Preparing both the old & new employees to meet the present as well
        as the changing requirements of the job & the organization.
     Preventing obsolescence.
     Preparing employees for the higher-level tasks.
     Ensuring smooth & efficient working of the department.
     Ensuring economical output of the required quality.
     Imparting knowledge & skills for new entrants.
     Induction
     Updating
     Preparing for future assignments
     Competency development




BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 28
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING:


       There are a number of training methods available; Use of a particular method
depends on the type of trainees viz. worker, supervisor and manager. Basically these
methods can be classified into following categories:
1.Induction training:
       Here, training is given to newly joined employees. The main objective of this
training is to give an idea to the employee about the particular work. It is concerned with
orienting a new employee to a new environment.
2.On-the-job training:

       Here, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to
perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified
worker or instructor. It gives first hand knowledge and experience under the actual
working conditions.

3.Apprenticeship training:

       Apprenticeship training is normally given to artisans, electricians, plumbers and a
like. The duration is mainly 6 months to 2 years; this is carried out under the guidance
and intimate supervision of master craftsman, expert worker and supervisor. During
training period the trainee is paid less than that of a qualified worker.

4.Job Rotation:

       This involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee
receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the

       different job assignments. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to
understand the problems of employees on other jobs.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 29
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

5.Coaching:

       The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in
training the individuals. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his
performance and offers him some suggestions for improvements. But the trainee may not
have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.
6.Job Instruction:

       This method is also known as training through step by step. The trainer explains
to the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do
the job.   The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback
information and corrects the trainee.
7.Committee Assignments:

       A group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem.
The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops teamwork.
8.Off the job training:

       The trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon
learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not
distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job
rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of
expression for the trainees.
9.Vestibule training:

       Actual work conditions are simulated in the classroom.          Material, files and
equipments, which are used in actual job performance, are also used in training. This
type of training is commonly used for training personal for clerical and semi-skilled jobs.
Theory can be related to practice in this method.


10.Role-playing:

       It is a method of human interactions that involves realistic behavior in imaginary
situations. This method of training involves certain characters. This method is mostly
used for developing inter-personal interactions and relations.


BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 30
             TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

11.Lecture Method:

          The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the
form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the
trainees. This method is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Costs and
time involved are reduced.
12.Conference or discussion:

          This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts,
ideas and data, test assumptions and draw conclusions, which contribute to the
improvement of job performance.
13.Programmed instruction:

          The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned
sequential units.    These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of
instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the
blanks.


14.Internship Training:
          Here, the organization makes arrangements with technical institutes to get its
employees duly trained in the latest theoretical knowledge and other developments
relating to trade, this training is provided to the employee in such a way as to bring
balance between theory and practice.




15.Professional skill training:

          Here, training is given to Professional staff such as Accountants, Surveyors,
Auditors, and Architects etc. Organization provides this training to newly joined
professionals to gain the    professional qualification and it is also given to the existing
professionals.



BABASAB PATIL                                                                      Page 31
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE:

 Determine the training needs through job description, performance appraisal,
   potential appraisal and discussion with employees.

 Prepare a training calendar in discussion with the managers concerned.

 Define the training objectives specifically.

 Select the efficient faculty




FACTORS INFLUENCING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:

      Top management support
      Commitment from specialists and generalists
      Technological advances
      Organizational complexity
      Learning principles




Difference between Training and Development



                   Training                             Development




BABASAB PATIL                                                              Page 32
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

   1. Training is often referred to as           1.  Development on the other hand
      importing specific skills.                    is often focused at overall
   2. The focus is on improvement in                development of personality.
      performance after training.                2. 2.They focus on aspects like
   3. The impact of training be                     leadership skills, managing teams,
      experienced and assessed by the               problem solving, decision making ,
      organization.                                 people skills, time management, etc.
   4. Usually, administrative, supervisory
      and technical workforce may be
      exposed to training program.




Models of Training and Development


Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing
& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a
transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form
of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).


THE TRAINING SYSTEM


A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a
particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the
organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization.
System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and
aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of
training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4
necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce
products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order
to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s
requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This
approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach,
training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model
of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open

BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 33
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and
opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on
the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various
demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with
the latest technologies.




The three model of training are:


1.System Model


2.Instructional System Development Model


3. Transitional model


SYSTEM MODEL


The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to
make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping
employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System
Model of training are as follows:


1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees
requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc
The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual
performance would be evaluated.


2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing
objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the
contents.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 34
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Instructional System Development Model (ISD) Model


Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.
This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with
the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of
job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives
individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the
favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of
training objectives to be achieved.


The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:


1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target
audience analysis.


2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional
objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training
material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training
program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content,
etc.


3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It
consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks,
visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts
of summary.


4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging
speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and
other training accessories.

BABASAB PATIL                                                                   Page 35
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program
has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of
identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the
previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.


The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also
highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In
this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.


Transitional Model


Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the
vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e.
inner loop is executed.


Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the
defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few
years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal
transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines.


Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the
community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and
inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the
identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees,
and all other stakeholders.


Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the
deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry



BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 36
            TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer
service, etc.


The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model
considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three
things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.




TYPICAL          REASONS            FOR      EMPLOYEE            TRAINING           AND
DEVELOPMENT

Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or
group of employees, e.g.,:

       When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
       To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement
        effort
       As part of an overall professional development program
       As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned
        change in role in the organization
       To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system
       To train about a specific topic.




TYPICAL TOPICS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING

    1. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide
        variety of languages and customs.
    2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting
        administrative and office tasks.


BABASAB PATIL                                                                  Page 37
         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

  3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it
     critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.
  4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have
     different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity
  5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social
     responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and
     morals to the workplace.
  6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include
     misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the
     workplace.
  7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality
     Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts,
     guidelines and standards for quality, etc.
  8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment ,
     hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with
     practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.
  9. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful
     description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially
     about what are inappropriate behaviors.




GENERAL        BENEFITS           FROM        EMPLOYEE          TRAINING            AND
DEVELOPMENT



BABASAB PATIL                                                                  Page 38
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

There are numerous sources of online information about training and development.
Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for
supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include:

      Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
      Increased employee motivation
      Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
      Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
      Increased innovation in strategies and products
      Reduced employee turnover
      Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for
       ethics training!)
      Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                Page 39
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

THE PROCESS OF TRAININ AND DEVELOPMENT




BABASAB PATIL                                   Page 40
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




BABASAB PATIL                                   Page 41
         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                 INDUSTRY PROFILE




Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)


BABASAB PATIL                                    Page 42
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (known as BSNL, India Communications Corporation
Limited) is a public sector communications company in India. It is the largest
telecommunication company in India and the sixth largest in the world[citation needed]. Its
headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, Harish Chandra Mathur Lane, Janpath, New
Delhi. It has the status of Mini-ratana - a status assigned to reputed Public Sector
companies in India.

BSNL is India's oldest and largest Communication Service Provider (CSP). Currently
BSNL has a customer base of 65.3 million (Basic & Mobile telephony). It has footprints
throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which are
managed by MTNL. As on July 31, 2007 BSNL commanded a customer base of 32.7
million Wireline, 3.7 million CDMA-WLL and 28.9 million GSM Mobile subscribers.
BSNL's earnings for the Financial Year ending March 31, 2007 stood at INR 397.15b
(US$ 9.67 b) with net profit of INR 78.06b (US$ 1.90 billion). Today, BSNL is India's
largest Telco and one of the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the country with
authorized share capital of US$ 4.26 billion (INR 17,500 Crores) and assets of US$ 14.74
billion.

The foundation of Telecom Network in India was laid by the British sometime in 19th
century. The history of BSNL is linked with the beginning of Telecom in India. In 19th
century and for almost entire 20th century, the Telecom in India was operated as a
Government of India wing. Earlier it was part of erstwhile Post & Telegraph Department
(P&T). In 1975 the Department of Telecom (DoT) was separated from P&T. DoT was
responsible for running of Telecom services in entire country until 1985 when Mahanagar
Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was carved out of DoT to run the telecom services of
Delhi and Mumbai. It is a well known fact that BSNL was carved out of Department of
Telecom to provide level playing field to private telecoms.Subsequently in 1990s the
telecom sector was opened up by the Government for Private investment, therefore it
became necessary to separate the Government's policy wing from Operations wing. The



BABASAB PATIL                                                                         Page 43
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

Government of India corporatised the operations wing of DoT on October 01, 2000 and
named it as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL).BSNL operates as a public sector.


Employment at BSNL
BSNL's employee base comprises of more than 3,57,000 telecom engineers and
professionals.


BSNL's Work Culture
Teamwork, leadership, motivation, etc. are the management principles followed at
BSNL. The entire staff is divided in four groups.


Board of Directors
BOD of BSNL consists of 6 members.


Employee distribution at BSNL




BABASAB PATIL                                                                  Page 44
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

Key Players In Indian Telecom Industry:
1) Reliance Communications Limited
2) Bharti Airtel Limited
3) BSNL
4) MTNL
5) Hutchison Essar
6) Ericsson
7) Nokia
8) Siemens Communications
9) Idea Cellular Limited
10) Tata Teleservices




BABASAB PATIL                                      Page 45
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

CHALLENGES

During Financial Year 2006-2007 (From April 01, 2006 to March 31, 2007) BSNL has
added 9.6 million new customers in various telephone services taking its customer base to
64.8 million. BSNL's nearest competitor Bharti Airtel is standing at a customer base of
39 million. However, despite impressive growth shown by BSNL in recent times, the
Fixed line customer base of BSNL is declining. In order to woo back its fixed-line
customers BSNL has brought down long distance calling rate under OneIndia plan,
however, the success of the scheme is not known. However, BSNL faces bleak fiscal
2006-2007 as users flee, which has been accepted by the CMD BSNL.

Presently there is an intense competition in Indian Telecom sector and various Telcos are
rolling out attractive schemes and are providing good customer services. However, BSNL
being legacy operator and its conversion from a Government Department, earns lot of
criticism for its poor customer service. Although in recent past there have been
tremendous improvement in working of BSNL but still it is much below the Industry's
Expectations. A large aging (average age 49 years(appx)) workforce (300,000 strong),
which is mostly semi-illetrate or illeterate is the main reason for the poor customer
service. Further, the Top management of BSNL is still working in BSNL on deputation
basis holding Government employee status thus having little commitment to the
organisation. Although in coming years the retirement profile of the workforce is very
fast and around 25% of existing workforce will retire by 2010, however, still the
workforce will be quite large by the industry standards. Quality of the workforce will also
remain an issue.

Access Deficit Charges (ADC, a levy being paid by the private operators to BSNL for
provide service in non-lucarative areas especially rural areas) has been slashed by 37%
by TRAI, w.e.f. April 01, 2007.The reduction in ADC may hit the bottomlines of BSNL.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                       Page 46
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




BABASAB PATIL                                   Page 47
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

BSNL is in the process of commissioning of a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol,
convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II), that will
provide convergent services through the same backbone and broadband access network.
The Broadband service will be available on DSL technology (on the same copper cable
that is used for connecting telephone), on a countrywide basis spanning 198 cities.

In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB-II would put India at par with more
advanced nations. The services that would be supported includes always-on broadband
access to the Internet for residential and business customers, Content based services,
Video multicasting, Video-on-demand and Interactive gaming, Audio and Video
conferencing, IP Telephony, Distance learning, Messaging: plain and feature rich, Multi-
site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. The subscribe will be able to
access the above services through Subscriber Service Selection System (SSSS) portal.



Key Objectives
To provide high speed Internet connectivity (upto 8 Mbps)

   •   To provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband customers
   •   To provide dial VPN service to MPLS VPN customers.
   •   To provide multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc. through the
Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS).
   •   To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or
   volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the
   services through web server
   •   To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services




BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 48
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

Technical Capability of the Backbone


       The Broadband Service will be given through the state of the art Multi Protocol
Label Switching (MPLS) based IP Infrastructure, which is designed to provide reliable
routes to cover all possible destinations within and outside the country. Layer 1 of the
network will consist of a high speed Backbone comprising of 24 powerful Core Routers
connected with high speed 2.5 Gbps(STM-16) links. The routers are located on the
national DWDM network interfacing at STM-16 optical level to provide for high
transmission speeds.


Advantage of MPLS over other Technologies
       MPLS VPN is a technology that allows a service provider like BSNL to have
complete control over parameters that are critical to offering its customers service
guarantees with regard to bandwidth throughputs, latencies and availability.


Services available through Broadband


   •   High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service with
       speed ranging from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps.
   •   Bandwidth on Demand: This will facilitate customer to change bandwidth as per
       his / her requirement. For example a customer with 256 kbps can change to 1
       Mbps during the video Conferencing session.
   •   Multicasting: This is to provide video multicast services for application in
       distance education, telemedicine etc
   •   Dial VPN Service: This service allows remote users to access their private
       network securely over the NIB-II infrastructure.
   •   Video and Audio Conferencing:
   •   Content based Services: Like Video on Demand, Interactive Gaming, Live and
       time shifted TV




BABASAB PATIL                                                                         Page 49
         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



Services Provided By Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL)




BSNL LANDLINE
               PHONE PLUS SERVICE

               NEW TELEPHONE CONNECTION

               PERMANENT CONNECTION

               CONCESSION IN RENTALS

               SHIFT OF TELEPHONE

               TRANSFER OF TELEPHONE

               TELEPHONE TARIFF

BSNL MOBILE

               POSTPAID

               PREPAID

               UNIFIED MESSAGING

               GPRS/WAP/MMS

               DEMOs

               TARIFF

               SMS & BULK SMS




BABASAB PATIL                                          Page 50
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

INTERNET SERVICES

               NETWORK

               BROADBAND

               TYPES OF ACCESS

               WI-FI

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BABASAB PATIL                                   Page 51
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




      ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION




BABASAB PATIL                                   Page 52
                           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

                                                                                                                                    Correlations

                                                                     Training                                                           Training
                                                                      helps to                                                          Program                          Employees                                                             External
                                                                     increase                         Training        Training is     emphasis on       Training is          are            Sponsored           Employees                      training
                                                                   productivity &    Training       Program are       periodically managerial &            given         sponsored          employees          participation Ehe quality      program
                                                                    achieve org programs are of sufficient            evaluated &       technical        adequate        for trainig       take training      in determining of training       are well
                                                                       goal         well planned      duration         improved        capabilities     importance       programs            seriously        training needs is excellent     examined
 Training helps to increase        Pearson Correlation                     1.000              .172           .284**            .275*             .079           .291*             .402**             .315*                .141       .055             .098
 productivity & achieve org        Sig. (2-tailed)                               .            .088           .004              .028              .537           .020              .001               .011                 .268       .663             .443
 goal                              N                                          100              100            100                64                64             64                64                 64                   64         64               64
 Training programs are             Pearson Correlation                       .172            1.000           .252*             .280*            -.037          -.141              .209               .044                 .077       .129             .164
 well planned                      Sig. (2-tailed)                           .088                 .          .011              .025              .773           .267              .098               .730                 .545       .310             .196
                                   N                                          100              100            100                64                64             64                64                 64                   64         64               64
 Training Program are of           Pearson Correlation                       .284**           .252*         1.000              .365**            .434**         .512**            .427**             .378**               .357**     .456**           .293
 sufficient duration               Sig. (2-tailed)                           .004             .011               .             .003              .000           .000              .000               .002                 .004       .000             .019
                                   N
                                                                            100              100             100               64                  64            64                64                 64                64             64              64

 Training is periodically          Pearson Correlation                     .275*             .280*           .365**         1.000               .299*           .386**           .349**             .066               .195          .230          -.026
 evaluated & improved              Sig. (2-tailed)                         .028              .025            .003                .              .017            .002             .005               .606               .122          .067           .841
                                   N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Training Program                  Pearson Correlation                     .079             -.037            .434**          .299*             1.000            .300*            .227               .441**             .137          .344**         .215
 emphasis on managerial            Sig. (2-tailed)                         .537              .773            .000            .017                   .           .016             .072               .000               .280          .005           .088
 & technical capabilities          N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Training is given                 Pearson Correlation                     .291*            -.141            .512**          .386**             .300*          1.000             .360**             .361**             .441**        .424**        -.050
 adequate importance               Sig. (2-tailed)                         .020              .267            .000            .002               .016                .            .003               .003               .000          .000           .696
                                   N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Employees are                     Pearson Correlation                     .402**            .209            .427**          .349**             .227            .360**          1.000               .522**             .629**        .440**         .298
 sponsored for trainig             Sig. (2-tailed)                         .001              .098            .000            .005               .072            .003                 .              .000               .000          .000           .017
 programs                          N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Sponsored employees               Pearson Correlation                     .315*             .044            .378**          .066               .441**          .361**           .522**            1.000               .507**        .483**         .396
 take training seriously           Sig. (2-tailed)                         .011              .730            .002            .606               .000            .003             .000                   .              .000          .000           .001
                                   N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Employees participation           Pearson Correlation                     .141              .077            .357**          .195               .137            .441**           .629**             .507**            1.000          .640**         .125
 in determining training           Sig. (2-tailed)                         .268              .545            .004            .122               .280            .000             .000               .000                   .         .000           .327
 needs                             N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Ehe quality of training is        Pearson Correlation                     .055              .129            .456**          .230               .344**          .424**           .440**             .483**             .640**       1.000           .276
 excellent                         Sig. (2-tailed)                         .663              .310            .000            .067               .005            .000             .000               .000               .000              .          .027
                                   N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 External training program         Pearson Correlation                     .098              .164            .293*          -.026               .215           -.050             .298*              .396**             .125          .276*         1.000
 are well examined                 Sig. (2-tailed)                         .443              .196            .019            .841               .088            .696             .017               .001               .327          .027               .
                                   N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
 Training program is well          Pearson Correlation                     .228              .002            .490**          .219               .369**          .535**           .320*              .423**             .350**        .548**         .372
 designed & widely shared          Sig. (2-tailed)                         .070              .987            .000            .083               .003            .000             .010               .000               .005          .000           .002
                                   N                                         64                64              64              64                 64              64               64                 64                 64            64             64
    **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
    *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Interpretation: the correlation test is used to link one factor with all the other factors in
order to know which the most significant factor and which factor is most positively

BABASAB PATIL                                                                                                                                                                              Page 53
               TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

correlated to each other. and helps us to decide on the factors which are important in
designing the training program
 Pearson correlation was effective for my study as the study made use of the nominal
scale in the questionnaire.


  in the above correlation table the point at which the row and column intersects and
there is an star mark, that factor is the most significant factor. if there is one star sign that
factor is positively correlated at 0.01 level of significance and when there is 2 star marks
that factor is positively correlated at 0.05 level of significance.


  This table gives us the clear idea about the important factors that are essential for
effective training and development programs. when the rows and columns intersect and it
has a negative sign those factors cannot be correlated at all or those factors are not at all
significant.


  Therefore we can clearly make out from the above table the significant and not so
significant factors in the correlation table.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                          Page 54
                         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



                        Training helps to increase productivity & achieve org goal

                                                                                      Cumulativ e
                                           Frequenc y    Percent      Valid Percent    Percent
           Valid        somew hat agree           33         33.0              33.0         33.0
                        strongly agree            67         67.0              67.0        100.0
                        Total                    100        100.0            100.0




                        Training helps to increase productivity
                   70


                   60


                   50


                   40


                   30


                   20
Percent




                   10

                   0
                                    somewhat agree              st rongly agree


                        Training helps to increase productivity & achieve org goal




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                             Page 55
                         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                     Training program s are w ell planne d

                                                                                                      Cumulativ e
                                                Frequenc y          Percent      Valid Percent         Percent
           Valid        somew hat dis agree             8                8.0               8.0                8.0
                        neither agree nor
                                                             3             3.0               3.0            11.0
                        disagree
                        somew hat agree                   21              21.0             21.0             32.0
                        strongly agree                    68              68.0             68.0            100.0
                        Total                            100             100.0            100.0




                        Training programs are well planned
                   80




                   60




                   40




                   20
Percent




                   0
                            so mewh at dis agree                   so mewh at agree
                                              ne it her ag re e nor di                st rong ly a gree


                        Training programs are w ell planned




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                             Page 56
                        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                               Training Program are of s ufficient duration

                                                                                               Cumulativ e
                                             Frequenc y       Percent         Valid Percent     Percent
           Valid    somew hat dis agree              5             5.0                  5.0            5.0
                    neither agree nor
                                                        6               6.0            6.0                11.0
                    disagree
                    somew hat agree                   51           51.0               51.0             62.0
                    strongly agree                    38           38.0               38.0            100.0
                    Total                            100          100.0              100.0




                        Training Program are of sufficient duration
                   60


                   50


                   40


                   30


                   20
Percent




                   10


                   0
                            so m ewh at dis agree                 so m ewh at agree
                                             ne it her ag re e nor di                 st rong ly a gree


                        Training Program are of suf f ic ient duration




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                          Page 57
                         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                               Training is periodically e valuate d & im pr oved

                                                                                          Cumulativ e
                                              Frequenc y     Percent    V alid Percent     Percent
           V alid         neither agree nor
                                                         8        8.0            12.5            12.5
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree               39       39.0           60.9             73.4
                          strongly agree                17       17.0           26.6            100.0
                          Total                         64       64.0          100.0
           Mis sing       System                        36       36.0
           Total                                       100      100.0




                         Training is periodically evaluated & improved
                    70


                    60


                    50


                    40


                    30


                    20
Percent




                    10

                    0
                                neither agree nor di   somewhat agree    strongly agree


                         Training is periodically evaluated & improved




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                 Page 58
                        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                Training Program e m phasis on m anage rial & technical capabilitie s

                                                                                                   Cumulativ e
                                           Frequenc y             Percent        Valid Percent      Percent
           Valid         strongly disagree         1                   1.0                 1.6             1.6
                         neither agree nor
                                                   2                       2.0            3.1               4.7
                         disagree
                         somew hat agree          22                      22.0           34.4              39.1
                         strongly agree           39                      39.0           60.9             100.0
                         Total                    64                      64.0          100.0
           Mis sing      System                   36                      36.0
           Total                                        100              100.0




                        emphasis on technical and managerial skills
                   70


                   60


                   50


                   40


                   30


                   20
Percent




                   10

                   0
                            st rong ly d is agree                  so mewh at agree
                                              ne it her ag re e nor di                st rong ly a gree


                        Training Program emphasis on managerial & technical capabilities




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                           Page 59
                      TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                    Training is given adequate im portance

                                                                                              Cumulativ e
                                                Frequenc y      Percent      V alid Percent    Percent
           V alid         somew hat dis agree           4            4.0                6.3           6.3
                          neither agree nor
                                                          5            5.0             7.8            14.1
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree               26           26.0            40.6             54.7
                          strongly agree                29           29.0            45.3            100.0
                          Total                         64           64.0           100.0
           Mis sing       System                        36           36.0
           Total                                       100          100.0




                          Training is given adequate importance
                    50



                    40



                    30



                    20



                    10
Percent




                      0
                              so mewh at dis agree                   so mewh at agree
                                                ne it her ag re e nor di                st rong ly a gree


                          Training is given adequate importance




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                      Page 60
                          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                               Em ploye es are s ponsore d for tr ainig program s

                                                                                                  Cumulativ e
                                                Frequenc y       Percent        V alid Percent     Percent
           V alid         somew hat dis agree           4             4.0                  6.3            6.3
                          neither agree nor
                                                           5              5.0             7.8              14.1
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree                38              38.0           59.4               73.4
                          strongly agree                 17              17.0           26.6              100.0
                          Total                          64              64.0          100.0
           Mis sing       System                         36              36.0
           Total                                        100             100.0




                          Employees are sponsored for training programs
                    70


                    60


                    50


                    40


                    30


                    20
Percent




                    10

                      0
                             so mewh at dis agree                 so mewh at agree
                                             ne it her ag re e nor di                 st rong ly a gree


                          Employees are sponsored for trainig programs




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                           Page 61
                          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                Spons ored em ploye es take training s erious ly

                                                                                                 Cumulativ e
                                                    Frequenc y     Percent      V alid Percent    Percent
           V alid         strongly dis agree                1           1.0                1.6           1.6
                          somew hat dis agree               2           2.0                3.1           4.7
                          neither agree nor
                                                            8            8.0             12.5            17.2
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree                  32          32.0             50.0             67.2
                          strongly agree                   21          21.0             32.8            100.0
                          Total                            64          64.0            100.0
           Mis sing       System                           36          36.0
           Total                                          100         100.0




                          Sponsored employees take training seriously
                    60


                    50


                    40


                    30


                    20
Percent




                    10


                      0
                            st rong ly d is agree          ne it her ag re e nor di         st rong ly a gree
                                          so m ewh at dis agree             so m ewh at agree


                          Spons or ed employees take training s eriously




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                         Page 62
                         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                            Em ploye es participation in dete rm ining training ne eds

                                                                                                   Cumulativ e
                                                   Frequenc y      Percent       V alid Percent     Percent
           V alid         strongly dis agree               2            2.0                 3.1            3.1
                          somew hat dis agree              7            7.0                10.9          14.1
                          neither agree nor
                                                             8             8.0             12.5            26.6
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree                  36           36.0               56.3            82.8
                          strongly agree                   11           11.0               17.2           100.0
                          Total                            64           64.0              100.0
           Mis sing       System                           36           36.0
           Total                                          100          100.0




                         Employees determine training needs
                    60


                    50


                    40


                    30


                    20
Percent




                    10


                    0
                           st rong ly d is agree      ne it her ag re e nor di        st rong ly a gree
                                         so mewh at dis agree          so mewh at agree


                         Employees participation in determining training needs




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                           Page 63
                        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                                          The quality of training is exce lle nt

                                                                                                    Cumulativ e
                                               Frequenc y         Percent     Valid Percent          Percent
           Valid         neither agree nor
                                                            5          5.0              7.8                 7.8
                         disagree
                         somew hat agree                   16         16.0            25.0                 32.8
                         strongly agree                    43         43.0            67.2                100.0
                         Total                             64         64.0           100.0
           Mis sing      System                            36         36.0
           Total                                          100        100.0




                        The quality of training i s excellent
                   80

                   70


                   60


                   50


                   40


                   30


                   20
Percent




                   10

                   0
                               ne it her ag re e nor di    so mewh at agree     st rong ly a gree


                        Ehe quality of training is excellent




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                           Page 64
                          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                 External training program are w ell exam ined

                                                                                                 Cumulativ e
                                                Frequenc y        Percent     V alid Percent      Percent
           V alid         somew hat dis agree           1              1.0               1.6             1.6
                          neither agree nor
                                                          14           14.0              21.9            23.4
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree                20           20.0            31.3               54.7
                          strongly agree                 29           29.0            45.3              100.0
                          Total                          64           64.0           100.0
           Mis sing       System                         36           36.0
           Total                                        100          100.0




                          External training program are well examined
                    50



                    40



                    30



                    20



                    10
Percent




                      0
                              so m ewh at dis agree                  so m ewh at agree
                                                ne it her ag re e nor di                 st rong ly a gree


                          External training program are w ell examined




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                         Page 65
                          TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                             Training program is w e ll de signe d & w ide ly share d

                                                                                            Cumulativ e
                                                Frequenc y   Percent       V alid Percent    Percent
           V alid         somew hat dis agree           1         1.0                 1.6           1.6
                          neither agree nor
                                                        4            4.0             6.3            7.8
                          disagree
                          somew hat agree              16           16.0           25.0            32.8
                          strongly agree               43           43.0           67.2           100.0
                          Total                        64           64.0          100.0
           Mis sing       System                       36           36.0
           Total                                      100          100.0




                          Training program is well designed & widely shared
                    80




                    60




                    40




                    20
Percent




                      0
                             somewhat dis agree              somewhat agree
                                            neither agree nor di                 strongly agree


                          Training program is w ell designed & w idely shared




          BABASAB PATIL                                                                                   Page 66
         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                      FINDINGS
                Training helps to increase productivity and achieve the goals of the
         organization


                Training programs are well planned in the organization.


                The training given in organization is not of sufficient duration.


                The training programs are not evaluated periodically.


                The training programs strongly focus on technical and managerial
         capabilities..


                The training programs are not given adequate importance due to the
         work pressure in the organization.


                Employees’ attitude towards the training programs is casual/informal.


                There is no involvement of employees in determining the training need
         analysis.


                The quality of training programs in the organization is excellent..


                The training programs are well designed and widely shared in the
         organization.


BABASAB PATIL                                                                        Page 67
         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

                More priority is given for on the job trainings than the value addition
         programs like motivation, stress management, group dynamics.




                                   SUGGESTION


   Employees should decide and determine the training programs that they need so
     that they can work more effectively and efficiently, employees should decide
     some of the training they would like to undergo.




   The HR department should conduct briefing and debriefing sessions for
     employees for Training as to give them an idea as to why this training is been
     conducted and what they have to learn in the training program conducted and also
     after training completion they should take a feedback as to how effective was the
     training so that the necessary improvements in training programs can be
     considered and implemented.




   Apart from on-job training programs the HR Department should conduct constant
     value addition programs such as Time management, Stress management trainings,
     group dynamics, grievance redressal, these will help to add value and is also
     essential in today’s business scenario.




   Performance of every employee undergone training should be evaluated so as to
     get Improved quality of training activities, Improve ability of the trainers to relate
     inputs to output know their understanding about the training programme
     conducted


BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 68
         TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL



   Training program should evaluate the abilities, competencies and potentials of the
     trainees for a particular job or work skills.




   It should aim to narrow down the gap between expected level of performance and
     the actual level of performance.


   It should provide new recruits or trainees a scientific pace for imbibing the
     knowledge and skills required to discharge their duties       and responsibilities
     meaningfully and purposefully.


   The company should conduct training programs at regular intervals, which helps
     the employees to enhance their knowledge for their current jobs.


   The company should design the training program based on the current
     requirement, which includes development of technical skills, personality
     development, time management, computer knowledge etc.


   The training session should be made more interactive and participative so that
     trainees and trainer are in constant interaction




BABASAB PATIL                                                                 Page 69
           TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL




                                     CONCLUSION




According to the study conducted we can conclude that the overall satisfaction level of
employees in relation to the training programs is moderate.
the employees agree that the training programs helps to increase productivity and achieve
the organizational goal.


The employees said that the training programs in the organization are well planned but
they are not satisfied with the duration of the training program and the are also not
satisfied with the evaluation process of training program, they are not evaluated
periodically.


The training programs in the organization strongly focus on the technical and managerial
capabilities but these programs are not given adequate importance sometimes because of
the work pressure.


The employees do not take the training programs seriously, as there are no strict rules and
regulations to attend the training programs.


The employees are not involved in determining the training need analysis. The training
programs are fixed by the top management.




BABASAB PATIL                                                                     Page 70
             TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

The quality of the training programs is excellent but the employees are not making the
best use of it.


Therefore we can conclude that the training programs in the organization are excellent
but they have been not utilized properly by the employees as the training programs are
not mad compulsory to all the departments. There is a broader scope to develop and
improve its training programs in future in order to meet the requirements of the global
market


                                    REFERENCES


Books:
         Human Resources Management by Gary Dessler
         Publised by Pearson Education 9th Edition
         PP 184 - 240




Website:
Bibliography




Reference
                   a. Books
                   P L RAO, HRD THROUGH IN-HOUSE TRAINING, Concepts
                   of Training, Methods of Training, Effectiveness of Training
                   PP-3-185
Websites
                  http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/ Nov 2004
                  http://www.google.com




BABASAB PATIL                                                                 Page 71
        TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SURVEY AT BSNL

                                  Reports
     Annual Report of Bharatiya Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)
     2006-2007 PP- 1-10




                                ANNEXURE




BABASAB PATIL                                                  Page 72

				
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babasab patil babasab patil management trainee https://sites.google.com/site/babambafinance/
About is presently working for ASHOK IRON group Belguam he has completed his MBA master degree in Finance from Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot.(Autonomous)Patils some majour projects are Organization : GIOJIT PNB PARIBAS Financial Services Ltd Bagalkot.Project Title:A Study on Technical Analysis of Automobile Sector. Organization :S S H S K LTD NIPANI.  Project Title :A study on Ratio Analysis of SSHSK LDT Nipni.