Marcom Positioning by HC120612225654

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									                               Chapter Five



             Marcom Positioning

 2007 Thomson South-Western
     Chapter Five Objectives
• Introduce the concept and practice of
  brand positioning
• Explain that positioning involves the
  creation of meaning and that meaning is a
  constructive process involving the use of
  signs and symbols
• Give details about how brand marketers
  position their brands by drawing meaning
  from the culturally constructed world.
                                              2
      Chapter Five Objectives
• Describe how brands are positioned in terms
  of various types of benefits and attributes.
• Explicate two perspectives that characterize
  how consumers process information and
  describe the relevance of each perspective
  for brand positioning.




                                                 3
 Positioning In Theory: Creating
            Meaning
• A brand’s positioning represents the
  key feature, benefit, or image that it
  stands for in the target audience’s
  collective mind.




                                           4
   Positioning Statement


A positioning statement for a brand
 is the central idea that
 encapsulates a brand’s meaning
 and distinctiveness compared to
 other brands.


                                      5
             Semiotics
“The study of signs and the analysis of
      meaning-producing events.”
 Meaning is a constructive process
   that is determined as much by the
  communicators as by the receivers
             of the message.



                                      6
 The Meaning of Meaning

                 Meaning

 The perceptions (thoughts) and affective
reactions (feelings) to stimuli evoked within
 a person when presented with a sign in a
             particular context



                                                7
 The Meaning of Meaning

          Perceptual Field

The sum total of a person’s experiences
      during his or her lifetime.




                                          8
Meaning Transfer: From Culture to
      Object to Consumer

Through socialization, people learn
  cultural values, form beliefs, and
 become familiar with the physical
   manifestations, or artifacts, of
      these values and beliefs.


                                       9
 Positioning in Practice: The Nuts
             and Bolts
• Brand positioning is essential to a
  successful Marcom program.
• A good positioning statement should:
  – Reflect a brand’s competitive advantage
  – Motivate customers to action




                                              10
Outcomes of Proposed Positioning




                               11
             Benefit Positioning
                    Positioning with
                    respect to brand
                     benefits can be
                    accomplished by
                   appealing to any of
                   three categories of
                         needs.



Functional Needs     Symbolic Needs   Experiential Needs
                                                     12
An Appeal to Symbolic Needs

      Products that potentially
          fulfill a consumer’s
 desire for self-enhancement, group
  membership, affiliation, altruism,
         and belongingness


                                       13
         Attribute Positioning
A brand can be positioned in terms of a
  particular attribute or feature, provided that
  the attribute represents a competitive
  advantage and can motivate customers to
  purchase that brand rather than a
  competitive offering.



                                               14
 Non-Product Related: Usage and
         User Imagery
• Brands can also be positioned in terms of
  their unique usage symbolism or with
  respect to the people who use them.




                                              15
Examples of Repositioning a Brand

“Flame-Broiled”
     Vs.
 “Fire-Grilled”

                  “Oil of Olay” to
                        Olay


                                     16
      Implementing Positioning
• Consumer Processing • Hedonic, Experiential
  Model (CPM):          Model (HEM): views
  information and       consumers’
  choice are seen as a  processing of marcom
  rational, cognitive,  messages and
  systematic and        behavior as driven by
  reasoned process.     emotions in pursuit of
                        fun, fantasies and
                        feeling.

                                            17
CPM   The Consumer Processing Model
                (CPM)




                                  18
          Perceptual Encoding

1. Feature analysis:      2. Active synthesis:

Initial stage whereby a        Beyond examining
receiver examines the       physical features, the
basic features of a           context or situation
                             plays a major role in
stimulus                         what meaning is
                                         acquired
                                               19
        Miscomprehension
1. Messages themselves are sometimes
   misleading or unclear.
2. Consumers are biased by their own
   preconceptions and thus “see” what they
   choose to see
3. Processing of advertisements often takes
   place under time pressures and noisy
   circumstances.
                                          20
    Elements of Memory
                 Memory

Memory involves the related issues of what
consumers remember about marketing
stimuli and how they access and retrieve
information when making consumption
choices


                                             21
        Elements of Memory
• Sensory stores(SS):
  – Information is rapidly lost unless attention is
    allocated to the stimulus
• Short-Term Memory(STM):
  – Limited processing capacity
  – Information not thought about or rehearsed will be
    lost in 30 seconds or less




                                                         22
       Elements of Memory
• Long-Term Memory (LTM):
  – A virtual storehouse of unlimited information
  – Information is organized into coherent and
    associated cognitive units called schemata, memory
    organization packets, or knowledge structures
  – The marketer’s job is to provide positively valued
    information that consumers will store in LTM




                                                    23
      Two Types of Learning
 Strengthening of linkages among specific
             memory concepts
  – repeating claims, presenting them in a
    more concrete fashion and being
    creative in conveying a product’s
    features
• Establishing entirely new linkages

                                             24
Search and Retrieval of Information
• Information that is learned and stored in memory
  only impacts consumer choice behavior when it
  is searched and retrieved

• Retrieval is facilitated when new information is
  linked with another concept that is well known
  and easily accessed

• Dual-Coding Theory: Pictures are represented in
  memory in verbal as well as visual form,
  whereas words are less likely to have visual
  representations.
                                                 25
          A CPM Wrap-Up
• The rational consumer processing model
  (CPM) and the hedonic, experiential model
  (HEM) are not mutually exclusive.




                                          26
         The HEM perspective
• People often consume products for the fun of it
  or in the pursuit of amusement, fantasies, or
  sensory simulation
• Products are subjective symbols that precipitate
  feelings and promise fun and the possible
  realization of fantasies
• The communication of HEM-relevant products
  emphasizes nonverbal content or emotionally
  provocative words and is intended to generate
  images, fantasies, and positive emotions and
  feelings                                           27

								
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