Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis by Dv6b8Q

VIEWS: 60 PAGES: 7

									Name: Daniel Edelman
Subject: 11th grade, U.S. History from 1877
Period: 1st
Date: 14 July 2009
Approximate Time: 100 minutes
MDE Framework: TSW detail and connect Bay of Pigs invasion and Cuban Missile Crisis.
(DOK 1, 4)

MATERIALS: pen or pencil, paper, textbook, laptop for displaying film clip and playing music
during independent work, LCD projector, worksheets with questions.

DO NOW: Byhalia, those nutcases, have attempted to take over Holly Springs and failed
miserably. Do you retaliate or just build up your defenses? Do you look for allies, perhaps a
bigger town nearby, to help you out? Write four sentences.
(4 min)

SET: TSW read answers aloud. TTW question students on meaning of containment in the Cold
War. Cuba rose up as the first communist state in the western hemisphere in 1959 and worried
the United States to overthrow the leader of Cuba’s Communist government, Fidel Castro,
because he was afraid that communism was going to spread into the rest of Latin America. JFK
thus arranged an attack on Cuba, that he hoped would result in a popular revolution against
Castro called the Bay of Pigs. When it failed, Cuba retaliated by becoming even more attached
to the Soviet Union.

PROCEDURES:
(a) Bell work and set. (8 min)
(b) TSW complete reading on Bay of Pigs Invasion (page 727) and answer accompanying
questions on worksheet. [Name two reasons that Cuba’s alliance with the Soviet Union made the
United States nervous. Where was the La Brigada invasion force from? Why would President
John F. Kennedy not want the invasion force to be American soldiers? Name three reasons that
the Bay of Pigs invasion failed. Why did the United States looking weak and disorganized
matter to President John F. Kennedy?] TTW/TSW discuss and evaluate answers. (10 min)

(c) TSW watch film clip of Bay of Pigs documentary and answer accompanying questions when
the teacher pauses video. TTW/TSW discuss and evaluate answers. (10 min)

(d) TSW receive writing assignment. [Write a PERSONAL response of at least five sentences to
the Bay of Pigs invasion? Do you think the U.S. was justified in invading another country when
the Cuban people supported their leader? How would you feel if the U.S. were less powerful
than Canada, Canada did not like the way we were running our country, and they tried to invade
and overthrow our government? You have five minutes.] (8 min)

(e) TSW present answers aloud, and class discusses what they think of each other’s answers.
TTW ask, were the United States in this weakened position, would students then side with a
country large and powerful enough to help them out? TTW explain that after the Bay of Pigs,
Cuba strengthened its alliance with the Soviet Union and started accepting the placement of anti-
aircraft missiles on the island, which sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis. (8 min)

(f) TTW show slideshow of world map of Cuba and surveillance photos as well as headshots of
Fidel Castro, JFK, and Khrushchev and lecture about the photos.
[TTW explain how missiles were spotted, because of multiple rows of fences and developed
roads leading into the country gave it away. TTW help students locate Caribbean and Cuba
specifically on world map.] (7 min).
(g) Students complete brief reading on Cuban Missile Crisis (appended below) and answer
questions on worksheet. TSW present answers and discuss them with class. (12 min)

(h) TSW read writing assignment and rubric aloud and then watch clip of John F. Kennedy
addressing the nation at the beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis and briefly discuss with class
what Kennedy talked about. [He explained what the problem was, and described the naval
blockade]. TSW complete writing assignment for formal assessment (20 min).

(If extra time allows, read and discuss correspondence between Kennedy and Khrushchev
during the Cuban Missile Crisis).

(i) Closure (5 min)

CLOSURE: TSW re-state the day's objective and briefly detail the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the
Cuban Missile Crisis, and connect how the first caused the latter of the two. TTW introduce
Vietnam War as another front in which the Cold War was fought.

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION:
Objectives: TSW detail and connect Bay of Pigs invasion and Cuban Missile Crisis. (DOK 1, 4)
Informal Assessment: TTW observe, monitor, and assist (M) as students present notes on
assigned sections from text and film clips dealing with themes from objective (C).
Formal Assessment: TSW complete written assignment (Procedure h) presenting completion of
day’s objective (C) and TSW will be evaluated on their knowledge of the material (C) during the
final exam on Friday the 17th.
Name ___________________________________________ Date _____________________

The Bay of Pigs (page 727)
Vocabulary:
      Land reforms: taking the land from wealthy land-owners and giving it to poorer farmers.
      Seizing foreign-owned businesses: taking a company owned by a corporation or wealthy
      person in another country and claiming it as Cuba’s. These businesses would then
      employ and pay Cubans, and produce goods for Cubans to buy. The goal of state-owned
      businesses was not to make a lot of money for the state, but to produce things that Cubans
      needed cheaply and to provide work for the Cubans. In some cases, the businesses did
      become more efficient and produce more cheaply, and in others, they did not.

Questions:
Name two reasons that Cuba’s alliance with the Soviet Union made the United States nervous.




Where was the La Brigada invasion force from? Why would President John F. Kennedy not
want the invasion force to be American soldiers?




Name three reasons that the Bay of Pigs invasion failed.




Why did the United States looking weak and disorganized matter to President John F. Kennedy?




Bay of Pigs video questions:
What steps did John F. Kennedy take to overthrow Fidel Castro before the Bay of Pigs invasion?




Did the Cuban people support Fidel Castro? How can you tell?
When was the Bay of Pigs invasion?



Why did the invasion fail? How quickly was it over?




How else was Kennedy trying to overthrow Castro? Did this method succeed?




Writing assignment: Write a PERSONAL response of at least five sentences to the Bay of Pigs
invasion? Do you think the U.S. was justified in invading another country when the Cuban
people supported their leader? How would you feel if the U.S. were less powerful than Canada,
Canada did not like the way we were running our country, and they tried to invade and
overthrow our government? You have five minutes.

The Cuban Missile Crisis
        In October 1962, a U.S. spy plane secretly photographed nuclear missile sites being built
by the Soviet Union on the island of Cuba. Because he did not want Cuba and the Soviet Union
to know that he knew about the missiles, Kennedy met in secret with his advisors for several
days to discuss the problem. After many long and difficult meetings, Kennedy decided to place a
naval blockade, or a ring of ships, around Cuba to prevent the Soviets from bringing in more
military supplies, and demanded the removal of the missiles and the destruction of the sites.
        For thirteen days, the world waited, hoping for a peaceful resolution to the crisis. No one
was sure how the Soviet leader would respond to the naval blockade and U.S. demands.
Recognizing the devastating possibility of a nuclear war, Khrushchev turned his ships back. The
Soviets agreed to dismantle the weapon sites and, in exchange, the United States agreed not to
invade Cuba. In a separate, unpublicized deal, the U.S. agreed to remove its nuclear missiles
from Turkey.
        In 1963 there were signs of a lessening of tensions between the Soviet Union and the
United States. In June 1963, President Kennedy gave a commencement address at American
University in which he urged Americans to reexamine Cold War stereotypes and myths and
called for a strategy of peace that would make the world safe for diversity. Two actions also
signaled a warming in relations between the superpowers: the establishment of a Hotline
between the Kremlin and the White House, and the signing of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty. In language very different from his inaugural address, President Kennedy told
Americans in June 1963, “For, in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all
inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future.
And we are all mortal.”
Questions:
What is a naval blockade and why did Kennedy use one?




What was the worst case scenario that could have come out of the Cuban Missile Crisis?




What did Kennedy and Khrushchev each agree to do publicly to end the stand-off?




What did Kennedy agree to do secretly?




Why did both leaders want to compromise so badly?




What do you think (it doesn’t say in the reading) the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty required
of the Soviet Union and the United States and why did both nations agree to it?




Writing Assignment: You are an American citizen living in 1962 and just watched the clip of
John F. Kennedy speaking to the nation about the threat of the Cuban Missile Crisis. What is
happening? What is the threat? What is the government doing to protect the country? What
might happen if this does not get solved peacefully? How do you feel?
In a second paragraph, explain whether you think this was related to the Bay of Pigs incident by
answering the following questions. What happened at the Bay of Pigs? When did it happen?
How did it affect Cuba’s relationship with the Soviet Union? How did the Bay of Pigs disaster
help create the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Write at least eleven sentences and 12 lines and you will receive one out of ten points for each
question you address. You will receive 10% extra credit if you write both fourteen sentences
and sixteen lines.
Correspondence between Khrushchev and Kennedy over the last three days of the Crisis

From a Message from Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy, October 26, 1962:
You are disturbed over Cuba. You say that this disturbs you because it is 90 miles by sea from the
coast of the United States of America. But Turkey adjoins us; our sentries patrol back and forth and
see each other. Do you consider, then, that you have the right to demand security for your own
country and the removal of the weapons you call offensive, but do not accord the same right to us?
You have placed destructive missile weapons, which you call offensive, in Turkey, literally next to
us. How then can recognition of our equal military capacities be reconciled with such unequal
relations between our great states? This is irreconcilable....
I therefore make this proposal: We are willing to remove from Cuba the means which you regard as
offensive. We are willing to carry this out and to make this pledge in the United Nations. Your
representatives will make a declaration to the effect that the United States, for its part, considering
the uneasiness and anxiety of the Soviet State, will remove its analogous means from Turkey. Let us
reach agreement as to the period of time needed by you and by us to bring this about. And, after that,
persons entrusted by the United Nations Security Council could inspect on the spot the fulfillment of
the pledges made....

From a Telegram from the Department of State (Kennedy) to the Embassy in the Soviet Union
(Khrushchev), October 27, 1962:

I have read your letter of October 26 with great care and welcomed the statement of your desire to
seek a prompt solution to the problem. The first thing that needs to be done, however, is for work to
cease on offensive missile bases in Cuba and for all weapons systems in Cuba capable of offensive
use to be rendered inoperable, under effective United Nations arrangements.
Assuming this is done promptly, I have given my representatives in New York instructions that will
permit them to work out this week and—in cooperation with the Acting Secretary General and your
representative—an arrangement for a permanent solution to the Cuban problem along the lines
suggested in your letter of October 26. As I read your letter, the key elements of your proposals—
which seem generally acceptable as I understand them—are as follows:
1. You would agree to remove these weapons systems from Cuba under appropriate United Nations
observation and supervision; and undertake, with suitable safeguards, to halt the further introduction
of such weapons systems into Cuba.
2. We, on our part, would agree—upon the establishment of adequate arrangements through the
United Nations to ensure the carrying out and continuation of these commitments—(a) to remove
promptly the quarantine measures now in effect and (b) to give assurances against an invasion of
Cuba and I am confident that other nations of the Western Hemisphere would be prepared to do
likewise.
If you will give your representative similar instructions, there is no reason why we should not be able
to complete these arrangements and announce them to the world within a couple of days. The effect
of such a settlement on easing world tensions would enable us to work toward a more general
arrangement regarding "other armaments", as proposed in your second letter which you made
public....
But the first ingredient, let me emphasize, is the cessation of work on missile sites in Cuba and
measures to render such weapons inoperable, under effective international guarantees. The
continuation of this threat, or a prolonging of this discussion concerning Cuba by linking these
problems to the broader questions of European and world security, would surely lead to an
intensification of the Cuban crisis and a grave risk to the peace of the world. For this reason I hope
we can quickly agree along the lines outlined in this letter and in your letter of October 26.

From a Message from Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy, October 28, 1962:

I regard with respect and trust the statement you made in your message of October 27, 1962, that
there would be no attack, no invasion of Cuba, and not only on the part of the United States, but also
on the part of other nations of the Western Hemisphere, as you said in your same message. Then the
motives which induced us to render assistance of such a kind to Cuba disappear.
It is for this reason that we instructed our officers—these means as I had already informed you earlier
are in the hands of the Soviet officers—to take appropriate measures to discontinue construction of
the aforementioned facilities, to dismantle them, and to return them to the Soviet Union....

								
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