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Western Civilization Garrett College

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									The Industrial Transformation of Europe
                            1750-1850
   Began in Britain in 1764
   Later spread to other western nations
   Changed the way goods were produced
   Factories powered by steam and operated by
    organized groups of people became the norm
   This shift in production also changed the way
    in which societies were organized
   Rural society based on agriculture changed to
    an urban culture based on manufacturing
   It affected family and government
   Was experiencing prosperity in 18th century
   Had expanded its markets to include other
    countries, its colonies, and its growing
    population at home
   Had a steady supply of raw materials
   Amassed investment capital
   Had a steady supply of skilled and unskilled
    labor
   Had good transportation: RRs, canals, roads,
    bridges, merchant marine
   Had few government restrictions
   Fostered inventors and inventions

These conditions led to increased production
 and trade and made Great Britain the early
 leader in the Industrial Revolution

It was still #1 in the mid-19th century
   During the 18th century, Continental Europe
    was immersed in war or revolution
   The conditions were not favorable for the
    start of industry
   Around 1830 the Industrial Revolution spread
    more quickly throughout Europe
    ◦ First to Belgium
    ◦ Then to France, Germany, and the United States
    ◦ Later to other European nations
   Most nations copied Britain and their
    inventions in the early years
    ◦ Set up railways
    ◦ Governments subsidized some industries
    ◦ Placed tariffs on imported goods

    By the end of the 19th century, there was more equal
     competition among nations
   Before factories, people in the countryside
    found they could supplement their incomes
    through their skills of spinning and weaving
   They would buy raw materials and then make
    cloth which they sold to merchants in the
    towns and cities
   Peasants would do this during agricultural
    slow times
   It was called Cottage Industry
   After 1750, more and more people were
    looking for work
   So cottage industry developed into the
    Putting-Out System
    ◦ Entrepreneurs purchased the raw materials
    ◦ They then put them out to peasant households for
      manufacture
    ◦ The finished product was returned to the capitalist
      who would sell the cloth for a profit
    ◦ The putting-out system required little capital or
      skill and paid peasants low yet needed wages
   The putting-out system seemed to dominate
    many rural families’ lives
   Then it came to dominate whole regions
   Families began keeping only a small garden
    and concentrated on making cloth
   However, without farm wages it was difficult
    to survive on piecework wages
   Some took out loans to survive and then
    worked more and more hours at repetitive
    tasks to earn more money
   The industry grew
   Now for a person to set himself up with a job,
    all he needed was a loom instead of a piece
    of land
   They could then afford to marry at a younger
    age, have children, and put them to work
    making cloth
   This was a labor-intensive industry
   Because there was available labor, new
    methods of production were not sought
   1750-1850, the industrial revolution
    transformed Britain’s predominantly
    agricultural workforce into a predominantly
    industrial workforce
   Water and coal-driven machinery supplied the
    energy and increased productivity
    ◦ One woman in 1812 could spin as much thread as
      200 women had in 1770

    This productivity caused the economy of Britain to
     grow and better support its growing population
   Innovation after innovation brought
    improvements and better techniques that
    could increase production while improving
    quality
    ◦ Steam engines
◦ Smelting of iron with coke
◦ Spinning jenny
   These plus other inventions gave Britain a
    manufacturing economy by 1850
   In 1850, fewer than 25% were still in
    agriculture
   In 1850, nearly 60% were in industry, trade,
    and transportation
   The industrial revolution occurred in Britain
    first in certain regions only
   Conditions in Britain seemed quite favorable
    for industry
    ◦ Water – both protected the island nation from
      attack and allowed its merchants to transport
      goods within the country easily
      Canals were built since the 1760s
      By 18th century, no one in England lived more than 30
       miles from navigable waters
      Water transport was a cheap way to transport goods
◦ Abundance of minerals –
  Coal – used as fuel for centuries
    Abundant
    Used in great quantities
    Large seams of it located near seams of iron and both
     near transportation routes
   The minerals, fuel, and transport could be found in the
     same area, saving money
   Britain had markets at home and overseas
    and both demanded goods
   Colonies were used for a source of raw
    materials
   Britain’s export trade tripled during the 18th
    century, sending out over a million tons of
    cargo
   Shipping expanded
   Set up a reliable banking system, the Bank of
    England
   Coal was the “black gold” of the 18th century
    because it ran the machines
   Britain had very rich coal areas
   If landowners discovered coal on their land,
    they stopped farming and turned to mining
    ◦ Landowners would sink a shaft, build roads, erect a
      wind machine, and send miners into pits.
    ◦ Miners paid according to what each produced

    But there were problems
   Surface seams were quickly used up
   Had to go deeper
   Men dug the coal out
   Women and children hauled it to the shaft
    and cleared away other debris from the coal
   But there were cave-ins
   There were ventilation and lighting problems
    ◦ They used candles for light, but pits contained
      flammable gases
    ◦ There were explosions
   Water drainage was the biggest problem
    ◦ They’d hit ground water
    ◦ Pits filled quickly
    ◦ Tried to carry water out in skin lined buckets – by
      women and children
    ◦ Then primitive pumps came along using horses
    ◦ 1709, Thomas Newcomen introduced his steam-
      driven pump to alleviate the water problem
    ◦ Coal production increased greatly
    ◦ From 1700-1830, production increased 10 times
   The iron industry began to demand coal
    ◦ It had formerly used wood for fuel to heat the
      furnaces
    ◦ 1709, Abraham Darby developed smelting iron ore
      with coke (coal with its gases burned off)
    ◦ This iron coking greatly reduced the cost of fuel in
      the iron industry
    ◦ It also introduced its own impurities to the iron
   Improvement came with James Watt’s
    improved steam engine in 1775
    ◦ It allowed iron smelting and forging to be
      conducted at much higher temperatures
   Then Henry Cort introduced a puddling
    process in the 1780s
    ◦ Iron was smelted into puddles and stirred with rods
    ◦ This brought gaseous carbon to the surface and
      was burned off
    ◦ This left behind pure iron
    ◦ It was then rolled into sheets

    He was able to consolidate the smelting, forging, and
     finishing industries into a single process --
     increasing productivity dramatically by 15 times
     what it had been
   Woolen cloth had dominated British trade for
    centuries
   It was labor intensive
   It took 4 female spinners to provide materials
    for 1 male weaver
   During the 17th century new materials came
    on the market: linen, silk, and cotton (from
    India)
   Cotton came to replace wool as the staple of
    the textile industry in Britain
   The putting –out system helped to expand
    the production of cotton cloth, but only new
    technological innovations allowed English
    producers to compete successfully with
    Indian exports
   John Kay’s flying shuttle, invented in the
    1730s, allowed weavers to work alone instead
    of in pairs
   James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny allowed
    multiple threads to be spun simultaneously
   It was a wooden frame with a number of
    spindles around which thread was drawn by
    means of a hand-turned wheel
   Jennies replaced spinning wheels and it spun
    cotton in great quantities
   It was not strong enough for the warp of the
    loom
   Richard Arkwright created the water frame
    in1769
    ◦ This produced thread strong enough for the warp
      of the loom
    ◦ It stretched the cotton before spinning
   Samuel Crompton created the mule which
    combined the jenny with the water frame
    ◦ could be used in homes
    ◦ were increasingly used in factories
    ◦ became larger and more expensive
   The idea of the factory was pioneered by
    Richard Arkwright in 1769
    ◦   Factories allowed capitalists to protect trade secrets
    ◦   Factories were originally called Safe Boxes
    ◦   Workers were sworn to secrecy
    ◦   There was strict supervision of the work force and
        the quality of the work
    ◦   Patents were taken out on machinery
    ◦   Factories were at first located in rural villages
    ◦   Textile production was moved to bigger mill towns
    ◦   By 1850, nearly 500,000 worked in the cotton
        industry
◦   Spinning was done by men using heavy machinery
◦   Weaving was done by women
◦   Cotton became Britain’s chief export
◦   40% of all exports were cotton textiles
◦   Raw cotton was gotten from the Mediterranean and
    from the U. S. especially after 1794 with Eli
    Whitney’s cotton gin
   The first part of the Industrial Revolution had
    to do with the mass production of goods
   Consumers wanted the products faster than
    they could be delivered
   Industrialists wanted their raw materials and
    fuel quicker as well
   This need became the driving force behind a
    new form of transportation – The Iron Horse
   Early railroads had carts on tracks pulled by
    horses in the mines
   They hauled coal from seam to the dock
   By 1800, British mines had 300 miles of rail
   However, when Watt’s patent on the steam
    engine was up, other inventors adapted this
    engine to perform many tasks
   Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) first
    experimented with it to produce a steam
    driven carriage
   Then George Stephenson (1781-1848) made
    2 other improvements:
    ◦ made the wheels grooved and the rails smooth (the
      opposite of what it had been)
    ◦ and increased the steam pressure in the boiler of
      the engine
    He worked to standardize the gauge of the track.
      Hence, Stephenson has been called the Father of
      the Modern Railroad
   Stephenson’s first experiment, called the
    Rocket, outran a horse and pulled a load 3
    times its weight
   The first railway was intended to haul coal
    and bulk goods
   The railway quickly came to carry more
    human passengers than freight
   Owners made more money transporting
    passengers than freight until the 1850s
   Financed by private individuals, the railway
    boom:
    ◦ decreased the cost of coal
    ◦ helped modernize the iron and steel industries
      because of increased demand for rails and engines
    ◦ created a high demand for labor
    ◦ set up to connect existing industries with markets

    Cheap transport allowed all social classes to travel. It
     also promoted a shared sense of national identity
     because people were no longer isolated from one
     another
   Changes in the organization of industry
    combined with new technological innovations
    to revolutionize the British economy
   Industrialists played a dual role:
    entrepreneur and manager
    ◦ As entrepreneur, they owned the workplace,
      machinery, and the raw materials
    ◦ They kept investing their money in the business
      and they knew how to market their goods
    ◦ There were some bankruptcies
◦ As managers, they organized the workplace to be
  ever more efficient
◦ They also disciplined employees and assigned them
  specialized, repetitive jobs

The careers of Josiah Wedgewood and Robert Owen
 are examples of successful industrialists in Britain
   grew up working in pottery
   had deformed leg that made it difficult for
    him to turn the wheel
   made improvements to the wheel through
    trial and error
   developed new mixtures of clay and glazes
   hated disorder, waste, poor quality, and slow
    output, so had workers specialize in certain
    tasks: some threw pots on the wheel, some
    painted designs, some glazed
   this pottery was highly prized
   held many jobs in trade and in the cotton
    industry
   became manager of a cotton mill at age 19
   successfully increased the output of his 500
    workers
   entered into a partnership in1816 to
    purchase the New Lanark Mill in Scotland
   He felt to improve the quality of the work,
    you must improve the quality of the
    workplace:
    ◦   got new machinery
    ◦   reduced working hours
    ◦   had monitoring system to check on theft
    ◦   prohibited children under age 10 from working
    ◦   all other children had a 10-hour day
   Outside the workplace:
    ◦ had a high quality company-run store
    ◦ used the profits to set up schools for village
      children
    ◦ schools took all children over the age of 1 year, so
      women could work in the factory and children could
      get an education
    ◦ had old-age and disability pensions funded by
      mandatory worker contributions
    ◦ taverns close
    ◦ fines for drunkenness and sexual abuses
    He set up a system where the community regulated
      itself. It was a utopia and a model for others
   Industrialization produced great wealth and great
    distress in Britain
   Factory production and urbanization provoked a
    social reform movement that regulated child
    labor, housing, and sanitation
   Per capita income increased 75% between 1801
    and 1851
   But there were cyclical trade depressions,
    unequal distribution of wealth, overcrowded
    cities, and changes in family life with their ways
    of budgeting that kept many in debt and tied to
    their jobs
   Continental European nations learned from the
    example of Britain’s industrial transformation,
    the British Miracle
   They did not do everything in the same exact way
    as the British
   The British way only suited the coal-rich areas of
    Belgium and the German Rhineland
   All of Europe learned from Britain and were
    encouraged by their governments
   Continental industrialists enjoyed high tariffs
    that protected their goods from British
    competition
   France:
    ◦ French industrialization was focused on home
      markets rather than on those abroad, even though
      overseas markets wanted French goods, too
    ◦ They benefitted from British inventions and then
      began producing luxury items of high quality and
      not in the same amounts as British mass-produced
      goods
    ◦ So the scarcity of French goods kept prices high
      and profits high
◦ While the French had only moderate population
  growth as compared to Britain, French peasants
  were able to maintain their traditional agricultural
  methods ( less pressure to change )
◦ They produced enough food to feed the nation
  while holding on to their rural existence
◦ So French industry grew slowly and it was regional
  rather than national
◦ Industry on a small scale made it harder for
  industrialists to get money for fast growth and
  expensive machinery
◦ By 1820, only 65 French factories were powered by
  the steam engine
   Sustained growth began around 1850 with
    the construction of a national railway which
    helped to create a national market
   France slowly retreated from world trade
    ◦   couldn’t compete with Britain and Germany
    ◦   withdrew into themselves
    ◦   internal market was still quite strong
    ◦   domestic commodities were protected by tariffs on
        imported goods
   Because of slow growth of French industry,
    they were able to avoid many of the problems
    Britain had encountered:
    ◦ overpopulation
    ◦ trade wars
    ◦ quick urbanization with its problems of
      overcrowding, sanitation, and disease
   Germany:
    ◦ The German Empire’s many political divisions with
      their local loyalties and local regulations hindered
      quick industrial growth
    ◦ One region didn’t want to trade with another and
      this hurt their economies
    ◦ Serfdom and traditional agricultural techniques
      were still used in the East
    ◦ In the West, free peasants tilled the lands of
      western Germany, owned or leased
◦ Restrictions placed on peasants in certain areas of
  Germany – primarily in the East – made getting a
  workforce together for industry more difficult
◦ The biggest manufactured good exported was linen
  from Saxony and Silesia
  used the putting-out system
  had some factory spinning

 Most factories in Germany were powered by water and
  located in the mountains where they could use the
  rushing water from mountain streams
   In the 1840s, there were 22 steam-driven
    spinning mills using British machines and
    technicians
   Germany wasn’t heavily involved in the world
    market and provincial restrictions hurt the
    home market, keeping it from rapid
    expansion
   Internal customs duties also hindered internal
    trade expansion
   But as German population grew, the internal
    domestic market grew
   Between 1815 and 1865, the population grew
    by 60% to 36 million
   So Prussians resolved to make a unified
    trading zone by creating a series of alliances
    with smaller states known as the Zollverein
    (1834), a customs union in which
    participating states adopted Prussian customs
    regulations
   This allowed goods to flow more freely in
    Prussia and surrounding states
   Then Germans went to England and the
    British went to Germany to learn and to teach
   The Zollverein then laid the groundwork for
    the railroads – heavily financed by the state
   The presence of the railroad was the cause of
    industrialization, like in France
   Germany imported engines and adopted
    standard gauge rail from Great Britain
   It served to unite German markets
   Not all were happy with mechanization
   Artisans organized for collective, sometimes
    violent action
   1811 and 1812, British hand weavers supposedly
    led by the mythical General Ned Ludd smashed
    machines or threatened to do so. They called
    themselves Luddites
   1830s Germany, weavers smashed machines
   Lyon, France 1831, 1834, workers led an uprising
    demanding a fair price for piece-work
   Labor agitation increased in Europe in 1840s
    leading to major strikes

								
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