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The Industrial Transformation of Europe 1750-1850 Began in Britain in 1764 Later spread to other western nations Changed the way goods were produced Factories powered by steam and operated by organized groups of people became the norm This shift in production also changed the way in which societies were organized Rural society based on agriculture changed to an urban culture based on manufacturing It affected family and government Was experiencing prosperity in 18th century Had expanded its markets to include other countries, its colonies, and its growing population at home Had a steady supply of raw materials Amassed investment capital Had a steady supply of skilled and unskilled labor Had good transportation: RRs, canals, roads, bridges, merchant marine Had few government restrictions Fostered inventors and inventions These conditions led to increased production and trade and made Great Britain the early leader in the Industrial Revolution It was still #1 in the mid-19th century During the 18th century, Continental Europe was immersed in war or revolution The conditions were not favorable for the start of industry Around 1830 the Industrial Revolution spread more quickly throughout Europe ◦ First to Belgium ◦ Then to France, Germany, and the United States ◦ Later to other European nations Most nations copied Britain and their inventions in the early years ◦ Set up railways ◦ Governments subsidized some industries ◦ Placed tariffs on imported goods By the end of the 19th century, there was more equal competition among nations Before factories, people in the countryside found they could supplement their incomes through their skills of spinning and weaving They would buy raw materials and then make cloth which they sold to merchants in the towns and cities Peasants would do this during agricultural slow times It was called Cottage Industry After 1750, more and more people were looking for work So cottage industry developed into the Putting-Out System ◦ Entrepreneurs purchased the raw materials ◦ They then put them out to peasant households for manufacture ◦ The finished product was returned to the capitalist who would sell the cloth for a profit ◦ The putting-out system required little capital or skill and paid peasants low yet needed wages The putting-out system seemed to dominate many rural families’ lives Then it came to dominate whole regions Families began keeping only a small garden and concentrated on making cloth However, without farm wages it was difficult to survive on piecework wages Some took out loans to survive and then worked more and more hours at repetitive tasks to earn more money The industry grew Now for a person to set himself up with a job, all he needed was a loom instead of a piece of land They could then afford to marry at a younger age, have children, and put them to work making cloth This was a labor-intensive industry Because there was available labor, new methods of production were not sought 1750-1850, the industrial revolution transformed Britain’s predominantly agricultural workforce into a predominantly industrial workforce Water and coal-driven machinery supplied the energy and increased productivity ◦ One woman in 1812 could spin as much thread as 200 women had in 1770 This productivity caused the economy of Britain to grow and better support its growing population Innovation after innovation brought improvements and better techniques that could increase production while improving quality ◦ Steam engines ◦ Smelting of iron with coke ◦ Spinning jenny These plus other inventions gave Britain a manufacturing economy by 1850 In 1850, fewer than 25% were still in agriculture In 1850, nearly 60% were in industry, trade, and transportation The industrial revolution occurred in Britain first in certain regions only Conditions in Britain seemed quite favorable for industry ◦ Water – both protected the island nation from attack and allowed its merchants to transport goods within the country easily Canals were built since the 1760s By 18th century, no one in England lived more than 30 miles from navigable waters Water transport was a cheap way to transport goods ◦ Abundance of minerals – Coal – used as fuel for centuries Abundant Used in great quantities Large seams of it located near seams of iron and both near transportation routes The minerals, fuel, and transport could be found in the same area, saving money Britain had markets at home and overseas and both demanded goods Colonies were used for a source of raw materials Britain’s export trade tripled during the 18th century, sending out over a million tons of cargo Shipping expanded Set up a reliable banking system, the Bank of England Coal was the “black gold” of the 18th century because it ran the machines Britain had very rich coal areas If landowners discovered coal on their land, they stopped farming and turned to mining ◦ Landowners would sink a shaft, build roads, erect a wind machine, and send miners into pits. ◦ Miners paid according to what each produced But there were problems Surface seams were quickly used up Had to go deeper Men dug the coal out Women and children hauled it to the shaft and cleared away other debris from the coal But there were cave-ins There were ventilation and lighting problems ◦ They used candles for light, but pits contained flammable gases ◦ There were explosions Water drainage was the biggest problem ◦ They’d hit ground water ◦ Pits filled quickly ◦ Tried to carry water out in skin lined buckets – by women and children ◦ Then primitive pumps came along using horses ◦ 1709, Thomas Newcomen introduced his steam- driven pump to alleviate the water problem ◦ Coal production increased greatly ◦ From 1700-1830, production increased 10 times The iron industry began to demand coal ◦ It had formerly used wood for fuel to heat the furnaces ◦ 1709, Abraham Darby developed smelting iron ore with coke (coal with its gases burned off) ◦ This iron coking greatly reduced the cost of fuel in the iron industry ◦ It also introduced its own impurities to the iron Improvement came with James Watt’s improved steam engine in 1775 ◦ It allowed iron smelting and forging to be conducted at much higher temperatures Then Henry Cort introduced a puddling process in the 1780s ◦ Iron was smelted into puddles and stirred with rods ◦ This brought gaseous carbon to the surface and was burned off ◦ This left behind pure iron ◦ It was then rolled into sheets He was able to consolidate the smelting, forging, and finishing industries into a single process -- increasing productivity dramatically by 15 times what it had been Woolen cloth had dominated British trade for centuries It was labor intensive It took 4 female spinners to provide materials for 1 male weaver During the 17th century new materials came on the market: linen, silk, and cotton (from India) Cotton came to replace wool as the staple of the textile industry in Britain The putting –out system helped to expand the production of cotton cloth, but only new technological innovations allowed English producers to compete successfully with Indian exports John Kay’s flying shuttle, invented in the 1730s, allowed weavers to work alone instead of in pairs James Hargreaves’ spinning jenny allowed multiple threads to be spun simultaneously It was a wooden frame with a number of spindles around which thread was drawn by means of a hand-turned wheel Jennies replaced spinning wheels and it spun cotton in great quantities It was not strong enough for the warp of the loom Richard Arkwright created the water frame in1769 ◦ This produced thread strong enough for the warp of the loom ◦ It stretched the cotton before spinning Samuel Crompton created the mule which combined the jenny with the water frame ◦ could be used in homes ◦ were increasingly used in factories ◦ became larger and more expensive The idea of the factory was pioneered by Richard Arkwright in 1769 ◦ Factories allowed capitalists to protect trade secrets ◦ Factories were originally called Safe Boxes ◦ Workers were sworn to secrecy ◦ There was strict supervision of the work force and the quality of the work ◦ Patents were taken out on machinery ◦ Factories were at first located in rural villages ◦ Textile production was moved to bigger mill towns ◦ By 1850, nearly 500,000 worked in the cotton industry ◦ Spinning was done by men using heavy machinery ◦ Weaving was done by women ◦ Cotton became Britain’s chief export ◦ 40% of all exports were cotton textiles ◦ Raw cotton was gotten from the Mediterranean and from the U. S. especially after 1794 with Eli Whitney’s cotton gin The first part of the Industrial Revolution had to do with the mass production of goods Consumers wanted the products faster than they could be delivered Industrialists wanted their raw materials and fuel quicker as well This need became the driving force behind a new form of transportation – The Iron Horse Early railroads had carts on tracks pulled by horses in the mines They hauled coal from seam to the dock By 1800, British mines had 300 miles of rail However, when Watt’s patent on the steam engine was up, other inventors adapted this engine to perform many tasks Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) first experimented with it to produce a steam driven carriage Then George Stephenson (1781-1848) made 2 other improvements: ◦ made the wheels grooved and the rails smooth (the opposite of what it had been) ◦ and increased the steam pressure in the boiler of the engine He worked to standardize the gauge of the track. Hence, Stephenson has been called the Father of the Modern Railroad Stephenson’s first experiment, called the Rocket, outran a horse and pulled a load 3 times its weight The first railway was intended to haul coal and bulk goods The railway quickly came to carry more human passengers than freight Owners made more money transporting passengers than freight until the 1850s Financed by private individuals, the railway boom: ◦ decreased the cost of coal ◦ helped modernize the iron and steel industries because of increased demand for rails and engines ◦ created a high demand for labor ◦ set up to connect existing industries with markets Cheap transport allowed all social classes to travel. It also promoted a shared sense of national identity because people were no longer isolated from one another Changes in the organization of industry combined with new technological innovations to revolutionize the British economy Industrialists played a dual role: entrepreneur and manager ◦ As entrepreneur, they owned the workplace, machinery, and the raw materials ◦ They kept investing their money in the business and they knew how to market their goods ◦ There were some bankruptcies ◦ As managers, they organized the workplace to be ever more efficient ◦ They also disciplined employees and assigned them specialized, repetitive jobs The careers of Josiah Wedgewood and Robert Owen are examples of successful industrialists in Britain grew up working in pottery had deformed leg that made it difficult for him to turn the wheel made improvements to the wheel through trial and error developed new mixtures of clay and glazes hated disorder, waste, poor quality, and slow output, so had workers specialize in certain tasks: some threw pots on the wheel, some painted designs, some glazed this pottery was highly prized held many jobs in trade and in the cotton industry became manager of a cotton mill at age 19 successfully increased the output of his 500 workers entered into a partnership in1816 to purchase the New Lanark Mill in Scotland He felt to improve the quality of the work, you must improve the quality of the workplace: ◦ got new machinery ◦ reduced working hours ◦ had monitoring system to check on theft ◦ prohibited children under age 10 from working ◦ all other children had a 10-hour day Outside the workplace: ◦ had a high quality company-run store ◦ used the profits to set up schools for village children ◦ schools took all children over the age of 1 year, so women could work in the factory and children could get an education ◦ had old-age and disability pensions funded by mandatory worker contributions ◦ taverns close ◦ fines for drunkenness and sexual abuses He set up a system where the community regulated itself. It was a utopia and a model for others Industrialization produced great wealth and great distress in Britain Factory production and urbanization provoked a social reform movement that regulated child labor, housing, and sanitation Per capita income increased 75% between 1801 and 1851 But there were cyclical trade depressions, unequal distribution of wealth, overcrowded cities, and changes in family life with their ways of budgeting that kept many in debt and tied to their jobs Continental European nations learned from the example of Britain’s industrial transformation, the British Miracle They did not do everything in the same exact way as the British The British way only suited the coal-rich areas of Belgium and the German Rhineland All of Europe learned from Britain and were encouraged by their governments Continental industrialists enjoyed high tariffs that protected their goods from British competition France: ◦ French industrialization was focused on home markets rather than on those abroad, even though overseas markets wanted French goods, too ◦ They benefitted from British inventions and then began producing luxury items of high quality and not in the same amounts as British mass-produced goods ◦ So the scarcity of French goods kept prices high and profits high ◦ While the French had only moderate population growth as compared to Britain, French peasants were able to maintain their traditional agricultural methods ( less pressure to change ) ◦ They produced enough food to feed the nation while holding on to their rural existence ◦ So French industry grew slowly and it was regional rather than national ◦ Industry on a small scale made it harder for industrialists to get money for fast growth and expensive machinery ◦ By 1820, only 65 French factories were powered by the steam engine Sustained growth began around 1850 with the construction of a national railway which helped to create a national market France slowly retreated from world trade ◦ couldn’t compete with Britain and Germany ◦ withdrew into themselves ◦ internal market was still quite strong ◦ domestic commodities were protected by tariffs on imported goods Because of slow growth of French industry, they were able to avoid many of the problems Britain had encountered: ◦ overpopulation ◦ trade wars ◦ quick urbanization with its problems of overcrowding, sanitation, and disease Germany: ◦ The German Empire’s many political divisions with their local loyalties and local regulations hindered quick industrial growth ◦ One region didn’t want to trade with another and this hurt their economies ◦ Serfdom and traditional agricultural techniques were still used in the East ◦ In the West, free peasants tilled the lands of western Germany, owned or leased ◦ Restrictions placed on peasants in certain areas of Germany – primarily in the East – made getting a workforce together for industry more difficult ◦ The biggest manufactured good exported was linen from Saxony and Silesia used the putting-out system had some factory spinning Most factories in Germany were powered by water and located in the mountains where they could use the rushing water from mountain streams In the 1840s, there were 22 steam-driven spinning mills using British machines and technicians Germany wasn’t heavily involved in the world market and provincial restrictions hurt the home market, keeping it from rapid expansion Internal customs duties also hindered internal trade expansion But as German population grew, the internal domestic market grew Between 1815 and 1865, the population grew by 60% to 36 million So Prussians resolved to make a unified trading zone by creating a series of alliances with smaller states known as the Zollverein (1834), a customs union in which participating states adopted Prussian customs regulations This allowed goods to flow more freely in Prussia and surrounding states Then Germans went to England and the British went to Germany to learn and to teach The Zollverein then laid the groundwork for the railroads – heavily financed by the state The presence of the railroad was the cause of industrialization, like in France Germany imported engines and adopted standard gauge rail from Great Britain It served to unite German markets Not all were happy with mechanization Artisans organized for collective, sometimes violent action 1811 and 1812, British hand weavers supposedly led by the mythical General Ned Ludd smashed machines or threatened to do so. They called themselves Luddites 1830s Germany, weavers smashed machines Lyon, France 1831, 1834, workers led an uprising demanding a fair price for piece-work Labor agitation increased in Europe in 1840s leading to major strikes
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