Sustainable Hyderabad

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					                                               Project Study Team

    Hyderabad as a Megacity of Tomorrow:
     Sustainable Urban Food and Health
    Security and Environmental Resource
 Project funded by Federal Ministry of Education and
             Research (BMBF), Germany:
  “Research for the Sustainable Development of the
              Megacities of Tomorrow”

                     PROCEEDINGS OF THE
                           compiled by
                    Dr. Ramesh Chennamaneni
  Jubilee Hall, Public Gardens, Hyderabad, Feb. 19 - 23,

Coordinator: Dr. Ramesh Chennamaneni
Humboldt University Berlin
Institute of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences
Department of Resource Economics
Luisenstraße 56, 10099 Berlin – Germany
Phone: 00-49-30/2093-6392
Fax: 00-49-30/2093-6497

 PTV AG Jun-12                                        Page 1/62
                                       WORKSHOP -1:
                                                 Remarks by Chairman
                                                   Justice V.V.S. Rao1

            At the outset, as a Hyderabadi for about three decades, I deem it a privilege to welcome you all
especially those from Germany and USA, and from different parts of India. I have great honour in congratulating
the organizers of this International Workshop on Megacity Project, Hyderabad.
            The tale of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, told in telegraphic mode, begins in the last
decade of 16th century planned for 300 thousand people with beautifully architectured streets, community facilities,
sustainable protected water supply system and reasonably good wastage-disposal system. As it happens in a living
city wholesome proliferation set in. From being city of 300 thousand to 3 million and then to 7 million, the city of
pearls, the city of I.T. and the city of diverse cultural practices, stands before you. Time is ripe to plan for birth of
Megacity in less than a decade time from now.
            A city is neither bane to social and cultural developments nor declines economic progress. Cities
contribute enormously to GDP. These are Centres of culture, human innovations and interactions. More often
than not – in truth always – the cities can exacerbate deprivation, exclusion or inequality; the sufferers being the
poor of the poor.
            The Study of World Cities Report 2006/7 show both positive and negative aspects of urban areas and
points out that more than 50% of the World population in Asia is going to live in the squalid slums and similar
human settlements generally on road margins, near railway lines or airports or surface water bodies like river
fronts or canal bunds. These would breed inequalities, intolerance, community clashes, and extreme social and
political view. Here it is apt to quote Mr.Kofi Annan, former UN-Secretary General. While addressing the World
Urban Forum sponsored by UN-HABITAT, he said “… … cities, now home to half of humankind, were among the
greatest users of natural resources and major emitters of greenhouse gases. More than half the urban populations
in the developing world lived in slums, with little or no access to decent housing, clean water, basic sanitation,
regular jobs or steady income. Such was the deprivation, that the families were forced to choose between sending
their children to school or to fetch water.” This is also true in case of Hyderabad.
            I know how the weather of Hyderabad changed from 1968 till date. Being a pleasant and salubrious city
in almost all seasons except a couple of weeks in mid-summer, now it is always hot but for few weeks in winter.
The vast extents of lands surrounding Hyderabad with orchards and grape-gardens have now been replaced by
high-rise unplanned structures called residential buildings without or negligible utility services or facilities. The less
I speak the better about the troubles faced by the people who lead a resigned life not able to avoid the inevitable.
Therefore, all the planners must remember one thing. Unplanned Megacity would throw up problems with
certainty, regardless of Per Capita, GDP, Industrial Development and purchase power community. Everyone would
suffer problems for space, problems of movement, problems of leisure and problems of basic needs. Quality of life
would be diminished. We have to endure and tolerate silently, the drudgery of city life.
            We are a country of constitutional governance by rule of law. A policy, a plan, a project and a
recommendation for better/quality life cannot ignore the suprema lex. The chapter on Directive Principles of State
policy in the Constitution of India requires Federal States and the Union Government to promote the welfare of
people by securing and protecting a social order in which justice, social, economic and political shall inform all the
institutions of national life duly minimizing inequalities in income and status, facilities and opportunities. The State
shall also direct its policy towards securing that men and women have right to adequate means of livelihood and
that the ownership and control of material resources of the community are distributed as best to subserve the
common good. These principles cannot be ignored while planning for tomorrow or trying to solve the problems of
            As I said in the beginning I have been living in Hyderabad for more than three decades. I have seen
some of the best things that happened to the city. I have also seen some of the worst things, which could have
been avoided and which nobody wants to have. Therefore, I visualize a Megacity, which ensures to me, to you, to
all of us and to our next generations all good things in life – healthy food, healthy water, good environment,
telecommunications and transportation facilities and least arduous and hazardous life. I also dream for the quality
of life to improve with least spending and good health facilities at an affordable cost. All these, I am sure, are
possible not only by the efforts of the Government and local administration but efforts of all concerned including
NGOs. Wherever possible the PPP model can be explored with direct or indirect involvement of the stakeholders.
            How best the policy should be moulded in planning for Hyderabad Megacity? After three decades from
now nobody should ask – as we now ask; what went wrong in 2007 while planning for Megacity. If that question
is not asked, the Project you have launched would have achieved more than its goals.
            I wish this International Workshop, its Participants and Hyderabad, good luck.

    Judge, High Court of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
The following Presentations were made by the Pilot Project Groups (see workshop
plan for details). Based upon the discussions of the presentations, the Reports of the
Pilot Projects have been finalised. The summaries of the presentations can be seen
below (see this website for complete reports):

                   IN AN URBAN SETTING

               Natalia Smith, James Garrett, and Vishnu Vardhan

This report provides an overview of the food and nutrition security situation in the
city of Hyderabad. The empirical evidence reviewed in this paper was collected
primarily through: (i) electronic bibliographic searches, (ii) informational meetings
with key actors in Hyderabad, (iii) data from the second National Family Health
Survey (NFHS-2) completed in 1998/9, and (iv) qualitative and quantitative studies
conducted in selected communities in Hyderabad. The review presents a conceptual
model of food and nutrition security that it then uses to frame an exploration of the
conditions and causes of food insecurity and malnutrition in Hyderabad. The report
also describes food and nutrition programs operating in Hyderabad. It concludes by
highlighting knowledge gaps that need to be filled in order to inform policies and
programs to reduce food and nutrition insecurity in Hyderabad.

Key findings include:

     Research on food and nutrition in Hyderabad is exceptionally limited. Studies
       carried out under this project were among the few in the past decade to measure
       levels of malnutrition. They also added substantially to the literature on
       marketing systems, food consumption patterns, and child feeding and care
       practices in Hyderabad.

     Levels of malnutrition in urban slums rival that of rural areas. In the study
       areas, about 15 to 20 percent of children 6 to 36 months old suffered from acute
       malnutrition. Chronic malnutrition was more varied: in one area, stunting was
  13 percent, and in another it was 42 percent. The reasons for such variation are
  unclear, but most likely relate to social and geographical factors, such as
  ethnicity, caste, or length of residence.

 Both under- and over- nutrition exist among the population. Undernutrition and
  micronutrient deficiencies are widespread among low-income groups.
  Overweight is not yet a widespread problem, but it is seen among high-income
  groups. This is expected to become more of a problem with significant
  economic growth, so Hyderabad cannot afford to ignore the problem. Ensuring
  diet quality for all income groups is a priority.

 Child feeding and caring practices in Hyderabad are not optimal. Even though
  breastfeeding is the norm, problematic practices are widespread including
  discarding of colostrum, providing liquids to young infants, and starting solids
  before the child reaches 6 months of age.

 Through its contribution to disease, lack of adequate water and sanitation
  appears to be a major contributor to malnutrition. Child diseases, such as
  diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, are widespread in the urban slums
  with prevalence rates similar to rural areas of Andhra Pradesh.

 Provision of infrastructure is not consistent across low-income areas. Newer
  communities suffer from bureaucratic rules making it difficult for them to
  demand adequate basic services. Most households in the study areas had a
  water supply system, but the water was not always available. Latrines or toilets
  were available for adults, but children defecated in the open. Sewage systems
  were available, but they often overflowed into houses during the rainy season.

 Economic growth is changing food and production patterns. These changes and

  public regulations are affecting the livelihoods of street vendors and of those
  who run the small neighbourhood stores, where many poor people buy their
  food.   How economic changes, or social and political, are affecting how and
  where the poor buy their food, and what they buy, is little studied, despite its
  implications for their food security and their nutritional status, as well as for the
  livelihoods of all those who participate in the food and agricultural system that
  feeds Hyderabad.
 As the city expands, it also affects the surrounding environment and economy.
  The promotion of farmers’ markets, called Rythu bazaars, is one way that
  Hyderabad is actually bring urban and rural, consumers and producers, closer
  together, to the benefit of both.

 Political commitment and coordination and action across levels of government
  need to be strengthened. Currently, actions affecting the main determinants of
  nutrition – food, health, and care – are not coordinated across actors, with the
  result that the appropriate policies and programs are not effectively directed to
  the same place at the same time. It is imperative to understand the interplay of
  factors at the community, household and individual levels; to empower actors,
  especially the poor, to demand response but also assume responsibility; and to
  reflect on what needs to change at the governmental and institutional levels to
  effectively improve the food and nutrition security situation of Hyderabad, and
  on how to accomplish that.

                     FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY
                      IN THE SLUMS OF HYDERABAD

                      The Community Studies Team
The Community Studies Team

The Community Studies Team was comprised of staff members from Yugantar (a
Hyderabad-based NGO), the Confederation of Voluntary Associations (COVA) and
Satyam Foundation (community-based organizations in Hyderabad), and the
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Individual members of the study
team are listed below. Members of the team participated in the planning, coordination,
fieldwork, and/ or writing of this report. The qualitative segments of the report were
written by Padma Reddy and Vishnu Vardhan, and translated and edited by Jaideep
Unudurti. The quantitative segments were authored by Dr. Veena Shatrugna. Structural
and editing support was provided by Natalia Smith and James Garrett.

Yugantar:                      Sashi Kumar
                               K. Lalita
                               Dr. Veena Shatrugna
                               Vishnu Vardhan
                               Padma Reddy
                               Snighda Vasi Reddy
                               Jaideep Unudurti
                               Diia Rajan

COVA:                          Fahmeeda Khanam

Satyam Foundation:             Sudipto Pal
                               Ahmedi Begum

IFPRI:                         Natalia Smith
                               James Garrett
The case-studies presented in this report are a preliminary survey of the food and
nutrition security situation in low-income communities in the emerging Megacity of
Hyderabad. Understanding current conditions of food and nutrition security and
their determinants, and how these are changing in the face of evolving employment
opportunities and population composition is essential for a sustainable and inclusive
growth of the city.

This research attempted to provide contextual information on some of these issues
by conducting qualitative and quantitative research in three urban slums of
Hyderabad—Rahmath Nagar, Papi Reddy, and Addagutta. The report explores the
conditions and environment in each slum by providing information on livelihoods,
infrastructure, services, food security, and nutrition. Constraints to reducing hunger
and malnutrition were found across all three communities including seasonality of
employment, limed availability of foods resulting in a limited dietary diversity, and
child feeding and caring practices that are not optimal. In other cases, the challenges
found were specific to the contextual circumstances of each community particularly
dietary practices influenced by religion and culture, and social networks determined
by permanence of community residents.

The report concludes by calling for further in-depth research and action to better
understand the challenges and opportunities to food security and nutrition present in
the low-income communities of Hyderabad

 Changing Food Purchasing and Consumption Habits among Urban Middle-
                                Classes in Hyderabd
                         Kerstin Lohr & Christoph Dittrich

                              Executive Summary

This preparatory case study provides an overview on the issue of changing food
purchasing and food consumption habits among urban middle-classes in the South
Indian emerging mega-city of Hyderabad. It analyses how food purchasing and
dietary habits in this specific urban stratum are subject to profound changes due to
increasing spending capacity and changing lifestyles in the context of economic
liberalisation and globalisation processes. Another objective of the study examines
health aspects of the changing food consumption habits. While nutrition research
previously focused on the serious problem of undernutrition- related nutrient
deficits, recent data shows that overweight and nutrition-related chronic diseases are
more and more becoming serious problems particularly among India`s emerging
urban middle-classes. Questionnaires and several interviews were carried out to
collect empirical data on these issues. Embedded in a broad literature review, results,
consequences, and challenges of changing food purchasing and consumption habits
are discussed. The findings point to the necessity for further action-research.

KEY WORDS: urban food problems, urban middle-class, Hyderabad
 Street Food Vendors in the Food Provisioning
                           System of Hyderabad

                    Marlis Wipper and Christoph Dittrich

This preparatory case study provides an overview of the issue of the street food
vending system in the South Indian emerging megacity of Hyderabad. It analyses
the organisational structure and changing institutional arrangements of the urban
roadside food vending system, looks at important livelihood aspects of the street
vendors and examines the role street food plays in the urban food provisioning
system. Primary research was carried out to collect empirical data on these issues.
Embedded in a literature review, major problems and challenges of the street food
vending system of Hyderabad are discussed. The findings point to the necessity for
further action-research.

KEY WORDS: urban food system, street food vending, Hyderabad

     Health Services and Disease Profile of Hyderabad City: A Pilot Study

                 Prasad, Sheela and Ramachandraiah, Chigurupati


The objective of this study was to primarily get an overview of the availability
health services and disease patterns in Hyderabad. Some broad picture has emerged
as an outcome of this study but it needs to be again mentioned that this is only an
incomplete picture as a lot of health data is not represented in this study due to non-
availability. A major observation of this study is that data on health in Hyderabad is
sketchy and no complete data bank on health is available.

Nonetheless, the major outcomes of the study indicate some important trends that
need to be highlighted and considered for further research.

   1. Distribution of health services in the city is not uniform. Private health care
       is more used and spread over the city, outnumbering government health
       facilities.   But in poorer areas, outskirts, and parts of the Old City, private
       health facilities are fewer. It is in these areas that government health care
       needs to address the health needs of the people with more facilities. This is
       not to say that government health facilities in other areas need to be ignored.
       Circles 1, 11, and 111 have fewer health facilities than other Circles.

   2. While the poor do see government health care as their first choice, they are
       forced to shift to the private health sector due to lack of doctors, proper
       treatment and proximity. There is therefore an urgent need for strengthening
       and improving services in government health sector.

   3. The disease profile shows a resurgence of infectious and communicable
       diseases in the city. TB, Diphtheria, Malaria are major causes of morbidity.
       The rise of Chikungunya in 2006 further emphasizes that most of these
       diseases are preventable. The very high numbers of diarrhea and enteric
       fever cases, specially among children clearly points to the poor public health
       facilities in slum colonies.

   4. Women in the slums are in poor health with high numbers reporting anemia
       linked problems, RTI and UTI.          STD cases also appear quite high in
       Salivahana Nagar. As the treatment for these diseases is long drawn and
       involves the spouse/partner, the urban health post needs to include men also
       in treatment for it to be effective.
   5. Data from both the UHP shows that family planning by pushing
       contraception seems to be a major agenda, besides immunization.

   In conclusion, this study argues that health care has to be a state concern with the
   state being the major provider. The private health sector can only be an option,
   not the main health care provider. In a situation, where economic inequality is
   sharp and wide with 30% of Hyderabad’s population in slums, State
   responsibility in public health and primary health care provision is absolutely
   critical. Moreover, the comeback of old and emergence of new diseases in the
   city in recent years, supports this demand for greater government role. New
   diseases like Chikungunya make no class, caste, area, gender distinction thereby
   suggesting that a collapse of public health and poor environment can lead to both
   old and new epidemics. This study claims to only unravel the tip of the iceberg
   and the signals it sends are disturbing and need urgent attention by health

(Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Ms. E. Deepa who assisted in
data collection and analysis for the study).

     Achieving Sustainable Food Security and Poverty Alleviation through
                        Consumer Cooperatives in Hyderabad

                            The Cooperative Study Team

Executive Summary

The old town of Hyderabad is characterized by a high number of low-income
households, poor infrastructure and limited access to basic amenities, subsequently
resulting in high crime rates. Living in a very traditional and religious society the
majority of the women in the bastis of the old town face, restrictions, discrimination
and inequality as well as the struggle for basic nutrition intake every day. To help
them with their daily responsibilities and add value to their lives the Confederation
of Voluntary Associations (COVA) initiated self-organized self-help groups (SHG)
encourages them to save money to further down the line take a loan. This micro
credit approach has been successfully implemented in rural areas and has performed
as Roshan Vikas Thrift and Credit based SHGs for the past 7 years in urban areas as

The goal in founding a Women’s Consumer Cooperatives (WCC) in December 2005
was a sustainable independent cooperative that ensures food security, subsequently
with empowerment of women and a linkage with rural producers in the future. Thus,
food security is the basis for being able to look for new sources of income.

A survey to study the economic and social background, the functioning and future
perspectives was started in September 2006 on over 200 members of different
cooperative groups in rural and urban areas around the future mega city Hyderabad.

The economic background shows that 48% of the interviewed members of the WCC
live below the poverty line (559Rs or 12$/capita/month). Having on average 6
family members for this group it was most important that food security has
improved. The privilege of the members to buy a month supply of rice at the
distributor on credit and to pay back within two weeks ensures two full meals a day.

Most members of the WCC also stated that being a member of the group has had
positive impact on their lives. They feel more confident and take part in awareness
and educational programs conducted by COVA.

The study with producer cooperatives in rural areas has showed that to sustain better
livelihoods on a long perspective there is a need to focus on income generating
activities as well as supporting educational programs.

The other major problem the WCC still faces is the economic viability as a
sustainable cooperative. The price of rice doubles from the farmer to the Consumer
with the largest margin between the farmer and the wholesaler, benefiting the miller
most, who adds value to the good. With the miller in the money flow the price will
stay too high to make the WCC sustainable. Right now the high quality rice Sona
Massoori is assured by contract with a rice miller who still takes a comparatively
high price for the purchased amount. After transport and packaging the women pay a
price of 16,50Rs/kg, which is supposedly 10% lower than the market price. Along
with other products that 8 distributors sell to about 500 households rice produces the
greatest loss income to the cooperative.

Since competition in the retail market high and rice production is dense in the state
of A.P., some shops sell this brand rice at a lower rate than the WCC. The result is
that there is no profit for the WCC to pay administrative costs yet.

The question now is if forming a producer-consumer cooperative will in the future
solve both problems. The processing of the commodities may present one
opportunity for income generating. Improving rural livelihoods has in the past
showed to stop the migration processes, which continuously improves the situation
in the city. (Indo-German Watershed program, Karimnagar District)

Members of the Research Team:
M.A. Muit (COVA, Hyderabad)
Juliana Helmerich (IfG, HU-Berlin)

Field assistants:
Abeer (Saint Anns College)
Asfia Shujat (Saint Anns College)
Asna Yameen (Saint Anns College)
Manjeri Kulkani (Saint Anns College)
Mehraj Khan (Saint Anns College)
Srinivas Gundala (Central University)
Swammy (Central University)
Ramaiah Itumalla (Central University)

The collaborating institutions were the Institute for cooperative science at the
Humboldt University in Berlin (IfG), COVA (Confederations of Voluntary
Organizations), the CDF (Cooperative Development Foundation), Janardhan Reddy
(distributing agent and former MLA), the CESS (Center for economic and social
studies) and the CDS (Center for Dalit Studies). All helped in conduction interviews,
getting appointments and talking to official decision makers. Their help made it
possible to gain the, for the next phase needed, information.
            Web-based Information Tools and
  Communication and Participation Strategies

            Hans Liudger Dienel, Angela Jain, Nico de Abreu,

             Kristin Nicolaus, Chelikani Rao and Rajesh Kota


The report summarizes the activities and the action-oriented research work of Pilot
Project 4 (PP4)      Web-based Information Tools and Communication and
Participation Strategies“. Research objectives were divided in two areas: a)
communication issues, namely the development of a Project-Homepage with
interactive elements ( ) and two documentary
films and b) participation issues, namely citizens participation in India as a whole
and in Hyderabad in particular. PP4 aims at exploring and evaluating the
applicability and appropriateness of scientifically grounded communication and
participation methods for use in a megacity like Hyderabad. In the course of the
Pilot Project, different research methods were applied: literature studies (desk
research), qualitative research methods (interviews, roundtable discussions, case
studies) and the action-oriented and explorative performance of some first

India, and especially Hyderabad, shows remarkable affinity with and competences in
the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), where a special
focus within the Project lies. Furthermore as the Tarnaka Ward is an outstanding
example for citizen’s engagement in regard to taking over social responsibility and
in order to improve participative urban planning as well as governance structures,
there has been close collaboration with the Tarnaka Residents Welfare Association.
The Tarnaka resident’s communicative and participative activities have been
observed, assessed and improved in a joint endeavor between the Megacities Project
and the Standing Committee of the Tarnaka Residents Welfare Association
(SCOTRWA); thus this outstanding Ward serves as a Case Study for PP4 to obtain a
deeper insight about the complex issue of participation in India/ Hyderabad, a
masters thesis was written within PP4’s research process, for instance describing the
relevant actors for participative planning of water issues in Hyderabad and analysing
road blocks on the way toward participation.

In the end, the results and findings of PP4 as well as the experimentally
implemented Web Tools needed to be drawn together into a consistent
Communication and Participation Strategy which can help the overall project
activities and even thematically connected planning processes in Hyderabad to find
broadly accepted solutions in consensus with all concerned actors and stakeholders.

   Assessment of Urban Carrying Capacity: A Case Study of Environmental
and Institutional Implications for Water Resource Management in Hyderabad

                  Subba Rao, B.V and Ramesh Chennamaneni:
    Centre for Resource Education, Hyderabad – 500051, India and Humboldt-
                      University, 10099 – Berlin, Germany

                               Executive Summary

The primary objective of this pilot study is to understand and analyze various
components of urban development activities in and around Hyderabad city and
identify its cumulative impact on natural systems. The focus of these studies is to
understand the urban carrying capacity and make an attempt to establish its
threshold limits. Methodology covers both primary and secondary data. Secondary
data also includes study and interpretation of satellite imageries from goggle earth
web site. Interactions with concerned officials’ academicians and selected group of
citizens helped in understanding the dynamics of the urban development in a larger
Study covers basic issues concerned with urban carrying capacity and makes an
attempt to bring out case studies on threshold limits of urban watersheds. And,
reviews the cumulative impact on environmental and institutional implications. Case
study on Hussain Sagar Lake watershed places over all situational impact and
Durgam Lake watershed study probes in detail on impact of recent urban
development activities and throws light on institutional and planning gaps in the area
of urban development, particularly with reference to urban water resources.

Conclusions focus on identified issues in relation with sustainable urban water
resources management:

      Watersheds covering 2000 sq km falling under HUDA jurisdiction have lost
       their carrying capacity resulting in the drastic changes in hydrological

      30 mm intensive short duration rainfall stands as thresh old limit and causes
       flash floods and inundations in the areas falling in core zone of Hyderabad
       Municipal Corporation.

      The rainfall data collected two different sources show wide variation and
       challenges the conventional practice of endorsing rainfall data from single
       source, covering 150 Sq. Km.

      Absence of wastewater treatment facilities resulted in contamination of all
       the surface water bodies and also contaminated 30 percent of ground water

      Existing Fresh water based infrastructure is totally neglected. Consequent
       economic loss of 2000 crores.
   Urban planning and development is not in tune with the natural systems.
    And, the pollution regulating authorities have no control over non point
    sources of pollution.

   Local governing bodies do not ascertain their constitutional rights to protect

   General awareness on legal instruments and public policies is very poor
    among majority of citizens, elected municipal representatives officials.

   Conflicts are increasing among the stakeholders and also among concerned
    departments and institutions.

   There is need to reorient present urban development plans in tune with
    natural systems for the watersheds falling in the proposed greater Hyderabad
    area, covering an additional area of 4000 sq .km.

   Attempts towards promoting supplement sources water supplies viz,

    rainwater harvesting and ground water recharging are being implemented

    on casual and ad hoc approaches.

   Efforts towards promoting wastewater treatment, recycling and re use are

    not effective and calls for political commitment to strengthen the

    implementation process.

   Perceptions and perspectives towards natural systems and resources have
    undergone a metamorphic change in the minds of city dwellers. Many think
    of natural areas in a wilderness context and resists to understand the
    interdependent relation between natural systems with city development – see
    no role of water bodies in city environs – unfortunately mindset among urban
    planners, developers including policy makers and administrators is no

   Lack of coordination and territorial behavior undermines the system in
    developing integrated and system’s approach to develop and implement
    urban planning and development. Isolated approaches often not only create
    bottlenecks in the process but also places cities in perpetual dependants on
    far off catchments for natural resources mobilization.

   System lacks management perspective in the area of urban water resources
    and institutions responsible for urban water supply continue to function on
    principle of ‘ Demand and Supply’. Also, do not have any control over the
    catchments of the respective drinking water sources.

   No attempt is being made in developing mechanisms / a strategy towards

    protection and conservation of catchments of drinking water sources. Also,

    in developing strategic integrated approaches towards sustainable urban

    water resources management.

   Cumulative impact of unplanned, rapid and unscientific urban development

    activities in and around Hyderabad city not only undermined the functional

    ability of natural watersheds but also posing threat to the urban carrying

    capacity, particularly in sustaining the potable water supply system.

   Deteriorated watersheds resulted in drastic environmental changes not only in

    the physical dynamics of hydrological cycle but also on the quality of fresh

    water sources. Further, resulting on human health.
   Increased frequency of flash floods and inundations is causing huge economic


   Absence of effective implementation of pollution regulating mechanisms

    contributing to contamination of surface and ground water resources.

   Radiation from the massive concrete structures, hot air disbursal from air

    conditioning systems and vehicular pollution is already showing its impact on

    increased atmospheric day temperatures in this area. And further physical growth

    and absence of tree cover may result in the formation of urban heat pocket.

   However, the national policies could not focus on issues related with

    watersheds in the context of urban planning, development and management.

    Fact is ‘Urban populations consume more natural resources than rural

    population. As the urban areas grow, proportionately urban population draw

    on larger catchment areas for food, energy, water, minerals and materials,

    and human resources. This massive demand for resources leads to

    degradation of immediate surroundings and distant areas, impacting on the

    carrying capacity of the natural systems in the region’.

   The environmental impact due to present urban development has direct

    bearing on the watersheds both at micro and macro level of any given river

    basin. Cumulative impact of these changes not only disturbing the dynamics

    of hydrological but also contributing to large-scale river pollution.

   Reality is the rate of developmental activities keep pushing increased water

    demands further. One needs to review and assess the water needs of city in
    view of proposed greater Hyderabad and other industrial developmental

    activities. Also, in terms environmental, economic implications, including

    system’s efficiency in managing and sustaining urban water supplies. Also,

    to integrate issues related with equity in the area of water supply keeping

    the needs of poor and changing over consumption patterns among the

    effluent sections of society.

   Different institutions and government have been focusing on urban
    environmental problems. However, most of the administrative actions are
    disjointed, fragmented and function in isolation. There is a wide gap between
    the management, planning and implementation. The rapid urbanization did
    not provide enough gestation periods to municipal authorities and local
    bodies to equip themselves in terms of administration, scientific
    temperament and financial management to tackle new challenges and
    escalating urban problems.

   Need is felt in reorienting and developing concrete guidelines on the urban

    planning and development in tune with the natural watershed. And further

    the need to recognize and integrate the environmental services offered by the

    natural systems [Watersheds] as an integral component of urban planning

    with national perspective.

   Present situation calls for a fresh approach and appropriate methods to tackle
    the growing problems of management of urban environment tasks. This
    requires the development of a new line of thinking, which integrates the
    advancement in science and technology, and the knowledge and skills
    embedded therein.
 Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Hyderabad: A Case Study of
                                  Musi River

                            The Musi River Study Team

FORUM:                  Capt. J. Rama Rao
                        M. Vedakumar
                        M. H. Rao
                        O. M. Debara.
                        K. Narshima Reddy
                        Prof. K. Mutyam Reddy
                        Prof. S. Kumar.
                        K. Prabhakar
                        Adarsh Srivastav

CHATRI:                  Jeevan Kumar

GHAMANA:                 Umesh Varma.

RESS:                 Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Konrad Hagedorn
                       Dr. Ramesh Chennamaneni

Executive Summary

With the objective to study issues related to the Natural Resource Management for
Sustainable Hyderabad, the Humboldt University of Berlin identified the Forum for
a Better Hyderabad (FBH) as the key agency to undertake studies and interact with
all stakeholders including the government. The focus being ‘people’, the scope of
work was to create a framework in which the ground level issues hitherto missed by
earlier projects/efforts would be highlighted.
FBH was acknowledged and identified as one such organisation which would be
able to present the peoples’ perspective on various issues. Seen as an effective
environmental watchdog organisation, the FBH was asked to prepare the proposal
and coordinate and integrate with similar organisations involved in civil
rights/advocacy related to urban, environment, housing and legal issues.
Subsequently FBH entered into and understanding with CHATRI, an organisation
involved in the rights of Slum dwellers (mostly along Musi River) and Gamana
involved in environmental activism. CHATRI has looked into the aspects of
Community Mobilisation, Stakeholders Participation, Field Visit, Farmers
Workshop and Slums Workshop and has conducted primary surveys whose
preliminary results have been present in this report. Gamana has looked into the
issues of livelihoods, Stakeholders Issues Identification and field visits and
Institutional Analysis. The aspects of Institutional functioning, their strengths and
weaknesses have been covered comprehensively by Gamana.

Most of the issues related to Musi river are related to the catchment at the
macro level and affecting the quality of the environment are issues directly
related to the Human settlements/activities around the Musi river within this
catchment. Both industrial and housing related activities have affected the
Musi River adversely. This in turn has affected the lives of people dependent on
Musi. This can be best understood with the example of Edulabad Village which
has been explained in detail in the main report.
One of the major findings of the study was that Musi has never been studied as
a river as a whole. Partly for reservoirs, partly for conservation within the city
region, and partly after the floods of 2000. But never as a whole from the
starting point at Vikharabad to the Musi project reservoir and further on its
joining the Krishna river. Please note that Recommendations are in Italics. The
Conclusions and Recommandations are summed up as follows:
       1   The catchment study of the river study has not been found. Planning for
           the urban area around Musi without a catchment map is a major finding
           of this study.
       2   It is felt that at large three aspects affect the river
            Overall climate and natural factors like rainfall, soil type and quality
            Land Use/Land Cover within the catchment like any human activity or
              natural features
     Type and quality of solid or liquids flowing into the river due human
      activity (directly or indirectly)
3   The major issues can be categorised into five major types as
    mentioned below. Various other sub- issues can be
    categorised under these heads

    i) Environmental
        Overall catchment of the Musi River starting right from the source
         at Anantagiri Hills is degraded.
        This needs to be conserved by afforestation and also ensuring some
         regulation on check dams which obstruct water flow into the main
         river in the upper stretches.
        The catchments of the Himayatsagar and Osmansagar are under
         threat from thousands of small check dams constructed in the
         catchments (GO 111 area) which interrupt the flow of water into
         these reservoirs.
        Check dams constructed in the catchments (GO 111 area) which
         interrupt the flow of water into these reservoirs should be removed
         or regulated. Alternative sources of irrigation should be provided
         for people dependent on these check dams.
        The catchments of the Himayatsagar and Osmansagar are also
         tremendous under threat from urbanisation in general and
         indiscriminate plotting of lands and change in land use in specific
        The GO 111 should be implemented strictly restricting all types of
         development within the notified area. No Master Plan proposal
         should be allowed for urbanisation. A fixed minimum boundary
         around settlement should be allowed for natural growth and should
         not be more than 500 mtrs from the existing settlement boundary as
         shown in the SOI topographical sheets.
        The various options that can be considered for the large tract of
         land within the GO 111 are:
        The area can be taken up for large scale social forestry, organic
         farming, export oriented agriculture production without polluting
         the soil and ground water and putting too much pressure on ground
         water for irrigation of the same.
        There is a good scope for taking up large scale Bio-Diesel
        Land pooling schemes can also be used as methods of community
        Creation of a ‘Himayatsagar and Osmansagar Catchment
         Conservation Authority’ should be explored.

         Urban lakes have been destroyed or being polluted and their
          carrying capacities have been reduced. Also affect livelihoods of
          many people.
         All lakes need to be protected by ensuring the development of a
          green buffer as provided in the Master Plan regulations and the
          latest GO86 rules. All inlet and outlet channels need also be
          demarcated on maps and on ground and a green buffer developed
  as per regulations. Lakes which are already polluted should be
  cleaned up and recreational areas be developed around the
  periphery. No development allowed within the buffer. Marking of
  FTL on ground is important.
 Lakes can be utilised for fishery and in specific location special
  provision made for Dhobi Ghaats may be explored for ensuring full
  protection against pollution.

 Natural drainage pattern has been disturbed; Natural
  drains/nallahs have been encroached.
 No layout or building permission for developments which obliterate
  or disregard natural drainage patterns in any manner. A drainage
  network plan be developed with all channels and water bodies
  mapped. Use of SOI topo-sheets, latest satellite images and ground
  truthing be done to mark these resources on Master Plan and
  correlated with revenue maps for easy implementation.
  Connectivity of drains, nallahs and lakes ensured on ground. These
  channels be dug up physically to ensure the physical connectivity.

 Pollution levels due to industries, Urban Agriculture and
  Domestic Sewage is flowing into Musi
 Location of industries be determined with a new perspective. No
  polluting industry be allowed without appropriate in-situ ‘Clean
  Up Technology’. Incentives be provided for using ‘Clean
  Technology’. Polluting industries be penalised heavily or shut
 Regional Land Use Policy be developed. Issues regarding urban
  agriculture, peripheral land use/land cover guidelines, hinterland
  development and regional economics be covered in framing the
  policy and implementation strategy be developed linked to the
  Regional Development Plan for Hyderabad.
 All urbanised areas to have underground piped sewerage system.
  Peripheral areas to have two tank septic tank systems mandatorily.
  Large projects to have in-situ sewerage treatment plants and have
  ‘Zero Outflow’ policy. No untreated waste be let out into any water
  body. Heavy penalty for doing so which can be charged to the
  individuals, groups, societies, organisations.

 Deterioration of Open spaces has led to imbalance in the
  physical and spatial environment of Hyderabad. Musi is an
  important open space. Lack of green spaces/lung spaces,
  adequate and green urban forests
 All open spaces be identified, surveyed and demarcated and fenced
  on ground. An asset management system be developed and
  responsibility delegated to local bodies, citizens groups, Heavy
  penalties for violations/encroachments, misuse. Large scale
  afforestation be taken up within the outside the city. The HUDA-
  GHEP project has made efforts in this direction been successful in
  doing so. Similar efforts need to be continued at a large scale. All
       reserve forests, plantations, under the purview of the Forest
       Department be demarcated and fenced on ground, An asset
       management plan be made and extensive greening taken up.
       Wherever there is shortage of water then traditional methods of
       irrigation be utilised for greening. Options of Social forestry and
       private sector participation are exercised at feasible locations
       without commercialising the forest, change of Land Use and with
       no permanent structures and complying with all MoEF and other
       environmental guidelines.

    Agricultural practices have changed over the years.
     Indiscriminate usage of pesticide has polluted the soil as well as
     the underground water.
    Organic farming be used within the periphery of the city. Intensive
     agriculture and better linkages with the hinterland can ensure
     proper agriculture production as well as productivity for the

    Change in occupation resulting from urbanisation is leading to
     change in land use resulting over-urbanisation with scant
     regard to open space and green spaces and plantations and
     forests thus affecting the environment
    Lack of Regional Environmental Strategy and Environmental
     Conservation Plan is a major issue.
    Preparation     of Regional Environmental Strategy and
     Environmental Conservation Plan in consonance with a Regional
     Land Use Policy is of utmost importance and needs to be done at
     the earliest using modern techniques of planning and including
     various economic, social, environmental and legal aspects.

ii) People related issues:
     Issues related to Tenurial Rights and Land Ownership Rights of the
poor emerge as an effect of Socio-Economic, Cultural and environmental
     People living in slums and squatters are an integral part of the city.
      Primarily a result of the migration of the poorer sections of society
      from the hinterland or the rural areas these people experience both
      push and pull factors. Either there should be a macro level strategy
      (at state level) for overall development which controls migration
      combined with a urban management strategy for Hyderabad which
      attracts people for various reasons thus exacerbating the issues. But
      then a growing city does require resources, therefore it important to
      have a Regional Economic Strategy. Most of these people have to
      live in the centre of cities where land is scarce. Therefore they end
      up living in open spaces, neglected spaces. Most of these spaces are
      actually the banks of Water channels/rivers/ nallahs and lakes and
      transportation corridors. Some people are successful in owning the
      land they live on either by way of largesse from the government
  .through the political setup or by being able to pay for it through
  what they earn. Thus these highly dense, haphazard and many a
  times un hygienic settlements come up in the urban landscape.
 In urban renewal or redevelopment of urban areas administration
  always views their settlements as a hindrance in the way of
  development. But planners should understand that these settlements
  and people living in them are very much an integral part of the
  urban area. Any plan or urban renewal should be inclusive of these
  areas and the people. The people living in these bastees who offer
  services and carry out petty business should be reorganised with
  due respect to their basic rights and assuring them dignity a decent
  way of life.
 Planning for the poor needs to be done carefully and sensitively.

   Human Rights: the basic rights of people for life and property are
    affected in all redevelopment/renewal projects. But urban renewal
    and redevelopment projects aim at improving the life of the larger
    section of population of the city. Therefore the needs of the affected
    and the benefited are to be catered to carefully.

   Resettlement and Rehabilitation: People are affected in physical,
    economic and environmental and socio-cultural terms. Therefore
    any resettlement and rehabilitation strategy should focus on these
    aspects and ensure housing/shelter, livelihoods, social counseling
    and financial support (not necessarily a subsidy) Sensitive and
    careful planning of R&R Packages.

 Proper provision of Basic Services is important for healthy
  living. The social cost-benefit studies have shown tremendous
  benefits to the affected people as well as the society in general. At
  present the situation of basic services for the poor is very bad.
 An Infrastructure Development and Investment Plan be
  developed linked to the Regional Economic Strategy

 Participatory process: Planning and project formulation does not
  involve the local people. Too much involvement of people does run
  the risk of delaying and even stalling of the plans but still it doesn’t
  undermine the importance of the participatory approach towards
  planning. Mechanisms of civic engagement and coordination,
  integration and feedback and monitoring are lacking.
 The mechanisms of civic engagement and coordination, integration
  and feedback and monitoring need to be strengthened. This can be
  done by involving NGOs, citizens groups, developing new
  methodologies for participatory planning and development.
  Development of Citizens Charter is of utmost importance.

   General Awareness: The overall awareness level of the people is
    still not very high at city level. This awareness includes information
    about right and duties, legal positions, environmental conservation
       and its benefits. Involvement of NGOs, CBO, Resident Welfare
       Associations and other social groups can be done to achieve this.
       Extensive publicity through thoughtful programmes can be done
       using the various media. Increasing support from the government
       for technical courses, training and counseling in the fields of social
       development, social work and environmental sciences will help
       increase the threshold of awareness

iii) Institutional
      Vision and Mission: There seems to be a lot of vision and separate
       missions. There is lack of an Integrated Mission.
      Development of a long range vision and Integrated Mission for the
       city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad needs to have its own characteristic
       development plan for the future and the image of a city with an
       Integrated Development Strategy (at regional as well as core city
       level) for achieving that vision. It should aim at providing the ‘best
       quality of life’ anywhere in India and even at global level.

    Coordination & Integration: Too many agencies, departments
           result in coordination and integration issues. The government
     structures have become behemoths and take time to move and react.
     Most of the reactions are knee-jerk. There is scope for
     communication gap, delay, and mis-interpretation. This leads to
     tremendous waste of time, effort and money.
    Improved          communication         channels,       coordinating
     agencies/specialised departments for coordination are required.
     Citizens participation and making the process transparent and
     increasing the responsibility of elected representatives and making
     them accountable directly to the people will bring about efficiency
     and improvements and benefits.

    Technical approach is not comprehensive: Project formulation
     and management require a more comprehensive approach. This
     approach needs to be combined with the social assessment to make
     it implementable. This should not be done at the cost of the larger
    New Planning techniques need to be used, modern technology be
     applied and comprehensive approaches need to be taken. Parallely
     the micro level strategies and improvements need to be in
     consonance with the macro level plan. All this needs to be
     integrated into the Regional Development Plan for Hyderabad.
     This should contain the following:
      Regional Environmental Strategy and Environmental
Conservation Plan
      Regional Economic Strategy
      Regional Land Use Policy
      Infrastructure Development and Investment Plan
      Citizens Charter
   The Regional Development Plan for Hyderabad must aim for the
   Integrated Mission to provide the ‘best quality of life

    Lack of Transparency, Responsibility and Accountability:
     These are the key aspects of good governance. These are lacking in
     the working of many departments, agencies and even in the
     government at large. Lack of implementation of Citizens Charters
     in the real sense is hampering the achievement of multiple
     objectives of Transparency, Responsibility and Accountability
    Implementation of the Citizens Charters.
    Good Governance Initiatives.

    Media and its lack of support: The media doesn’t play its role
     effectively in bringing out the issue in a comprehensive manner and
     also by not following it up diligently. Its effort to find half baked
     technical solutions does not help the cause in the long term.
     Sensationalisation and politicisation of the media coverage rarely
     helps the people. Lack of a technical approach and understanding to
     issues and trying to focus more on problems and less on solutions
     ails today’s media on the whole.
    Good reporting practices, Increased coverage of wide ranging
     topics. Bringing the needs of the people to larger audiences and to
     the government in particular, becoming the link between the people
     and the elected representatives and also with the government

    NGOs/Other Organisations: There are hardly any NGOs working
     in the fields of Urban Rights, Environmental Protection and
     Awareness ands community mobilisation. Most do not have the
     technical resource for taking up the tasks, while many are not able
     to successfully pursue the goals for various reasons. There are also
     cases of NGOs working in inefficient ways in involving in bad
     business practices thus maligning the system which actually should
     be supporting the government. Many good NGOs also feel pressure
     from the government while actually there should be a mature and
     responsible relationship between the two. There are many NGOS
     which are working successfully with the government and also
     independently achieving social goals.
    Better practices, social development initiatives backed by a
     scientific approach are required from the NGOs. More
     governmental support for NGOs will help the increase in the
     number of NGOs operating in the various sectors. Social
     responsibility from the corporate sector is gaining popularity and
     this also brings about an attitude of giving back to the society and
     introduce best practices for others to learn from and follow.

iv) Legal
     Lack of Awareness about constitutional provisions, rights and
    Provisions in the Urban Development Acts and Municipal Acts,
     73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, Water Act, 1974,
     E.P Act, 1986, Right to Information Act are still not know to the
     people in general. Increase in awareness will not become a
     hindrance but might become an asset for government to undertake
     development works in the future. This may take time but will augur
     well in the long term.
    Lack of a Regional Planning and Development Act
    As mentioned earlier the Regional Development Plan for
     Hyderabad. Needs to be developed under the constitutional and
     legal provisions
      Regional Environmental Strategy and Environmental
       Conservation Plan
      Regional Economic Strategy
      Regional Land Use Policy
      Infrastructure Development and Investment Plan
      Citizens Charter

   The Regional Development Plan for Hyderabad must aim for the
   Integrated Mission to provide the ‘best quality of life. It should
   ensure a greater role for the elected representatives and the
   techniques of bottom-up approach be followed in plan preparation.
   Restructuring of governance structures, strengthening of local bodies
   , restructuring finance and budgeting practices and increases public
   [participation should form the key elements of this plan.

v) Implementation & Management
    Finance: Lack of finance or the feeling of lack of it becomes a
     major hurdle for many development works. Ina large growing
     economy with many priorities it is difficult to allocate adequate
     funds for all development works. One sector’s benefit results in
     neglect and loss of the other.
    Finance mobilisation can be done through increasing the direct
     revenues in the form of taxes. Simplifying tax structures, increasing
     the tax net, and streamlining the budgeting systems may lead to
     larger revenue and reduction in losses and leaks. Expenditure
     control will help in strengthening the financial resource. This
     would also mean strengthening of local bodies which will be able to
     provide better services and also collect more revenue and this be
     able to provide better services back to the people. This cycle would
     bring about the growth in economy and add to the wealth of the
     urban and rural areas as entities and villages. Land can be used as
     an asset for resource mobilisation but not at the extreme cost of
     heavy loss, trauma and pain to the people. Scientific studies backed
     by good social benefits can be used to identify wasteland to be
     developed as an asset.
    Project Management: Professional and corporate project
     management techniques need to be used for project planning and
                  Feedback and Monitoring: Effective structures for feedback and
                   monitoring be developed and also linkages between citizens groups,
                   elected representatives and the bureaucracy need to be
                   strengthened. This would help in better project planning and
                   effective improvements from the lessons learnt.

The key elements to plan for the future include:

   1. Environment Conservation
          Mitigation of degradation of natural resources due to indiscriminate
           and extreme human activities
          Mitigation of disasters like floods and earthquakes and also reasons
           which exacerbate these disasters.
          Conservation and proper use of land through proper land use
          Conservation of water resources/catchments
          Conservation of open spaces
          Quality of Air, Water and Land in terms of pollution control
          Mitigation of other forms of pollution.

   2. Transportation and Traffic management
          Efficiency of transportation systems in large metropolises will lead to
           saving of time and energy
          Public Transport System should be given highest priority

   3. Overall Energy Conservation
      Secure local energy needs of the people through providing alternative energy
       sources such as LPG Gas for the poor households for cooking having white
       ration cards
      Provide improved cooking herds (Chulhas) as traditional herds are energy
       inefficient, pollute the environment (C02) and cause severe health hazards to
       women and children
      Create comprehensive urban forestry development plan combined with bio-
       fuel plantations to be implemented in the bio-conservation zone marked in
       the up-stream areas with local peoples participation as a major source to
       secure local energy needs and for carbon sequestration

 Environment Pollution and Institutions: A Case Study of Pesticides, Residues
           and Regulation of Vegetables in Hyderabad Market

                                Ramanjaneeyulu, D
                   Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Hyderabad
                               Ramesh Chennamaneni
                           Humboldt-University of Berlin


The deep crisis affecting the farming community in India largely escapes the
imagination of the urban population. It might be because food production is almost
completely delinked here from food consumption. Food is seen as a commodity
which can be bought over the counter, with quality assured by the tag of the
supermarket or a popular brand. The ecological footprint that such food production
and supply chains leave is largely ignored or not understood. The distress
experienced by food producing communities is invisible. Consumers also tend to
ignore the implications on themselves flowing from (lack of) food safety.

As citizens and as consumers of food, we never relate ourselves to the farming
community and always carry a feeling that the technology, policies and institutions
(regulatory systems) related agriculture are the concern of the farmers.

This report is the result of a pilot study focusing on 'Pesticides, Residues and
Regulation in India'. It is an attempt to break the apathy and ignorance of consumers
through the analysis of how pesticides and pesticide residues in food are regulated in
India and the potential implications on urban consumers. With a lot of effort from
civil society groups and concerned activists, there is now a shift towards production
that is not dependent on chemicals. Concern over the health implications of toxic
pesticides has also prompted some people to shift towards organically grown foods.

On the other hand, governments, agricultural research and extension system and the
chemical industry continue to believe in the 'inevitability of pesticides' and continue
to talk only about safer pesticides, safe use of pesticides, better regulatory systems
etc. The issue of pesticide residues receives some attention only when the export
consignments are rejected or studies on soft drinks or bottled water are released. The
larger issues of food safety for consumers and sustainable resource management for
producers are largely ignored. Working backwards, we tried to look at how pesticide
residues in food are regulated in India, how pesticides themselves are regulated,
recommended, the institutions involved & their functioning etc. The study used both
primary and secondary data for its analysis.
Our research shows several objectionable gaps and lapses in institutions (regulatory
systems), several contradictions even at the conceptual level and gross negligence
with regard to assessing and promoting safer and better alternatives. There are
serious unanswered questions related to pesticide registration processes and
procedures in the country. To begin with, risk assessment of pesticides is taken up as
a routine risk assessment of hazardous chemicals rather than as impact assessment
vis-à-vis ecological practices in agriculture for pest management during the
registration process.

Further, the food safety assessment of pesticides is de-linked from its registration
process – registration happens without ADIs or MRLs being first fixed and without
MRL-fixation flowing out of chronic toxicity data. Even in cases where MRLs are
fixed, they may not be fixed for all the commodities for which registration has been

The safety assessment from a long term perspective related to health impacts –
whether it is related to potential endocrine disruption or teratogenecity or immune
system disruption or reproductive health damage and so on.

Registration happens based on the developers’ data and not independent data
generated. At another level, there is an institutional conflict of interest with the
Ministry of Agriculture, with a mandate of increasing agricultural production
through the use of any technology, expected to regulate pesticides from an
environmental and health point of view.

The ones who register pesticides have hardly monitored pesticide residues nor is
there a system of periodic, automatic review of registered pesticides. It is not clear
whether the AICRP on pesticide residues feeds into decision-making related to
registration and licensing of pesticides. Further, the system of registering pesticides
without MRLs being fixed continues.

The current research effort discovered that pesticide residue data is not pro-actively
shared with the public nor does it inform regulation related to registration and use.
Most surveillance related to pesticide contamination is not shared with the public. In
fact, data is presented mostly in forms that make pesticide residues look safe.

Official pesticide residue surveillance system’s findings do not match with
independent studies in the country. There seems to be under-reporting of the level of
contamination of Indian products and this is reflected by frequent reports of Indian
agricultural export consignments being rejected in other countries due to high levels
of residues detected in such consignments.

The greater question of whether MRLs fixed are safe or not, from the point of
chronic toxicity remains. As CSE’s work on MRLs, TMDIs and ADIs has shown,
the MRL-fixation itself is questionable in the country in addition to the fact that
MRLs are yet to be fixed for many pesticides! Even if MRLs are fixed for all crops
for all commodities they are used on and even if such MRLs are followed, there is
no guarantee that the cumulative intake of such pesticide residues will be within the
Acceptable Daily Intake levels!

Further, there is an additional complication allowed through law, in the form of
Provisional Registration. Section 9 (3) (b) of the Insecticides Act allows provisional
registration of some pesticides without sufficient data generated for assessing safety
or efficacy. Pretty often, there are many violations witnessed in the use of such a
provisional registration. A popular pesticide like Avaunt (brand name of
Indoxacarb) was introduced through such a provisional registration and witnessed
aggressive marketing even during that stage.

  The Integrated Lake Treatment and Management Component (ILTMC) of
  Green Hyderabad Environment Program (GHEP): The role of governance,
institutions and the effects of the Program on local people - A case study of Mir
                                     Alam Lake
                                   Kunz, Annette
                     Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany

In the 90s, the Indian judiciary decided to protect the water bodies in and around
Hyderabad and the Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) was made
responsible for the lakes by the government. From 2002-2006, HUDA launched the
‘Green Hyderabad Environment Programme’ of which the ‘Integrated Lake
Treatment and Management Component (ILTMC)’ includes the intensive treatment,
conservation and management of 87 lakes. The purpose of the study was an impact
assessment of this ILTMC. The institutions in place and their alteration, governance
structures and the effects of the program on local people have been of major interest.

As guiding concept for the research phase the Institutional Analysis and
Development Approach (IAD) of E. Ostrom was used along with other institutional
literature on resource regimes. The research was conceived as a case study of Mir
Alam Lake. Expert interviews and a survey of residents and users were conducted.

During the ILTMC the lakes were fenced, the Full Tank Level (FTL) were
demarcated by a ring bund and highly polluted lakes received a Sewage Treatment
Plant (STP). Partly a basin management approach was adopted. Many lake areas
were altered into parks. The program institutionalized a totally new management
structure concerning lakes, but due to ongoing centralization processes the
management of the lakes is now mostly with HUDA.

At the lake level, so called Lake Protection Committees or Neighbourhood
Committees (Sarassu Samrakshana Samithis) have been installed which should help
with the management and in mobilizing public opinion. In case of Mir Alam Lake,
this group was installed, too, but it proved to be nearly unknown to the local
residents. Though the program is approved well by the local people and the
programme can tackle major environmental problems, the programme performance
is slow and the circumstances for the lakes in Hyderabad are still worsening.
Furthermore, the success of the programme depends on the performance of other
local services, for instance, in the field of waste management. Major critical issues
are the problem of encroachment and the high O & M costs caused by the operation
of the STPs. Reviving Lake Protection Committees with the help of local NGO’s to
prevent encroachment and introducing Energy efficient alternatives such as
biological treatment options may offer optimal solutions for overall positive energy,
environment and cost effectiveness. Generally, the programme initiated many
important developments and has indeed been successful in several aspects to save
some of most endangered Hyderabad’s lakes.

Rural – Urban Linkage: Emerging Conflicts and Livelihood Implications over
          Land Tenure and Water Sharing in Greater Hyderabad

                               V. Ratna Reddy
                              B. Suresh Reddy
    Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), N.O. Campus, Begumpet,
                          Hyderabad, INDIA-500016

                                Executive Summary

While disparities persist, rural and urban areas and their economies are increasingly
interconnected. There is a growing movement of people, goods, capital, ideas and
information between urban and rural areas. Some of these movements benefit both rural and
urban areas; other movements benefit only one side usually the urban areas. Part of the
problem is that policy makers often do not take these rural urban linkages into account and
divide their policies along spatial and sectoral lines(Taccolli,2002). Urban planners
concentrate on the development of the urban areas without due attention to rural areas and
divide their policies along spatial and sectoral lines. Urban planners concentrate on the
development, while rural development planners tend to ignore the urban areas, as if rural
areas exist in isolation. Moreover, the administrative division in urban and rural areas
results in a lack of coordination and inwork at cross-purposes. It is important that national
government and the local government of large cities,small and medium-sized towns and
rural areas, recognize the rural-urban linkages,the impact of their actions on urban and rural
areas, and the positive(and negative) role they can play in the development of both these

Urban areas are linked with rural areas in many increasingly important ways, which often
pose challenges to development planners and policy makers. They include flows of
agricultural and other commodities from rural based producers to urban markets, both for
local consumers and for forwarding to regional, national and international markets; and ,in
opposite direction, flows of manufactured and imported goods from urban centres to rural
settlements. They also include flows of people moving between rural and urban settlements,
either commuting on a regular basis, for occasional visits to urban-based services and
administrative centres, or migrating temporarily or permanently. Flows of information
between rural and urban areas include information on market mechanisms- from price
fluctuations to consumer preferences-and information on employment opportunities for
potential migrants. Financial flows include, primarily, remittances from migrants to
relatives and communities in sending areas, and transfers such as pensions to migrants
returning to their rural homes, and also investments and credit from urban-based

Research Objectives

The pilot research project on rural urban linkages has tried to analyse in depth the important
links between Hyderabad and surrounding rural areas and the role they play in the
sustainable development of the future megacity.

The first objective of our research was to investigate land tenure/use issues in the peri-urban
areas of Hyderabad. This helped us to understand formal and informal land market
transactions and its impact on sustainable development of the city of Hyderabad.

The Second objective of our research was to study rural urban water sharing between
Hyderabad and surrounding areas. Stake holder analysis was carried out to understand the
issues related to rural urban water sharing. This objective helped us to focus on the
conflicts in the water sharing and brings out the perspectives of various stakeholders. It also
helps to look at alternate water resources for Hyderabad city and its impact on water
availability for rural agriculture.

A review of literature relevant to rural urban linkages, land tenure and rura urban water
sharing has been done. Little research has been in India on these aspects. Hence forth
experiences are drawn from Asian and African countries where off late considerable
research has been done related to issues of rural urban linkages. An effort has been made to
discuss various theories and models related to rural urban linkages. Simultaneously, the
rural and urban development programmes being implemented by the government of Andhra
Pradesh have been discussed.


The methodology adopted for the pilot research was multifold and diverse according to the
peculiarities of each of these objectives. Secondary and primary data was collected during
the study. Primary data was collected through Participatory rural appraisal methods, focused
group discussions, semi structured interviews and individual case studies and interviews of
officials. Secondary data was drawn from government Policies and developmental
programmes related to rural urban linkages, Technical reports of departments, Government
orders and newspapers clippings and research reports. At the end of the research process we
presented the information back to the informants to ensure that our interpretation was
correct. The women and poor were given maximum space in the research project and they
were enthusiastic and vocal throughout the whole research process.
Study area

To understand the conflicts and perspectives of stakeholders regarding the rural urban water
sharing, the field research of the study was done in Medak district of Andhra Pradesh. Two
villages namely Minpur and Andole, one from each mandal of Pulkal and Andole were
selected respectively. Similarly to probe the land tenure issues in the peri-urban areas,
Kondapur, Shameerpet and Maheshwaram which are emerging peri-urban areas of Ranga
Reddy district surrounding Hyderabad have been identified for field research. All these
villages are with in a radius of 25-30kms from the city of Hyderabad.

Key Findings

Land Tenure in Peri-Urban area

Livelihoods :

With the increasing activities of real estate business, economic development and
proposed new projects by government have led to major changes in the livehoods of
the people in the peri-urban research locales. Some households have totally moved
out their previous livelihoods and the others have upgraded their livelihoods
according to the demands of the area and opportunity. Hitherto farming and
agriculture labour used to be the main occupation of the villagers of these three
study areas. Now farming takes a back seat in Shameerpet, Maheswaram and almost
neglible in Kondapur. Livestock rearing, Paddy & vegetable cultivation and dairying
still finds a liking with many families in Shameerpet. Where as insignificant number
of cattle can be found in Kondapur and in Maheswaram, their population is coming
down with more and more lands being fenced after purchase by realtors, resulting in
lack of grazing land. People who used to depend on the Agriculture labour are
slowly moving to other livelihoods like wage labour and workers in construction
activity. In all the study areas of the peri-urban region of Hyderabad, the local
people are facing a tough competition from the migrant labour of Andhra to this
area. Real estate brokering business and Masonary work have become prominent
livelihood for the substantial number of families in all the three locations. In a place
like Maheswaram all kinds of livelihoods have come up.

Changes in the livelihoods of poor and Dalit(Schedule caste) :

Along with the other households hold in the village, the livelihoods of dalits and
poor were also affected. Especially the dalits were more affected due to small
landholdings and their dependency on agriculture labour. Nearly 10-25% of SC
Households who got good amount by sale of their lands are leading a good life.
However, many dalits were also forced to diversify into various livelihoods. Earlier
they were primarily dependent on farming directly and indirectly. With the total
disappearance of agriculture in Kondapur, they entered into a range of livelihoods,
even doing not so respectable jobs like municipal workers and housemaids. In
Shameerpet, agriculture labourers are now working as labourers in the private
companies, spinning mills and in whitewashing and painting fields. Slowly, similar
trend could also been seen in Maheswaram too.
Agriculture Scenario:

Farming had received a heavy blow in the process of infrastructure, economic and
realestate development in the Peri-Urban areas. Many farmers and agriculture labour
were displaced from their livelihood which they used to derive from agriculture.
Now they have chosen new livelihoods. However, some farmers made good amount
of money by selling their agricultural lands(of course benefited relatively less than
people who bought lands from them). Fertile fringe lands are being put to non-
agricultural use. With the changing land use, all the crops and the varieties have
been disappearing for ever from the region. In Kondapur area which is almost
besides Hyderabad city, the agriculture almost disappeared with only 30-35acres
land under cultivation. Out which, 25 acres is assigned land and belongs to the dalits
of Kondapur. More than 20 dalit households derive livelihood from these lands by
cultivating crops and vegetables. They have tough task of protecting this land from
realtors and recently local revenue officials too objected to the cultivation of this
patch of 25 acres which the dalits claim as the assignment land given to them by

In Shameerpet, interestingly, 70% of the villagers still have small chunks(1or 2
acres) of land. Most of them have lands under the command area of village tank. At
present in Shameerpet forty percent agriculture area has come down. But the lack of
labour(for agriculture purpose) is making farming a difficult proposition in
Shameerpet too. Nearly 10% of the villagers are still poor and still rely on wage
labour. Land less work as agirucltural labour, take others land for lease, go to jobs
and do petty business.

On the other hand in Maheswaram, the area under farming is coming down
drastically. The profits from farming are appearing meager when compared to the
huge money flowing in due to real estate business. Villagers are either selling the
lands and are shifting to other business or getting involved in the real estate
brokering business.

Some villagers in all the study areas are preferring to sell a portion of their land and
construct houses for renting out. They find it as an easier option when compared to
farming. These days people, especially the younger generation don’t have patience
to do all the agricultural operations. Some of them think it is the job of people who
are poorer.

Changing Land prices :

The change in land prices has been mind-boggling. However three study villages
present a different and interesting scenario. The increase in land prices was seen
since early 1990 s in Kondapur, where as in shameerpet it could be seen from 1995
and in Maheswaram from 2004 onwards. The maximum land price per acre in
Kondapur, Shameerpet and Maheswaram is Rs15crores, Rs1.30crores and Rs1.10
crores respectively. The increase in Kondapur has started with the announcement of
Hitech city establishment, in shameerpet due to several reputed instutions like ICICI
knowledge park, Biotech park, Nalsar College of Law Etc and in Maheswarm due to
upcoming international airport and proposed Fab city. Villagers of Peri-urban areas
are astonished about the sudden increase which they did not even dream In places
like Maheswaram, with in a span of two years from 2004 Sept to 2006 Sept, the land
prices per acre has moved from 1 lakhs /acre to 1.30crores or 13millions per acre.
After the Conceptualisation of Outer Ring Road(ORR), the land values in more than
80 Peri-Urban villages of Ranga Reddy through which the ORR passes have
increased suddenly between the years 2004 and 2006.

Early land sale by locals

Land prices have gone up drastically in last fifteen years in the periurban areas of the
Hyderabad due to various factors. However, in most cases the local villagers have
sold out a bit early. In Kondapur village, 75% of the agricultural land was sold out
by people before 1990 when the land price was raning between Rs90,000-
1.5Lakh/acre. Remaining 25% was sold out between 1990-2000 when the price was
around Rs8-10lakhs/acre in early 90’s and 20-25lakhs/acre in the year 2000. All
these lands were purchased by the private people for the purpose of plotting and
construction of offices and apartments. But now the land price per acre in the ares of
Kondapur is Rs15crores. Where as in Shameerpet where the real estate growth was
gradual, few villagers have sold out land when the price was around Rs6Lakhs/acre.
Fortunately for the villagers, not many sold their lands completely. Only few people
who had to perform marriages of their daughters and those with debts have sold out
their lands early.

The real estate activity was seen mostly from last 1-2 years in Maheswaram. Now,
almost all the patta(registered)lands with clear title have been sold out by the
villagers. It is only tribals in the hamlets of Maheswaram village own substantial
amount of land. It is significant to note that these people had livestock and were
depending on them for their livelihood. So naturally to meet the fodder needs they
retained the land without selling in the early boom period. This has become a good
fetching point for these families which helped them to get the enormous price for
their lands in 2006 when compared to what their peers have obtained in the early
stages of real estate activity in 2005. In Maheswaram, Government order of early
1950s related to Protected Tenancy right has benefited few families economically as
their signatures were needed during the land registration to avoid future
complications. Due to early sale, farmers who cared the lands for ages have become
relatively poorer when compared to the people to whom they have sold their land. In
the whole process of land transactions, middle men are making a huge amount of
money. For few Households in all the study areas, real estate brokering has become
a prominent livelihood.

Lack of sufficient supply of electricity and lackof access to irrigation had instigated
them to sell land early. So when farmers got few lakhs a couple years back, they
started selling their lands, otherwise now they could have made huge money with
the same land. Had the farming been a bit profitable, we would not have sold our
land so early(“Vyvasayam koddigananna               labamunte,   intha    thondaraga
ammakuntimi”)says Kishan of Maheswaram.

What is happening to Poor and Marginalised communities ?

The interactions with the people, especially the poor and dalit revealed that they
have not made much benefit due to land sale when compared to others. These people
generally had small holdings of land which were having clear land titles. These
lands have been sold quite early. In Kondapur, all SCs patta lands(lands with clear
titles and own) were sold prior to the year 1985. They were very small patches.
Where as most of the B.Cs sold out before 2000.

In Maheswaram too mostly farmers from Backward community and Scheduled
Castes(SCs) have sold out early and got less price when compared to others.
However Scheduled tribe(S.Ts)people living in the hamlets surrounding
Maheswarm village sold it for better price and many Households still have a couple
of acres of land. These families were more keen on doing agriculture and did not
rush to sale their lands.

The poor and dalits in the study villages were not having access to any kind advance
information related to proposed new developmental projects by the government.
They could not resist the temptations of the realestate brokers. They were influenced
by the land lords who were selling their small portion of lands from their bigger
holdings. Illiteracy was another obstacle for the poor to understand the significance
of the developments taking place in their surroundings. More importantly there was
no body to take their side and guide them during this crucial time of development in
the peri-urban areas. On the other hand the poor and dalits have some times become
more vulnerable as they find it difficult to protect their interests fighting against
powerful lobbies and market forces. It is being alleged by the poor local
communities that there might have been a strong informal nexus between revenue
officials, politicians and realtors. In areas like Kondapur, most of the SCs are
leading the same life as it used to be earlier.

Land acquisition notices: Realtors take advantage

Land acquisition notices are being served to farmers when ever the government
wants to take up any developmental activity for the public purpose. In the event of
possibility of getting such notices, farmers are taking a hasty decision to sell there
land to get a far better price than the government compensation which would be far
less than market prices. For the lands to which the land acquisition notices are to be
given or already given, the realtors are knowingly purchasing such lands hoping to
manage the situation later. In certain cases, at later stage, may be due to genuine
reason/political influence/realtors influence these notices are withdrawn by the
government saying that the proposed project cannot be taken up due to so and so
reasons. By this time land prices in the area will be increasing by 10-20times in a
span of 1-2 years. All those farmers who sold out their lands with a fear losing their
lands get shocked at the turnaround of the events. Being voiceless and powerless
they are not able to do much except weep. Few such incidents have happened from
past few years in the peri-urban areas of Hyderabad putting landholders to
irreparable loss. These days, realtors are easily spreading rumours in the preiurban
areas, saying that lands in a particular place will be aquired by the government for
the proposed new projects. Losing of housing area by dalits of Kondapur is an
excellent example to understand how these forces operate. Realtors are doing this to
convert the situation to their convenience. This is creating a great confusion among
the people holding land in the peri-urban areas. Justice is not being done to the poor
in this development(“Peda vaniki Nyayam leneledhu”) says a local leader.

Revenue system and people’s agony

After listening to the farmers in the study areas it can be said that the revenue system
which maintains the land records is not farmer friendly. Especially for the poor, if
there is any genuine problem with the land records it would be a nightmare. Narsa
Reddy of Shameerpet says, that, if any problem arises with regard to land records,
the poor are made to make umpteen trips to mandal revenue office till their slippers
wear out(“revenue vyvasthalo beeda prajalaku yedaina samasyalosthe
cheppularigedaka thipputundru”). This statement of farmer clearly tells the kind of
problems they go through when ever there is a minute problem with land records.
Backward communites and SCs have strongly criticized the role of Patwaris(this
patwari system was abolished in first half of 1980s). People complained that
patwaris have manipulated the land records and who ever was not in their favour,
their lands were deliberately changed putting these people to loss or disadavantage.
This was realized by people only when they wanted to transfer their lands to
somebody else or sell it.

For the problems like “patta marpidi”(change in land ownership) it is announced that
if a farmer pays 500 rupees fees, it will be done. But in realty the story is different.
Farmers have told that local Mandal Revenue Officer gives the concerned farmer
memos in this regard to unnecessarily make him scare. Unless village secretaries are
bribed the change in land ownership cannot be done. The whole revenue system has
a firm grip over the farmers, their land records and there by indirectly gets benefitted
while title transfers and registrations. People blamed the role being played by the
revenue officials and surveyors at the local level for the discrepancies in land
records and for acting in favour of realtors.

Even today many educated and experienced people are not well versed with the land
records. The deeper we go into this subject, tougher will be for the common man to
understand the rules related to lands records. With the increasing land prices the
knowledge about the various kinds of lands and procedures becomes imminent.

Lack of Basic amenities

Out of the three study areas, Kondapur and Shameerpet are called to be some what
developed places. Particularly, Kondapur is generally considered as a highly
developed place with many high rise buildings. But if he probe deeper in to the
issues, these places were lacking minimum basic facilities, inspite of crores of
rupees flowing in to the economy of these places. The physical observation of the
area in places like kondapur, clearly tells us the fact that the development was not
planned lacking even basic things like proper drainage facility. There is difficulty in
accessing drinking water for the people of Kondapur and Shameerpet. With lack of
basic amenities, it would be difficult to call these places as developed. In all the
three areas there is no single good shop of electronic goods, Utensil shops, fruit
shops and Sweet shops. The weekly markets of these areas are completely
unhygienic. However all the there areas had good access to public transport.

Impact of Economic development and real estate activity

With the increased developmental activity and real estate business different kinds of
impact has been seen on the people, area and land use in peri-urban areas. Some of
them positive and some negative. The kind of impact seen is as follows.

     Few families became Rich overnight
     Multi storied and spacious buildings are coming up in the villages.
      Irrespective of their castes, all houses are getting mixed.
     Latest models of cars can be seen in the peri-urban areas.
     Small and marginal families who sold out early their small pieces of lands
      have not gained much financially.
     Migration is stopped in one of the peri-urban study areas
     Agriculture has been negatively affected. Net area sown has been constantly
      on the decline. Fallows have increased.
     Livestock population is dwindling, grazing area reduced
     Social capital like women thrift and credit groups, Rythu Mithra
      Groups(Farmer clubs)of men have been negatively affected in research
      locales and few of them become defunct.
     In their own villages the land less have become relatively poor with
      reference to finance and social status.
     There has been a changes in Lifestyles of people with new habits and
      material possessions
     Use of Machinery is depriving employment for locals
     Buying an housing plot in Peri-Urban areas is becoming a dream for middle
      class and poor.
     House rents have increased in the peri-urban areas due to inflow of people.
      This is putting burden on low and medium income groups.
     Women of the study area concerned about the hasty decision of men to sell
      land. Few women are reluctant to sell land for some more time.
     In Households which became rich, the women are being restricted to houses
      by men. Till a couple of years back they used to work in agricultural fields
      and attended groups meetings of women groups and were main bread
      earners for the family.
     Few households are unable to manage the money in a constructive way.
      They are spending money lavishly and getting addicted to alcohol. These
      families are likely to suffer in future as they are unable to invest money
     As every body is having, there is no respect in the community inspite of
      being a millionaire. With entry of more money the human relationships are
      breaking and there is no peace of mind and enjoyment which used to be
      present in the villages Hitherto.
     Special Economic Zones will further increase the land prices in the peri-
      urban areas.

Rural-Urban Water sharing

The Second objective of our pilot research was to study rural urban water sharing
between Hyderabad and surrounding areas. Stake holder analysis was carried out to
understand the issues related to rural urban water sharing. This objective helped us
to focus on the conflicts in the water sharing and brings out the perspectives of
various stakeholders. It also helps us to look at alternate water resources for
Hyderabad city and its impact on water availability for rural agriculture. To study
the Rural Urban water sharing issues Minpur and Andole villages of Pulkal and
Andole mandals respectively of Medak district of Andhra pradesh, have been
identified. The selected research villages are the down stream villages of M.Baga
Reddy Project (Singoor project) and are likely to benefit more with larger land
area(more than 40,000acres) getting access to irrigation.

An effort has been made to understand the history of water needs of the city of
Hyderabad and also the manjira waters. The agitations and struggles made by local
farmers and politicians were also discussed in detail.

Over a period of time a series of conflicts developed along the Manjira River
because of the storage of 30 TMC of water in the Singur Reservoir and the transfer
of water to Hyderabad for meeting the drinking water needs of the city people. As a
result of these struggles, in the year 1980, the Government of Andhra Pradesh issued
the Government Order (GO) no. 455(dated 31-10-1980), allocating 2 TMC of water
from Singoor reservoir for irrigation just downstream the dam. But for long time this
GO was never implemented and a conflict developed between farmers and their
public representatives on the one side, and the Andhra Pradesh Government on the
other. Several farmers and political leaders of all political parties have organized
various kinds of agitations from dharnas to hunger strike. Damodar RajaNarsimha,
the present MLA of Andole constituency has sit for 101 days hunger strike, M.P
Narendra has done pada yatra in 2002-03 from singoor to yella reddy. Efforts of
various people finally resulted in the success. Once the Congress Party came to
power after 2004 elections, the newly constituted Government issued GO No. 136
(26-07-2005) for the construction of the canals below Singur Dam. An
administrative sanction of Rs88.99 crores was done. The emphasis given by the
present government to the irrigation project has helped this canal work to progress.
As per the G.O irrigation facilities will be provided to an ayacut of 40,000acres ID
in kharif from Singoor project(presently, it is called as M.Baga Reddy Project) .
Already tenders have been called for and the canal excavation work is in progress.
There are two canals one is left canal having a length of 48km and a right canal for
a length of 12 kms. The left canal covers 51 villages in two mandals irrigating
37,500 acresand the right canal covers 6 villages of two mandals irrigating 2500.
Had the G.O 455 been implemented immediately, several households of Andole
would not have migrated.

From the interaction with the farmers it was found that farmers were really not
involved much in the survey and designing of canal course. It was handled by
technical people. Even today, many farmers in the study villages are not aware much
about when the canal excavation is going to happen in their village, through whose
lands it passes and what compensation will be paid. The compensation was not yet
decided. The canal excavation work has just started in the government land and
given the progress in the work it may take another two years for the waters to flow
in the canals. Farmers can utilize 2 TMC of water for the irrigation through this

The pilot research study has tried to understand the perspectives of the local farmers
about these issue and how the new irrigation canal would benefit various categories
of people and influence their livelihoods.

The agriculture area in the villages of Minpur and Andole is decreasing with people
moving to alternate livelihoods. With the decline in cultivation area and increasing
fallows(see table no18)all other occupational skills were affected. In one of the study
village of Medak district the more than 50% of the HHs have migrated to the peri-
urban areas of Hyderabad in search of employment. These people are facing all
kinds of problems during migration. Those families staying back have ventured into
alternate livelihoods due to insecure livelihoods. Livestock population is reduced,
especially the bullocks have come down by 80-90%.

In both the study villages a big tank linked by a series small tanks/ponds in the down
stream could be seen. Most of the small and marginal farmers possessed a couple of
acres under these tanks. When ever the village tank gets filled these smaller tanks
get water and inturn the land under these tanks get cultivated. When the canal water
flows in to these villages, the farmers are likely to fill these village tanks(though not
acceptable, this is likely to happen)by diverting the water into these tanks. This
inturn will benefit many small and marginal farmers holding lands under these

The women groups are functioning well in the research areas of Medak with women
gaining more economic independence, awareness and knowledge. Children’s
education is given lot of importance these days. Both the villages have access to
drinking water which is supplied by the Satya Sai drinking water scheme being
implemented by Satya Sai trust of Putta parthi. The source of pumping is the manjira
water. However more than 10 villages, through which the drinking water pipeline to
Hyderabad is layed out do not have access to the manjira water passing through their
village. This was inspite of loosing their fertile lands for laying out pipeline.

Unfortunately, these villages still have lot of drinking water scarcity and depend on
the bore well water supplied through the village panchayat. Similar is the situation
of those families of displaced villages due to project construction. Though it may
appear as a bit exaggeration, one of the farmer of study village says, that, “out of
every 100 displaced families 98% are leading worse life than hitherto and it is only
2% who are leading better life”.

The drinking water to Hyderabad is supplied through jackwell near the Singoor
project. Daily 127 cusecs or 68.367 MGD are supplied to city of Hyderabad. A total
of 46355 cusecs/4005.072 MCFT are supplied to Hyderabad. Through phase III and
IV, the raw water from singoor project goes upto Peddapur(20kms away) by
gravitational force and there it is cleaned. Purified water is pumped to city from
there. Where as in phase I and II the water is purified and pumped from there itself
near manjeera barriage. It is not so much the 4 TMC of water allocated to
Hyderabad that impacted on the agricultural sector, but the storage required to
convey water to the city on a continuous basis.

Alternate sources of water for Hyderabad

Godavari and the Krishna rivers were the two other water sources identified for
supplying drinking water to Hyderabad. After a series of efforts the first phase of the
Krishna Drinking Water Supply Project is completed, and now nearly 90 MG of
water per day are drawn from the Nagarjunasagar reservoir across the Krishna River
and is pumped to Hyderabad through pipelines of length 120kms. Now the efforts
are being made to get Godavari water to Hyderabad. Efforts have to made to ensure
that farmers of any region not denied access to irrigation for the drinking water
needs of the urban people. Hence continuous efforts must be made to look into the
gravity of the problem as to achieve a balance between the needs of urban and rural

Change in future Scenario of the Study villages

As the canal excavation works were still under progress the farmers of the study
villages were asked about the possible benefits they would accrue due to the singoor
project(canal). They informed that there will be dramatic changes in the village
leading to flourishing agriculture, increased livestock populations and increased
livelihood and food security to poor and vulnerable households. It was told that the
cropping would be predominantly either Paddy or Sugar cane with a small acerage
of maize, sunflower and vegetables. As the access to fodder increases the dairy
activity will be more. The farmers were really very happy about the fact that the
canal work is in progress. There was not even a single person in the two study
villages who has spoken any negative point about the irrigation through canal and its
likely impact. However farmers are not sure what course it is taking , through whose
lands it passes and when it is likely to flow. The very idea of access to irrigation
gives them a big hope about the future. This is more true in case of small and
marginal farmers and agricultural labour.

One of the farmer puts it straight saying, the present Chief minster Y.S.Rajashekar
reddy has promised us during the pada yatra through our village, saying that he will
see that canal water comes into the village as soon as possible. We are confident that
the canal water comes one day in near future. One thing could be clearly seen
during the field work, that the farmers are very very happy about the proposed canal
water for irrigation. People across all communities are eagerly looking forward for
the canal water to flow through their village and agricultural fields bringing about
many positive changes in their lives.


Land transaction has been an important area of rural urban linkage in the present
economic development. The findigs from the peri-urban research locales point to
significant increase in land prices dues developmental projects of government and
real estate activity. The land is changing hands very fast. It could be clearly seen that
there was a major transformation in the livelihoods of the people in the fully
developed peri-urban areas and in other research locales the transformation is still
continuing. Agriculture and livestock has been greately affected by the recent
development in these areas. This had influence on the livelihoods of agricultural
labour and landless.

On the otherhand Rural urban water sharing issue has become prime concern with
increase in competition between various water use factors. The transfer of water
from agriculture to other the other sectors is having tremendous impact on the
livelihoods of the rural communities. This could be seen in the form of heavy
migration in one of the research locales in Medak district. The following strategies
need attention for the betterment of the communities in the rural as well as peri-
urban areas.

     Land less and Poor of the peri-urban areas have to be made partners in the decision
      making of developmental programmes aimed at them so that there real basic needs
      are met. Basket of livelihood options for the poor and women should be increased.
     The revenue system has to be more farmer friendly, uniformity in all revenue
      records related to farmers’ land holding and transparency in work.
     Protection of assigned lands of the Scheduled caste communities.
     It must be ensure that the land acquisition policies/notifications should not harm the
      interest of farmers of periurban areas, especially those of small and marginal
     In the event of any land acquisition, land owners should be provided a good
      compensation package which would more or less match the benefits one could get
      in the open market.
     Proper planning of the peri-urban areas with the provision of basic amenities.
     Efforts must be made to protect the innocent and illiterate farmers from the
      influence of realtors. Information related to proposed developmental projects by
      governments and their significance should be provided to farmers of the peri-urban
      region earlier than the realtors.
     Illiterate and innocent people of periurban areas who got money due to land sale
      must be made aware of better investment options, so that it is not misused.
     The rural farmers have to be given their rightful share in the water from the projects
      of their region.
     All those villages which spare land for drinking water supply have to be provided
      access to drinking water as most of them are having drinking water scarcity.
     Rural-urban linkages have to be integrated with a focus for concern for poverty
      alleviation, income improvement, well-being and sustainable development of the
      regions. Policies have to be strengthened in this regard.

           Rural – Urban Linkage: Impact of Watershed Development
                        on distress migration to Hyderabad
  Resource Person, Indo-German Watershed Development Programme (IGWDP),
                           Ramesh Chennamaneni
                         Humboldt-University of Berlin


The development policy has always wanted to mitigate the distress migration from
rural to urban migration. Implementing watershed programmes to improve the
natural resource base of the rural areas on a sustainable basis was one of the methods
chosen to reduce this distress migration. In India, the Government of Andhra
Pradesh was one of the first to adopt watersheds.

The Indo-German Watershed Development Programme (IGWDP) was one such
watershed project in AP, implemented with the support of BMZ and KfW. Under
the overall coordination of NABARD, this programme started in 2003 and was
implemented in six watersheds (pilot projects). By the end of 2006, four of these
pilot watersheds completed capacity building phase and entered full implementation
phase. As sufficient time has elapsed since the beginning of the pilot watersheds, a
study was conducted to assess the impact of these watersheds on the rural – urban
migration. The study explored the aspects of availability of the opportunities for
wage employment and migration patterns with reference to the implementation of
the watershed programme, with particular emphasis on the migration to Hyderabad.

The issues for study were identified after a literature survey, quick field visits to all
the pilot projects and internal brainstorming. Two watersheds and one control
village were studied to understand the net attributable results from watershed
projects. Apart from the study of the village level issues, fifteen households in each
village were studied using analytical narrative technique. Purposive sampling
method was used to select the households to ensure representation of different
communities, categories of wage labour, marginal farmers and watershed
beneficiaries. Further, key persons concerned with the subject were interviewed to
get their insights on migration at the policy and implementation levels. Preliminary
results of the study were presented at a stakeholders workshop.

The direct employment generated during watershed works reduced the migration
during the period of works. Further, watershed activities led to a rise of water level
in open wells, recharge of bore wells, retention of soil moisture, an increase in
cropping intensity and the availability of water and fodder for livestock. However,
there is no evidence of indirect employment generation beyond the watershed works
and 100-day national employment guarantee works. This question may have to be
explored on conclusion of watershed works in the villages.

However, the impact of watershed programme on pull migration is negligible. The
existing employment market cannot absorb the growing number of high school
educated youth. Therefore, non-farm sector, services, rural industries, etc., need to
be focussed on in addition to NRM based livelihoods. Further, provision of basic
minimum facilities such as drinking water, health care, good roads and tele-
communication facilities in rural areas has a positive effect in reducing the pull

Thus, watershed development is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for
poverty reduction. A comprehensive livelihoods enhancement intervention based on
systematic planning and assessment of existing livelihoods is needed. There is a
need to address both short term and long term needs, act on both the individual and
collective fronts, intervene at all stages of value chain, support both the backward
and forward linkages, bring in new technology and skills, and provide basic
minimum facilities in rural areas. Further appropriate institutional base to improve
their access to services should complement watershed projects.

   Rural Livelihoods and Urban Environment:
     An Assessment of Bio-fuel Programme for emerging
                         Megacity of Hyderabad
                                  Suhas P. Wani

    International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
                          Patancheru 502324 Hyderabad
                                Raghu Chaliganti
                      Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany


This Pilot Study - in cooperation with ICRISAT - is part of the Megacity Project
Hyderabad and has following objectives a) to study the policy environment and
promotion efforts towards bio-fuel in Andhra Pradesh b) map the involved
institutions and analyse their role in the implementation of the Programme and c)
conduct an Impact Assessment of the Programme on securing Rural Livelihoods,
improving Urban Environment and Energy Security.

Integrated development of bio-fuel promotion in Andhra Pradesh was initiated in
July 2005 by the Consortium led by ICRISAT with Government of Andhra Pradesh,
NOVOD and GTZ as partners. The objective of this programme is to achieve the
twin goals of a) rehabilitation of degraded waste lands and to enhance employment
generation and improve livelihoods of rural poor and b) at the same time contribute
towards self sufficiency in energy resources and towards the protection of the
Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework of Ostrom, et al., has been
used in the study to make an explorative analysis of the complex linkages between
institutional arrangements and sustainable livelihood strategise within the frame of
bio-fuel promotion activities. For the empirical evidence, the model plantation on
300 ha common property resources (revenue land) comprising Velchal and
Kothlapur villages were selected. Both primary and secondary data for the
quantitative and qualitative analysis was collected.
The bio-fuel programme could indeed contribute towards increase in employment
and income and also contributed towards food security of the poor as dry crops were
grown along with bio-fuel plants. However, though at least 100 – 130 days of
guaranteed employment could be provided, the involved poor households could not
cross the poverty line. For example, their microfinance schemes were confined at
subsistence levels to plantation and seed activities resulting in low incomes. High
income economic activities need promotion of technology, skills, as well as
improvement in infrastructure and marketing facilities. Concerning property rights
and ownership of assets by the poor, it is highly necessary that the usufrucht rights
provided are bundled with other promotion activities such as free from tax payment,
long term use guarantee, compensation rights as high pressure for land from
growing Megacity of Hyderabad exists. As active participation of the poor in the
programmes has been found very weak as well as sectoral approach exists, it is
highly necessary that village level institutions (Panchayats), NGO’s, Government
agencies, Technical and academic institutions as well as Banks and micro-finance
institutions are made partners of the overall Programme. Private-Public Partnership
can play an important role in bridging this gap and provide win-win solutions.

Most importantly, this programme has high potentialities to positively influence the
urban environment of Hyderabad city. About 3000 buses operate in the city as a
major public transport system consuming only fossil fuel and thus being one of the
major pollution sources. Close studies of the trials run by the Road Transport
Corporation of Hyderabad for six months with 20% bio-fuel mix have shown very
positive results. Even in a conventional diesel engine, the use of bio-diesel of 20%
has resulted in reduction of Carbon-dioxide (CO2) from 0.563 to 0.211 %, where as
that of Nitrogen-oxide (NO2) and particulate matter from 0.56 to 0.42% and the
aggregate smoke emission could be reduced by 30%. The perspective shows, that 1
ton of bio-diesel produced or consumed avoids emission of green house gases,
equivalent to 3 tonnes of CO2. There is also a high scope to integrate carbon credit
programme of international agencies as there is no net addition of CO2 to
atmosphere due to bio-diesel use.
Further, the study could establish that energy security can be achieved at the village
level through electricity production, water pumping and motive power for
agricultural operations and micro-enterprises. This underlines once again the
potentialities of the link between rural livelihoods, energy security and urban
environment and calls for concrete long term comprehensive policies, activities and
action plans focussing on institutional innovation and improved governance

               Transport Model for a Sustainable Hyderabad
                       The Transport Study Team
Executive Summary
This Pilot Project was carried out as a part of preparatory phase for the development
of work packages in Traffic and Transport sector in the overall project of planning
for sustainable Hyderabad as a Megacity. The work was accomplished under the
scope of an Memorandum of Understanding between ESCI, Hyderabad and PTV
Germany dt. 21st July, 2006. The team that has carried out the study comprises of
partners from Indian and German Side.
Sustainable transportation planning aims at providing a safe, environmental friendly,
cost effective and equitable transportation system. Hyderabad is fast emerging as a
Megacity with already more than 5 million inhabitants and a complexity of traffic
and transportation problems exist in the metropolitan area. The sustainable planning
needs a comprehensive approach towards understanding the system characteristics
and capabilities, needs of the people and their travel patterns and the deficiencies in
the system that need to be addressed over different time frames such as short term,
mid term and long term.
The study is launched with the review of the existing data connected with traffic and
transportation planning for the city of Hyderabad. The results of studies conducted
earlier like HATS, DBHATS II and others from Municipal Corporation of
Hyderabad (MCH), Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) etc., were
reviewed. The stakeholders in the system who are responsible and accountable for
providing transportation services were identified and their capabilities and
limitations were analysed as part of the pilot project.
    In order to appreciate and to understand the recent changes in the travel behaviour of
    people, a field study of traffic volume counts was carried out at 15 selected locations
    spread all over the urban area. The collected data were validated against the historic
    data available and the analysis has clearly indicated the following:
         The travel demand in the peripheral areas of Hyderabad has increased
         The mode choice behaviour of the people has changed a lot which is indicated
    by significant increase in four wheeler and two wheeler composition and decline in
    human powered bicycle component.
         The interaction between the newly developed fringe areas with core area is
    increasing as indicated by large peak hour volumes in the links in outer areas.
         The public transportation system is not able to meet the travel needs of the
    people indicated by the growth of personal modes.
    The field study carried out and the analysis of the data clearly indicates a need for an
    exhaustive and comprehensive transportation study and a comprehensive computer
    based transport model for the entire Hyderabad Metropolitan region that can help in
    better network building, improved public transportation facilities and evolution of
    strategies for a sustainable growth of the city that can improve the quality of life of
    the urban community, as far as transport needs are concerned.
Project Study Team

Dr. S Nagabhushana Rao               Director – Engineering Staff College of India
Prof. Sudarsanam Padam               SAIL Professor - Administrative Staff College of
                                     India (ASCI)
Dr. P.R. Bhanu Murthy                Professor – JNT University College of
                                     Engineering (JNTU)
Dr. Christoph Walther               Director - PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG
Geogr. M.A. Tanja Schäfer           Consultant - PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG

                Private Public Partnership (PPP) in Hyderabad:
 A Feasibility Study on proposed PPP on Renewable Compressed Natural Gas
                 (CNG) Production from Sewerage Treatment

                              The PPP Study Team


In an increasingly competitive global environment, with ever-increasing
responsibilities, Governments around the world are now focusing on new ways to
finance the various projects, especially in the infrastructure (including energy) and
service delivery sectors. The importance of a greater interface between the public
sector and private agencies has been felt, and this realisation has led to the forging of
an alliance between the public and private sectors and Public-private partnerships
(PPP's or P3's) are becoming a common tool to bring together the strengths of both
these sectors. In addition to maximizing efficiencies and innovations of private
enterprise, PPP's can also provide the much-needed capital to finance government
programs and projects, thereby freeing public funds for core economic and social
The Government of India's liberalisation and economic reform programmes, aimed
at rapid and substantial economic growth, and integration with the global economy,
set into motion the need for a change in the policy, vis-à-vis the role of government
as the sole 'provider', with the private sector kept out of the developmental process.
In this framework, Government of Andhra Pradesh became one of the first state
government to enact legislations to this effect - involving the private sector in
development. With its 'Infrastructure Development Enabling Act' - (IDEA), Andhra
Pradesh, the fifth largest economy in the country, changed the face of the Social,
Access, Industrial and IT infrastructure, along with Power and Special Economic
Zones (SEZs).

One of the PPP Projects in the pipe line is the Production of Renewable CNG in
Hyderabad, which will be dealt in detail in this study. As is known, Methane is the
highly inflammable component of natural gas, which is a non-renewable fossil fuel.
Compressed natural gas (or CNG) is generally used as domestic, industrial, and
vehicular fuel. Carbon dioxide, which is generated when fossil fuels are burnt, is
used in many food and industrial applications, e.g., soda water, aerated drinks,
welding, steel annealing and rolling, etc.

India currently imports most of its fossil fuels from the Middle East. This is
transported to Indian ports in super-tankers, and then distributed to various parts of
the country by long-distance pipelines and road and rail tankers. Consumers of
natural gas in Delhi, for example, get supplies through the HVJ (Hazira-Vijaipur-
Jagdishpur) Pipeline. However, transportation and taxes increases the cost of the gas
by 5-6 times.

Methane and carbon dioxide are also generated when plant and animal waste decay.
These ‘biogases’ contain 50-70% methane and 30-40% carbon dioxide. Biogases are
generally concentrated in municipal land-fill sites and in sewage treatment plants. At
present, these gases are either flared or vented-off into the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide is a “Green House Gas’ (or GHG), which contributes to Global
Warming. Methane is also a GHG – only one that has twenty-one times the Global
        Warming potential of carbon dioxide. At present, the burning of fossil fuels and the
        venting of biogases into the atmosphere are both contributing to Global Warming.

        Several commercial industrial processes can separate the methane and carbon
        dioxide found in biogases. Modern technology can yield methane concentrations of
        over 97%, which is better than that found in commercially available natural gas. The
        process can also produce carbon dioxide, which has purity levels of over 99%. This
        is ideal for industrial applications such as welding and steel annealing.

        Increased use of methane (and carbon dioxide) found in biogas can substantially
        decrease fossil fuel consumption – thus lowering overall GHG emissions and
        slowing Global Warming. In addition, since biogases are formed during the
        treatment and disposal of organic waste (e.g., sewage treatment operations), methane
        and carbon dioxide can be obtained close to sizable human populations.

        The case study in this report could successfully establish the feasibility of extracting
        methane and carbon dioxide from the sewage gases likely to be produced during
        sewage treatment operations at the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply &
        Sewage Board’s sewage treatment plants being set-up presently in Amberpet and
        Nagole in Hyderabad. A close cooperation between Indian and German Institutions
        in the framework of Megacity Project Hyderabad for Capacity Building is planned.

The PPP Study Team:


                                      Rama Seshu

                                      Shashi Kumar

                                      Vinod Iyengar

                                      Vittal Gudavalli

                                      Usha Gour

                                      Saibal Guha
CII   Saugat Mukherjee

      K.P. Singh
      Wed-Thurs discussion on cross-cutting links among project components

Center for Sustainable Agriculture
Getting villages to go without pesticide (not GM), higher net incomes to farmers, aiming
       for 1% of AP
Run through local women’s self-help groups (SHG), federated at mandal level, extension
       agents are paid by SHGs, accountable to them
Linking to markets, getting bulking, local processing, weekly farmers’ market for
       vegetables, more of money goes to farmers or village economy
Also thinking of franchising or brand image for specialized products, trying to ensure
       good food with less seasonal fluctuations (need to coordinate planting, etc.),
2 grades—organic vs. pesticide-free
Organic market chain is well established, premium, they don’t want to get in to that
Now mostly manufacturers set standards. If they don’t ask for premium, but just let
       people try on quality, they will come back. “Know your Food” campaign on
       source of food and kind of food, how it influences rural economy. They feel
       policy changes come from pressure groups in urban areas, not rural (Ramesh
Changal Reddy, Federation of Indian Farmers, has some good people, but set up and
       driven by Council of Indian Industry, town dealers, lots of interests
As foodmiles (distance food travels) increases, need more bulking and middlemen
They are also looking into consumer cooperatives for those who think farmers should get
       paid, don’t mind paying a bit more for good quality food
They started with mapping villages in catchment of water bodies for Hyderabad, but too
       hard to trace out residues, needs more sophisticated study because mixed with
       other water, and Hussein Sagar catchment is all real estate, distance to cultivation
       of vegetables are increasing
Vegetables from Musi sludge going to Hyderabad
Floriculture using huge pesticides
They feel that hormonal activity of pesticides and poultry, milk contributes to diabetes

Upstream bioconservation zone in catchment—Himansagar SW under GO 011, but real
       estate development taking place, also 70KM E of the 2 lakes
Stop industrial liquid release in mid-stream
Downstream sewage problem

Changes at individual consumer level, some at farmer level, some at policy level

Lake restoration of more water bodies will decentralize access to water bodies, everyone
       doesn’t need to come to Hussein Sagar. What FORUM means by beautification is
       not necessarily fancy lawns, but can swim, this takes empowered water body
       committee for enforcement (vigilance committee)

Eco-clubs, national youth clubs for schools linked to national Pollution Control Board,
       doing awareness of Ganesh festival, make small idols to immerse at home level,
       any public immersion should be from civil society processions, collective, not
Livelihood aspect: lots of families depend on making Ganesh idols, grown to big level
       last 15 years, need to work on them from beginning, alternatives that will give
       them income

Migration: IGWP (indo-german watershed program): watershed is not enough to stop
        migration, needs to be linked to better agriculture, profitability overall
Apart from distress migration, there is desire to get out of agriculture, education makes
        people want to get out of ag. Rural areas not enough to accommodate even
        existing, so need value addition in rural
Rural areas: farming unprofitable, health (500 people in Warangal died of pesticide, plus
        chronic cases, health costs, no access to public medical facilities), want regular
        monthly income, not fluctuating ag incomes with seasonal income
Industrialization displaced people from several occupations (pottery, chappals, weaving)
        so those people moved into agriculture, now can’t absorb them. Pull of
        construction in Hyderabad will only support them next 5 years, other industries
        not labor-intensive. How can you prevent slums, encroachment, traffic problems
        if all come into Hyderabad.
Non-distress migrants put pressure on services, squeeze the people already in the city
Minor towns have deteriorated, all going to Hyderabad, villages even worse
Hyd getting electricity, water when villages don’t

Betterment of ag is seen in different ways: better prices or irrigation or less chemicals,
       more opportunities at village levels (processing units, e.g. oils)

Water: around Hyderabad, people move out because no water, or fluorosis
Education and health facilities better in Hyderabad

Still, can we do anything on distress migration? Would need to study the extent of
         distress migration, then what could be done to stem that, and what is cost, what
         kinds of support needed for villages—what are profitable rural livelihoods
Policy options: now lots of pull factors with better facilities, need to discourage that,
         build up other magnets (dispersed industries, other livelihoods)
People in Hyderabad go back to villages for festivals, still have roots
Look at reverse resource flows?
1 million people come into city and go home every day—floating population

Our focus is on distress migration, those who want to stay back and make it possible for
       them to stay back.

“Krishna water guaranteed” 50 KM from water is encouraging real estate expansion,
         forceful evictions, lots of layouts, pvt armies,
uncertainty if people don’t inspect every day, conflicts may increase, basic land records
         taken out to Xerox, records damaged, lots of gaps in land revenue system
Land rights and tenure—livelihoods issues important in a work package for rural-urban
Lots of tenant farming, but can’t get services because no llords willing to give it in
         writing, no compensations
If ag is sustainable, then off-farm and nonfarm linkages, e.g. small enterprises for
         pesticide alternatives, stop money flowing out of villages, e.g. for seeds
Framing the project:
Musi river from catchment on through, linking production through to consumers
Transect of Musi, different zones with different sets of problems to be addressed
Link through the Musi, link production to consumption (NRM to food system
       components), link research to action to communication, e.g. study of pesticide
Land rights advocacy in Musi and outlying
Migration isn’t limited to Musi catchments
Forum has data on livelihoods along Musi—lots

Christian: not building networks, but building fabrics—more interwoven, less depending
        on single strands that can break
Most megacity projects miss links between NRM and city plans. Scope for identifying
        ecologically sensitive areas within the city zones, but lots of pressure on them—
        services of natural system in terms of the economics
Contribution of informal economy to livelihoods, services, losses of that when slums
        cleared, poor moved out of city (highly organized, but not regulated)
               Rural-urban     NRM          Food           Coops/         Transport     Communicati      Public
                                            systems &      associations                 on               Private
                                            nutrition                                                    partnership
Rural-urban                    Distress     Water          Link farmer    Foodmiles     Tenurial
                               migration,   sharing,       and            —             rights, land
                               land         food chain,    consumer       transport     use &
                               tenure &     rural          coops          of food to    consequences
                               conversion   livelihoods                   cities,       , advocacy
                               , water      feeding                       services,     (disseminatio
                               sharing      city                          floating      n of info on
                                                                          pop           rights)
NRM            Water                        Food           Link farmer    Biodiesel     Consumer
               sharing,                     safelyt:       and            into public   awareness of
               pesticides                   tracing        consumer       transport     pesticide,
                                            links of       coops,
                                            pesticides,    Neighborho
                                            sewage,        od
                                            industrial     Association
                                            chemicals,     s of lakes,
                                            urban ag,      SHGs on
                                            milk into      lakes
                                            food chain,
                                            of food)
Food systems   Food            Water                       Food           Transporti    Awareness
               production      quality                     availability   ng food,      campaigns—
               links to        impact on                   &              mobility &    food values,
               city—where      disease,                    consumptio     where they    caring
               does it come                                n              buy           practices,
               from?                                                                    link to
Coops          Linking                      Consumpti                                   Networking       PDS
               farmers’                     on patterns,                                betw small       through
               coops to                     effects of                                  retailers        coops,
               consumer                     coops on                                    within city,     franchise
               coops                        nutrition,                                  ICTs for mkt     model to
                                            purchasing                                  info             link to
                                            power,                                                       corp.
                                            effect of                                                    retailers
                                            retailing on
Transport      Design          Public       Goods          (may                         Traffic          (Infrstructu
               optimal         transport    transport      consider                     management       re creation-
               infrastructur   to reduce                   paratranspor                 on local scale   - dream,
               e for           emissions,                  t                            requires         not focus
               linkages,       less land                   association)                 public           of this
               diff modes      for roads                                                awareness        phase)
               on to reduce
               pressure on
Communicati    Tarnaka for     Tarnaka      Tarnaka        Tarnaka        Film on
on             rural           takes up     consumer       Residents’     transport,
               welfare—        lake         coops          Welfare        sidewalk
               invite farmer   issues,                     Association    campaign
               coop            film on
Public                         E-waste      (mid-day
Private                 manageme   meals—
partnerships            nt in      next
                        informal   phase?)

Governance is a cross-cutting component—something to consider in every work package
United Federation of Resident Welfare Association: Every CSO needs to create
       legitimacy, credibility based on what they do, to get recognition from HUDA

New Food Act will have impact on street vendors—deals with food quality, safety
       (federal govt)—need to look at how this carries through

COOPs: Cova, coop devt dept are main partners
   Franchising model—profitability, look at highly organized retail structures, best
     practices, management structures, in-depth studies on each by MS and PhD
   Women’s coops, small businesses, knowledge center with internet center, training
   Develop social rating index to show impact of being a member, owning a
     business, look at changing behavior of men, status of women, empowerment
   Rural-urban linkage of coops, study milling politics (CSA has study of rice value

   Internal (home page with internal part for exchange of project documents, need
     project office for communication with Hyderabad partners)
   External: case studies
         o films, show to relevant groups, start participative planning processes on
             small scale on traffic, Musi)
         o Tarnaka ward Welfare Association –attend activities, analyze them for
             theoretical background on how communication, participation can work on
             community level, provide them with knowledge on how to work with
             other welfare associations, community radio
         o Building networks, experiences of communication, participation in AP and
             national, collect those studies and make accessible
         o Improve web page, wiki
   Dissemination—now that is a different WP from communication, but want to start
     this now, get into processes of policy
  For now, link between communication WP and other components not clear—
  coordination is always #1 problem in complicated projects
  How do they choose what to work on? Chosen randomly

    Nagel: 4 levels of communication: within the WP, among WP, at local level,
    dissemination (outreach)
    Need to be clear about who within project is doing each
    Service function and research function of communication component

    Traffic study has GIS-based model, can add other layers, e.g. on water
    Will be doing big survey on demand, combine with supply model
    Web-based, so multiple users can have access to different areas—can get results on
    particular queries without getting in to whole model
   Diff stakeholders are doing their own work without coordination, not integrated, but
   this will integrate

   Rural Urban Linkages
   Land Tenure: land rights advisory
   Water transfers/water sharing
   Migration: focus on distress migration, better rural livelihoods
       CSA to work on producer coops—link to consumer coops

   Nagel: Need unifying theme. For rural-urban links, could focus on food safety
   Ramesh: focusing on periurban areas, which are under serious transition, lot of info is
   already there
   Processes are important, give knowledge that are transferable to other cities
   Nagel: but need to be clear about what knowledge is there, what processes will be the
   focus, what value we are adding.

   NRM Musi as unifying theme
   “Upstream” pesticide reduction
   Midstream: build on Forum work on Musi, water quality, livelihoods
   Lakes: institutional and technical options for restoration

   Partners: CSA, Forum, CESS, U of Hyderabad

   Components: Research, Action, Communication/advocacy

   Main links:
   1) water quality—food and water safety
   2) rural-urban coop links
   3) Lakes-neighborhoods
   4) Communication on water and food quality

   PPP: scope for nutrition (water supply, fortification)
   Green technology for corporate social responsibility—GTZ project already running
   on that

Fields of action        Natural           Food,            Transport        Rural-urban
(problems)/             resources/        Nutrition,                        Linkages
Who and How (forms      Environoment      Health
of intervention)
       Government
       Civil society
     (NGOs, resident
     Cooperatives
     PPP
   This approach solves problem of inconsistency in work packages
   Keep the matrix of cross-theme linkages, but then use this matrix to distinguish
   between themes and delivery mechanisms

   Could also do a matrix of organizations involved in different themes
   Broad objectives:
        Efficiency
        Improvement of life condition
        Fighting poverty
        Participation
        Empowerment
        Health
        Nutrition
   Hyderabad is growing, but how to make that less painful for common man. What are
   the key processes that you need to impact to do that. Starting point of all is “common
   Need to introduce:
        High tech
        Power inequality
        (something)
        Conflict resolution

Forum’s involvement:
    Catchment study of land use in and out of bioconservation zone
    Study institutions of pollution water quality
    Livelihoods
    Tenurial rights, advocacy
Communication in study area and action area

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