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					Political Philosophy
        Plato
            Common Good
   Plato believed that people were at
    their best when they acted in the
    common good or all in society.
   The goal of people should be
    virtuous.
   The quest of people should be to
    grow and attain a supreme morality.
             Common Good
   Argued material possessions provide
    a distraction from people achieving a
    higher state.
   When all the members of a society
    strive to become virtuous they will
    put the needs of others and society
    first.
   This will create a better society for
    the person to live in and will result in
    a happier life.
   When people put themselves first it
    causes conflict within society.
   They compete and stop caring about
    the common good.
   This leads to the downfall of society.
          Who should Lead?
   Plato believed that society should be
    split into three classes.
   Philosopher Rulers, Guardians, and
    Producers (artisans)
   “The quality of human life can be
    improved if people learn to be
    rational and understand that their
    real interests lie in harmonious
    cooperation with one another, and
    not in war or partisan strife.”
           Who Should Lead
   Philosopher rulers should be the
    leaders of society.
   Normal people are corrupt and self
    serving and only better themselves
    to gain more power.
   Philosophers get power from
    searching for the truth and bettering
    themselves morally and
    educationally.
   Riches do not matter to them.
   They would be identified in schools
    and removed from their families.
   Would not have families or Land as
    these would cause them to care
    more about personal issues rather
    than the state.
   Philosophers enjoy respect and
    leisure.
             Guardian Class
   This group is the protectors of the
    state.
   They enjoy the physical aspects of
    life.
   Get honour and worth from
    protecting the city and other military
    honours.
   They have little interest in leisure or
    wealth, they want status and
    reputation.
   Producers are artists, business
    people.
   They enjoy wealth and producing
    goods.
   They have families, and possessions
    but have no desire to rule or attain
    honour or knowledge unless it
    benefits their business.
   The three groups work for the
    mutually benefit of each other in
    harmony.
   Each class is working in the things
    they are best at.
   All interests will be served.
   Society is organized for the common
    good.
                Aristotle
   364-362 BCE
   Student of Plato’s Academy
   Agreed with Plato’s theory that the
    most just rulers rule for the common
    good of all.
   Sent his students all over the world
    to discover the types of governments
    used.
                 Aristotle
   Defined three categories of
    governments
   Rule by the one, Rule by the few,
    Rule by the many.
   Correct regimes rule for the benefit
    of all, corrupt regimes rule for the
    benefit of themselves.
   Deviations of the correct regimes.
   Correct regimes are Monarchy (ruled
    by the one), Aristocracy (rule by the
    few), Polity (rule by the many).
   Corrupt are Tyranny (rule by one),
    Oligarchy (rule by the few),
    Democracy (rule by the many).
    Why Democracy was Corrupt
   Aristotle also ranked the regime
   Monarchy was the best, Aristocracy,
    Polity, Democracy, Oligarchy,
    Tyranny (the worst)
   During this time women, slaves, and
    Manual labourers were not
    considered citizens.
    Why Democracy was Corrupt
   They existed for the common good of
    the citizens so they could have a
    privileged life.
   In places with democracy there are
    two groups:
   The few rich and the many poor.
   These two groups are always in
    conflict.
    Why Democracy was Corrupt
   Because of this conflict people who
    are not virtuous are free to take
    power.
   There are more people in Plato’s
    producer class and therefore they
    will get more votes.
   The producers will always outnumber
    the most virtuous groups.
               Machiavelli
   Author of The Prince
   First to separate politics and ethics
   Believed good politics is politics that
    succeeds.
   Good or bad does not matter as long
    as you win.
               Machiavelli
   He argued that it didn’t matter if a
    ruler was ethical or good as long as
    the people believed he was good.
   Leaders should wear a mask and
    create an image to convince or fool
    the public.
   They should do whatever it takes to
    gain power including lie.
               Machiavelli
   Machiavelli stated that it would be
    best to be both loved and feared. But
    since the two rarely come together,
    anyone compelled to choose will find
    greater security in being feared than
    in being loved.
      Divisions of Government
   Modern Governments consist of
    three branches of government.
   Executive
   Legislative
   Judicial
               Executive
   Executive is composed of elected
    individuals and chosen by the Leader
    to act as their advisors.
   In Canada this would be the PM and
    all of the Ministers i.e minister of
    Education, Health, Defence etc.
              Legislative
   Voted into power during elections
    and usually belong to a political
    Party.
   This branch makes and approves
    laws and bills.
   In democracies they approve actions
    created by the leader of the
    executive.
   These are the Members of Parliament
    in Canada.
            Judicial Branch
   Composed of Courts
   Usually appointed by executive
   Ensures the constitution is followed
   This includes Charter of Rights and
    Freedoms cases.
Types of Government Authority
   Traditional – Leaders are chosen by
    hereditary. Family usually
    associated with being divine.
   Usually Monarchy
             Legal Authority
   Governments are also formed but have to
    abide by rules or a constitution.
   They must follow previously established
    rules such as term lengths, elections.
   The Canadian Charter of Rights and
    Freedoms limits government powers.
   Agreement between the Government and
    the people.
          Autocratic Authority
   This is a government achieved by the
    use of force.
   Ideological or religious beliefs form
    the basis of support.
   Usually have to be supported
    through military and the elite.
   Laws are imposed from above.
Autocratic Authority
    Political Leadership and Change
   There are many ways leadership
    changes in society.
   Elections
   Hereditary and Designated
    Succession
   Coups d’Etat
                Elections
   Most orderly way of having
    leadership change.
   Most modern systems have one
    person one vote.
   Uses the party system
   Everyone that is a citizen may run
    for office
          Fraud in Elections
   Throughout history there have been
    limits to true democracy.
   Literacy tests used as a way to keep
    African Americans from voting. (it
    was illegal for them to be taught to
    read)
   Women were not given the vote in
    Can until 1919.
   Threats at the polls
   2000 U.S Elections between Gore
    and G W Bush so close
   had to be determined by the
    supreme court
   Came down to state of Florida where
    Bush’s Brother was governor.
   Led to many protests
       Hereditary and Designated
              Succession
   Used in Monarchical Systems
    tradition or cultural rule determines
    next leader.
   Rulers are believed to be gods or
    chosen by god
   Leadership usually given to oldest
    son.
       Hereditary and Designated
              Succession
   Autocratic authority
    governments designate
    successors
   Fidel Castro handed over
    power of his country to his
    brother Raul
   Kim Il Sung gave power to
    his son Kim Jong-Il. North
    Korea had to mourn the
    father’s death for three
    years.
             Coup D’Etat
   Means “blow against the state”
   Overthrows an existing government
    to establish an autocratic
    government
   Usually involves violence.
               Coup D’Etat
   Takes place quickly
    supported by a
    military.
   Fidel Castro and
    Che Guevara in
    Cuba.
Political and Social
     Ideologies
   Political Ideology is an organised
    collection of ideas and values that
    describes a political system,
    movement or way of thinking.
   Political Spectrum An imaginary
    scale that places your opinions in
    regards to Left wing, Center, Right
    wing.
              Political Spectrum

Communism       NDP                             Capitalism
                      Liberal    Conservatism




                                                Right Wing
  Left Wing
                            Centrist
   Social Spectrum – aims to measure
    human rights and other societal
    issues.
   Scale goes from Libertarianism to
    Authoritarianism.
   Libertarianism – belief in total
    individual freedom without rules.
   Authoritarianism belief that
    individuals have a duty to follow
    established rules.
              Conservatism
   Believe that traditional values are
    the building blocks of society.
   Traditional institutions hold society
    together and puts people in orderly
    roles.
   Traditional family          - Religion
   Role of women           - Immigration
   Crime                   - Social issues
   Traditional family – Same sex
    marriage
   Role of Women – were against
    women working as threat to family
   Religion – abortion, euthanasia laws
   Immigration – other cultures moving
    to Canada threaten the stability of
    society
   Others should assimilate to our
    culture.
   Criminals should be punished
    severely
         Social Responsibility
   Conservative stresses individual
    responsibility
   “gov’t should act as a police officer
    but not a babysitter.”
   If adults make bad decisions they
    should look to themselves not gov’t
    for help
   No gov’t intervention
   Gov’t should stay out of the economy
    and people’s lives.
   Oppose social programs like welfare,
    EI, taxes, gov’t health care, gov’t
    schooling.

   What issues would challenge these
    traditional values and what would be
    the conservative response?
   Traditional family         - Religion
   Role of women          - Immigration
   Crime - Social issues (poverty, etc)
   Liberalism
Evolution of Liberalism
          Classic Liberalism
   Developed in Europe in the 18th
    century
   Encouraged analysis of traditional
    ideas and structures, institutions.
   Church, authority, Police powers etc.
   Distrust of state power ( rulers,
    monachs chosen by God)
           Classic Liberalism
           Gov’t involvement
   Least government involvement in
    society.
   Based on individual freedoms
   Government should not be involved
    in the lives of people
   Few laws, limited police powers
   No economic involvement.
         Evolution of Liberalism
             Utilitarianism
   Utilitarianism created by John Stuart
    Mills and Jeremy Bentham.
   Ethics - A good or ethical action is
    measured by the amount of people it
    helps.
   Governments can be involved as long
    as its actions help more people than
    it hurts.
         Evolution of Liberalism
          Modern Liberalism
   Modern Liberalism is a combination
    of Classic and Utilitarianism
   Emphasizes individual rights
   freedom of choice and dignity of
    people
   Freedom of individual expression
          Modern Liberalism
   Liberals view people as essentially
    good
   Strict rules are unnecessary as
    people will learn from their mistakes
   Supports new ideas, especially those
    that promote equality.
   Ex. Support Same Sex marriage
    because it promotes equality.
          Modern Liberalism
   Government should provide
    opportunities for women, minority
    groups, poor.
   Believe human history as the
    development of progressive reforms
    such as the abolishment of slavery,
    equal rights for women.
Types of Government
               Democracy
            Direct Democracy
   Direct Democracy – first practiced in
    Athens.
   Native-born Free Men over 18
    involved in decisions
   Thousands would gather in a forum
    and discuss issues.
   At the end of discussions a vote
    happened, majority ruled.
             Democracy
      Representative Democracy
   Decisions affecting the public are
    made by elected representatives.
   Elections are usually mandated every
    so many years.
   Allows many people to have their say
    without being present.
              Democracy
       Representative Democracy
   Two forms are the Constitutional
    Monarchy and the Republic.
   Constitutional Monarchy usually has
    a hereditary ceremonial head of
    state.
   Elected officials run the government
    according to the constitution.
   Britain, Canada, Netherlands
             Democracy
      Representative Democracy
   In republics the people elect the
    head of state.
   The head of state and the head of
    government might be the same
    person as in the U.S.
   Or two separate groups. France has
    a head of state President and a head
    of government Prime Minister.
               Democracy
                3 stages
   Partial democracies have some
    elements of Democracy.
   Emerging Democracy are trying to
    become Full democracy.
   Full Democracy has a constitution
    that guarantees equality of rights
    and freedoms.
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     1
   Ensures majority rule while
    protecting minority rights.
   Agree to govern by the constitution
    or Charter.
   For example Language rights of
    French Canadians are guaranteed.
    U.S Civil Rights Act, Voters Rights
    Act.
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     2
   Full Democracies ensure the Rule of
    Law.
   This means that no one is above the
    Law and the law is applied equally.
   Applies to government officials as
    well.
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     3
   Ensures a choice of parties
   Recognizes free and fair elections
    and responds to wishes of electorate.
   Citizens may join or form their own
    parties or can join interest groups
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     4
   Independent Judiciary – acts as a check to
    the power of government.
   Can test laws passed by the government
    and declare it unconstitutional.
   The Canadian Supreme Court practiced
    this when government made abortions
    illegal. (R.v. Morgentaler)
    2003 Halpern v. Attourney General
    granted full marriage rights to all
    Canadians
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     5
   Government has full control over its
    military and police.
   U.S. President had to relieve General
    Macarthur of his duties in Korea for
    threatening China.
   Ipperwash 1995 Ontario Police officer
    shot and killed Dudley George during
    a peaceful protest and was found
    guilty of negligence.
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     6
   Full Democracies are open to change
    from its citizens.
   Divorce, Lesbian and Gay rights,
    abortion laws are all advancements
    made in the late 20th century.
      Indicators of Full Democracy
                     7
   Full Democracies allow for freedom
    of information and freedom of the
    press, expression and religion.
   Laws for access to government
    documents.
   Freedom of the press to ask
    questions without fear of arrest.
   Freedom of expression allows.
      Limits to Full Democracy
1.   Money – traditionally mostly rich
     and educated vote and be elected.
     Poor and uneducated tend not to
     vote.
    In the U.S donations are
     unregulated, last campaign cost
     Obama 234 million.
    In Canada we have regulations
     where a corporation may only
     donate 1000.
    Limits to Full Democracy
2. Lobby and Interest groups
 This groups promise large donations
  and support in exchange for favours
  once in office.
 Examples good be oil companies not
  having to increase safety or
  environmental protections. Lower
  taxes.

         Limits to Democracy
3.   Electoral systems
    In many countries people do not
     vote. Only 59% in last Canadian
     election. 41% of the people are not
     heard.
    Leaders can form government
     without the majority of support.
    This means more people disagree
     with the leader than agree.
       Limits to Democracy
4. Inability to protect minority groups.
  With majority rule minority rights
   may be overlooked or ignored.
  If the majority supports
   discrimination then those practices
   may be allowed.
Ex. 1942 Canada interned 22,000
   Japanese Canadians
5. Democratic Rights Fail in
  Emergencies.
 Anti Terrorism Act, Public safety act,

  Patriot act are all believed to limit
  rights after 9/11.
 Germany after the Reichstag
  burning.
Dictatorships
     Left
              Dictatorship
   Form of government in which one
    person or small group holds absolute
    power.
   Not held accountable to their
    citizens.
   Originated in Rome and was only to
    be used in Emergency situations for
    6 months.
   In 44 BCE Caesar removed the 6
    month limit and all limits to his
   In 20th century left wing dictatorships
    arose in USSR, People’s republic of
    China, Cuba, Vietnam, Cambodia.
   Right Wing dictatorships arose in
    Italy, Germany, Spain, Argentina and
    South Korea.
     People’s Republic of China
   1927 after the Manchu Dynasty
    collapsed China fell into a civil war.
   U.S supported Kuomintang party
    fought against the Chinese
    Communist party led by Mao
    Zedong.
    Conflict paused during WW2 as
    China is invaded by Japan.
   After the war the conflict resumes.
   Communist seize control
   Kuomintang goes to Taiwan while
    claiming to still rule China.
   US supports this claim and refused to
    acknowledge Mao.
                 Maoism
   Mao redistributed land to all the poor
    peasants.
   All agricultural and industrial
    production was nationalised, owned
    by the country.
   Started the Great Leap Forward
    Program which merged all land and
    families into Communes.
   When Production failed and people
    began to starve Mao encouraged his
    citizens to “let a hundred flowers
    (ideas) bloom” and come up with
    solutions.
   The flowers turned out to be forcing
    Mao to step down.
   Mao jailed executed and banished
    these people to labour camps.
   Mao became a cult like figure. Sent
    a “Red Book” of his famous quotes to
    millions in Society including schools.
   Mao recruited millions of students
    and formed the Red Guard.
   They would look for opposition and
    kill, beat or imprison them.
   “Politics is war without bloodshed,
    while war is politics with bloodshed”
   Mao dies in 1976
   Deng Xiaoping becomes leader.
   Focuses on modernizing economy
    allows market economy along side
    communism.
                Deng
     One Family, One Child Policy
   Freedoms still limited under Deng.
   Families could only have one child to
    limit population and number of
    people to feed.
   If you obeyed you got better housing
    and salaries, defiance meant you loss
    your job.
   Females did not get paid a wage for
    work.
   Led to infanticide of female babies
                  Deng
   Political dissent was tolerated until
    1989 when the government crushed
    a student uprising wanting
    democracy.
   Led to the killing of hundreds at
    Tiananmen Square.
   This eventually led to free elections
    however the communist party still
    holds the majority of seats.
   .
          Limits to Freedoms
   No school, factory, mayor can make
    a decision without party permission
   No freedom of the Press.
   Internet is limited to mostly Chinese
    sites.
   Search engines (google) limit sites
    available to people.
Dictatorships
     Left
              Dictatorship
   Form of government in which one
    person or small group holds absolute
    power.
   Not held accountable to their
    citizens.
   Originated in Rome and was only to
    be used in Emergency situations for
    6 months.
   In 44 BCE Caesar removed the 6
    month limit and all limits to his
   In 20th century left wing dictatorships
    arose in USSR, People’s republic of
    China, Cuba, Vietnam, Cambodia.
   Right Wing dictatorships arose in
    Italy, Germany, Spain, Argentina and
    South Korea.
     People’s Republic of China
   1927 after the Manchu Dynasty
    collapsed China fell into a civil war.
   U.S supported Kuomintang party
    fought against the Chinese
    Communist party led by Mao
    Zedong.
    Conflict paused during WW2 as
    China is invaded by Japan.
   After the war the conflict resumes.
   Communist seize control
   Kuomintang goes to Taiwan while
    claiming to still rule China.
   US supports this claim and refused to
    acknowledge Mao.
                 Maoism
   Mao redistributed land to all the poor
    peasants.
   All agricultural and industrial
    production was nationalised, owned
    by the country.
   Started the Great Leap Forward
    Program which merged all land and
    families into Communes.
   When Production failed and people
    began to starve Mao encouraged his
    citizens to “let a hundred flowers
    (ideas) bloom” and come up with
    solutions.
   The flowers turned out to be forcing
    Mao to step down.
   Mao jailed executed and banished
    these people to labour camps.
   Mao became a cult like figure. Sent
    a “Red Book” of his famous quotes to
    millions in Society including schools.
   Mao recruited millions of students
    and formed the Red Guard.
   They would look for opposition and
    kill, beat or imprison them.
   “Politics is war without bloodshed,
    while war is politics with bloodshed”
   Mao dies in 1976
   Deng Xiaoping becomes leader.
   Focuses on modernizing economy
    allows market economy along side
    communism.
                Deng
     One Family, One Child Policy
   Freedoms still limited under Deng.
   Families could only have one child to
    limit population and number of
    people to feed.
   If you obeyed you got better housing
    and salaries, defiance meant you loss
    your job.
   Females did not get paid a wage for
    work.
   Led to infanticide of female babies
                  Deng
   Political dissent was tolerated until
    1989 when the government crushed
    a student uprising wanting
    democracy.
   Led to the killing of hundreds at
    Tiananmen Square.
   This eventually led to free elections
    however the communist party still
    holds the majority of seats.
   .
          Limits to Freedoms
   No school, factory, mayor can make
    a decision without party permision
   No freedom of the Press.
   Internet is limited to mostly Chinese
    sites.
   Search engines (google) limit sites
    available to people.
               Cambodia
   The golden age of Khmer civilization
    lasted from 9th to 13th centuries.
   It was called the kingdom Kambuja
    or Cambodia.
   Constantly under attack by its
    neighbours, Thailand, and Vietnam.
   1854 Monarchy asked France to help
    defend it.
   Country cam under French control
    which lasted nearly a century.
   Cambodia gained independence from
    France in 1953.
   Allowed democratic elections.
   Sihanouk takes power.
   Popular with Buddhist monks and
    rural population.
   During the cold war tried to stay
    neutral between the US and USSR.
   He allowed the Communist Vietcong
    to use his land to help supplies come
    from China.
   He accepted US aid.
   1965 during Vietnam war US kill
    Cambodians while chasing the
    Vietcong.
   Cambodia end relationship with U.S.
   U.S then Supports a coup and the
    Sihanouk government falls.
   A capitalist pro U.S government is
    installed.
   U.S begins bombing Cambodia in
    search of Communist Vietcong
    fleeing Vietnam.
   People revolt against U.S installed
    government.
   They sympathize with the
    Communist party and install the
    Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot.
   To implement communism he began
    persecuting any opposition and
    taking all private possessions.
   Many groups threatened to take
    power from Pol Pot which led to
    brutal atrocities.
   Creates enemies of his state which
    are executed, or worked and starved
    to death in forced labour camps.

      Classification of Enemies
   Anyone with connections to former
    governments.
   Professionals and intellectuals
   Anyone with glasses since it might
    mean they could read and therefore
    educated.
   Other ethnicities
   Economic saboteurs who were not
    working hard enough.
              Rural Utopia
   Pol Pot forced all residents out of
    cities as he believed this is how
    revolts are organized.
   Wanted everyone in rural areas to be
    farmers and peasants.
   It would get rid of all classes in
    society.
           Results of Pol Pot
   In four years 2 million people killed
    by the Khmer Rouge.
   Used a school in the capital Phnom
    Phen to house 1500 people at a time
    and eventually executing them.
            End of Pol Pot
   Pol Pot regime collapsed after
    Vietnam invaded in 1979,
   US helped Pol Pot fight the
    Vietnamese.
   1989 vietnam withdraws from
    Cambodia and the United Nations
    installed a government free of Khmer
    Rouge influence.
   1998 Pol Pot dies.
Oligarchy
                Oligarchy
   Plato stated that rule by the few
    could be achieved through two
    systems.
   Aristocracy and Oligarchy
   In Aristocracy the few rule for the
    common good of all.
   In Oligarchy power is used by a
    wealthy minority to oppress a
    majority of the population.
       South African Apartheid
   South Africa is rich in resources
    including diamonds and gold.
   Throughout history the Dutch and
    British oppressed the native
    populations and forced them in to
    slave labour in mines.
   This led to a group of white dutch
    settlers called Afrikaners in South
    Africa and made up 15% of
    population.
   In 1948 the Afrikaner led
    government implemented Apartheid.
   This was designed to separate the
    85% Africans and 15% Afrikaners.
   The Afrikaners are classified as a
    Oligarchy.
   African mobility, occupations, and
    social lives were tightly restricted
   Sex and marriage between races
    forbidden.
   Blacks were moved to reservations.
   85% all lived off 5% of the land.
   Land given was not farmable.

   The idea of the reserve system came
    from Canada.
   In 1960 the African National
    Congress party is banned after a
    peaceful protest led to 180 members
    being killed in Sharpeville.
   Nelson Mandela was a leading
    member in the party and is
    sentenced to life in prison.
Oligarchy
                Oligarchy
   Plato stated that rule by the few
    could be achieved through two
    systems.
   Aristocracy and Oligarchy
   In Aristocracy the few rule for the
    common good of all.
   In Oligarchy power is used by a
    wealthy minority to oppress a
    majority of the population.
       South African Apartheid
   South Africa is rich in resources
    including diamonds and gold.
   Throughout history the Dutch and
    British oppressed the native
    populations and forced them in to
    slave labour in mines.
   This led to a group of white dutch
    settlers called Afrikaners in South
    Africa and made up 15% of
    population.
   In 1948 the
    Afrikaner led
    government
    implemented
    Apartheid.
   This was
    designed to
    separate the
    85% Africans and
    15% Afrikaners.
   The Afrikaners
    are classified as
   African mobility, occupations, and
    social lives were tightly restricted
   Sex and marriage between races
    forbidden.
   Blacks were moved to reservations.
   Land given was not farmable, rural
    areas where people were forced to
    hunt and gather.
    Whites took control of all major
    urban areas
   The idea of the reserve system came
    from Canada.
   In 1960 the African National
    Congress party is banned after a
    peaceful protest led to 180 members
    killed in Sharpeville.
   Nelson Mandela was a leading
    member in the party and is
    sentenced to life in prison.
   World found out about apartheid
    in the 70s
   United Nations condemned the
    policy.
   Countries (except for US and
    Britain) refused to trade with
    South Africa.
    Government began to collapse
    and president De Clerk rewrote
    constitution to allow one person
    one vote system open to Africans
    and whites.
   1990 De Clerk orders Mandela
    released.
   The African National Congress was
    made legal again.
   Nelson Mandela was the first
    democratically elected president of
    South Africa 1994.
   South Africa transformed from
    Oligarchy to democracy.
  International
Humanitarian Law
 Geneva Conventions
         Geneva Conventions
   Made up of 4 treaties and 3
    additional protocols.
   Ratified by 194 countries
   Aim is to set a standard for
    treatment of victims of war.
   Defines rights of those captured
    during the war.
   Establishing protections for the
    wounded
   Addresses protections for the
    civilians in and around a war zone.
   Henri Dunant wrote a book (Memoir
    of Solferino) in which he proposed a
    permanent relief agency for
    humanitarian aid in times of war
   A government treaty recognizing the
    neutrality of the agency and allowing
    it to provide aid in war zones.
   This led to the Red Cross and the
    Geneva Conventions.
   Dunant became the first recipient of
    the Nobel Peace Prize.
            Basic Rules
1. Attacks must be limited to
   combatants and military targets
1.1 Civilians may not be attacked
1.2 Civilian objects (houses, hospitals,
   schools, places of worship
1.3 Using civilians to shield military
   targets is prohibited
1.4 prohibited for combatants to pose
  as civilians
1.5 Starvation of civilians as a method
  of combat is prohibited
1.6 illegal to attack objects that are
  important to survival (farms,
  drinking water
1.7 illegal to attack dams, dykes,
  nuclear power plants
              Weapons
2. Attacks or weapons which
  indiscriminately strike civilian and
  military objects and persons, and
  which cause excessive injury or
  suffering are illegal
2.1 chemical and bio weapons,
  blinding laser weapons, weapons
  that injure the body by fragments,
  poison, anti personnel land mines.
           Victims of War
3 Civilians, wounded combatants, and
  prisoners should be spared,
  protected and treated humanely.
3.1 no one shall be subjected to
  physical or mental torture or cruel or
  degrading treatment
3.2 sexual violence illegal
3.3 prisoners are entitled to respect
  and must be treated humanely
 3.6 taking hostages is illegal
 3.7 Prohibited to kill or wound an
  enemy who has surrendered
3.10 Illegal to recruit children below
  the age of 15 for any type of military
  service.
3.11 everyone is entitled to a fair trial
4. Military and civilian medical
  personnel and facilities must be
  respected and protected
4.1 illegal to attack any person vehicle
  or building that wears the red cross
  red crescent symbol
4.2 No priority is given when treating
  wounded people except on medical
  grounds.
Nationalism
                Nationalism
   Nation – a political community of people
    that shares an identity.
   May be based on ethnicity (race,
    language, culture, history, religion)
   Anthems
   Institutions (Health care, Military)
   Symbols (flags, images)
   Athletics, hobbies, pastimes ( hockey,
    olympics)
                  State
   State – geographical territory
    containing a population led by a
    government.
   European concept.
   Most states are decided on by
    nationalism.
   Sovereignty – is the right to exercise
    force in a territory and to control it
    by a government.
   Canadian Artic Sovereignty
   Free trade agreements.
   United Nations
   IHL laws
   All these challenge the idea of
    sovereignty.
                 Conflicts
   Nations exist within or without a
    state.
   Canada has a French and Aboriginal
    nation.
   Palestinians were forced to give up
    their land so that Israel could have a
    state for their nation.
Two Ideologies of State Formation
   Civic Nationalism – state is home
    to all people who believe in what the
    state stands for politically and
    morally.
   Ethnic Nationalism – Culture was
    the most important factor to defining
    a state. Language was the
    imperative part of culture
    historically.
                 Quote
   “Patriotism is when love of your
    country comes first, Nationalism,
    when hate for people other than your
    own comes first.” - - French
    President Charles de Gaulle
            Internationalism
   States do not exist in isolation
   Internationalism promotes economic
    and political cooperation.
   cooperation among states, not
    nationalistic self interest, will help
    further Plato’s common good.
                  Quote
   …it is impossible for one to be
    Internationalistic without being a
    nationalist…It is not nationalism that
    is evil, it is the narrowness,
    selfishness, exclusiveness which is
    the bane of modern nations which is
    evil.- Mahatma Gandhi
Rwanda
                 Some Info
   Population: 7,810,056
    Capital: Kigali
    Government type: Republic
    President: Paul Kagame
    Ethnicity: 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi
    Major languages: Kinyarwanda, English
    and French are official languages. Swahili
    is also used.
    Major religions: Catholic (56.5%),
    Protestant (26%), Adventist (11.1%),
    Muslim (4.6%)
                Some Info
   Life expectancy: 39.33 years
    Median age: 18.1 years
    Natural resources: Gold, tin ore,
    tungsten ore, methane
    Canadian imports from: Coffee
    ($700,000)
    Canadian exports to: Electrical
    machinery ($800,000 and worn clothing
    $100,000)
                 History
   First colonized by Germany in 1890.
   Germany forced to give it over to
    Belgium in Treaty of Versailles in
    1919.
   Natives made up of two ethnic
    groups, Tutsi and Hutu who lived
    together for 600 years.
               Hutu Tutsi
   Both groups spoke the same
    language, shared the same religion,
    and traded resources.
   Both followed the Belgian chosen
    leader and thought he was godlike.
   Intermarriages were common
    between the two.
        Differences Hutu Tutsi
   Physically the Tutsi were lighter
    skinned, thinner and taller than
    Hutus
   Hutus were shorter and stocky,
    darker skinned.
   Tutsi were cattle herders, Hutu were
    famers.
   85% of people were Hutu, 15% Tutsi
   Large Hutu Majority.
          Belgium Influence
   Belgium orders the citizens to carry
    identity cards stating who was Tutsi
    and Hutu.
   Belgium viewed the Tutsi as
    ethnically superior because they had
    lighter skin, were taller.
   Tutsi were richer since they had
    cattle.
   Gave privileged jobs and government
    positions to Tutsi.
   This angered Hutus as they were the
                Conflict
   In 1959 Rwandan Tutsi king dies and
    Belgium installs another Tutsi king.
   This angered Hutus and a violent
    revolution resulted.
   Rwanda holds an referendum and
    vote for independence from Belgium.
              Hutu Power
   1962 First Hutu, Gregoire Kayibanda,
    elected to power.
   Throughout the 60’s and 70’s Hutus
    kill and persecute Tutsi and remove
    them from powerful jobs.
   2 million Tutsi fled to Uganda,
    Congo, Tanzania.
   In 1973 military coup installs Hutu
    General Habyarimana
   He changes constitution that states
    Tutsi can only fill 9% of government
    positions.
   Tutsis in Rwanda and all neighboring
    countries from the Rwandese
    Patriotic Front (RPF) to fight for Tutsi
    rights.
   1990 RPF in all countries invade
    Rwanda.
   France and Zaire send troops to stop
    the invasion and force a cease fire in
    1991.
   Hutu Government declares Tutsis as
    enemy of the state.
   United Nations intervenes to make
    sure the cease fire is not broken.
   Mission is called United Nations
    Assistance Mission for Rwanda
               UNAMIR
   2500 troops
   370 from Canada
   400 Belgium
   800 Ghana
   Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo
    Dallaire is put in charge of the
    mission to support Arusha Accords
    cease fire.
                Ethnic Division
   President
    Habyarimana takes
    this event to create a
    Tutsi enemy threat.
   Gave him more
    support in the
    country.
   Organized massacres
    of Tutsi and opposition
    groups.
   Formed a youth militia
    called the
    Interahamwe (those
    that attack together).
   Interehamwe recruiters offered them
    food, drugs, freedom to rape, cash.
   Encouraged them to take Tutsi
    possessions.

           Hutu Power Radio
   Habyarimana also started the radio station
    RTLM also known as Hutu Power.
   Used to spread hatred and blame the Tutsi
    for all problems.
   Called them Inyenzi or “cockroaches”
   Also spread hate against UNAMIR and
    Belgium.
   In Burundi, Tutsis murdered the Hutu
    president making the Rwandans more
    frightened.
           Hutu Power Radio
   Radio announces that Tutsi should
    exterminate their neighbours and
    take their land and possessions.
   False reports of the Tutsi attacking
    Hutu in rural parts of country led by
    the RPF.
     Civilian Civil Defense Force
   Habyarimana organizes another
    militia (Civilian Civil Defense Force)
    of ordinary citizens and gives them
    clubs and machetes.
   It is now believed that France
    supplied weapons and training for
    the Interahamwe and the Civilian
    force.
               Structure
   Habyarimana then kills all local
    leaders that does not support him
    and replaces them with his own Hutu
    leaders.
   Police chiefs, Mayors, government
    employees all support killing the
    Tutsi.
   They wait for the signal from the
    Hutu power radio station.
           Dallaire’s Cables
   Dallaire captures shipments of
    weapons from France (in violation of
    Arusha Accords) destined for Hutu
    Government.
   Meets with Interahamwe informant
    “Jean Pierre” who tells of weapons
    caches throughout Rwanda.
    Dallaire sends cable
    (communication) requesting
    permission to capture weapons and
    is denied. Forced to tell
    Habyarimana what he knows.
                   Start
   April 6th 1994 President Habyarimana
    is killed when his plane is shot down.
   Colonel Bagosora takes charge and
    orders the military, Interahamwe,
    Civilian Civil Defense to begin
    extermination of the Tutsi for self
    defense.
                Strategies
   Organised to kill 1000 every 20
    minutes
   Since Rwandans were forced to
    identify, Hutus knew where they
    lived.
   Went house to house killing families.
   Local officials order militias to create
    barriers on roads to prevent Tutsis
    from leaving.

                Strategies
   Force Tutsi to go to public buildings
    (churches, schools, govt buildings)
    where they are massacred in large
    scale.
   Women were raped in exchange for
    their life.
           Belgium Deaths
   Once the killings started, Romeo
    Dallaire sent 10 Belgium
    peacekeepers to protect the Prime
    Minister Agathe uwilingiyimana
   She is killed
   Troops are captured, tortured and
    killed by the Tutsi.

              Evacuations
   France, Belgium, U.S send 2000 in
    troops and Military planes to
    evacuate its citizens in Rwanda, and
    leave.
   Belgium removed its troops after the
    deaths.
   Dallaire was left with 270 troops
    from Canada and Ghana.
   UN ordered Dallaire to leave, he
    denied the order.
           End of Genocide
   The genocide came to an end after
    the RPF invaded once again.
   Estimated 800,000 Tutsi and Hutu
    killed in 100 days.
   RPF capture Kigali and form an
    interim government composed of
    Tutsi and Hutu.

				
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