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Political Philosophy Plato Common Good Plato believed that people were at their best when they acted in the common good or all in society. The goal of people should be virtuous. The quest of people should be to grow and attain a supreme morality. Common Good Argued material possessions provide a distraction from people achieving a higher state. When all the members of a society strive to become virtuous they will put the needs of others and society first. This will create a better society for the person to live in and will result in a happier life. When people put themselves first it causes conflict within society. They compete and stop caring about the common good. This leads to the downfall of society. Who should Lead? Plato believed that society should be split into three classes. Philosopher Rulers, Guardians, and Producers (artisans) “The quality of human life can be improved if people learn to be rational and understand that their real interests lie in harmonious cooperation with one another, and not in war or partisan strife.” Who Should Lead Philosopher rulers should be the leaders of society. Normal people are corrupt and self serving and only better themselves to gain more power. Philosophers get power from searching for the truth and bettering themselves morally and educationally. Riches do not matter to them. They would be identified in schools and removed from their families. Would not have families or Land as these would cause them to care more about personal issues rather than the state. Philosophers enjoy respect and leisure. Guardian Class This group is the protectors of the state. They enjoy the physical aspects of life. Get honour and worth from protecting the city and other military honours. They have little interest in leisure or wealth, they want status and reputation. Producers are artists, business people. They enjoy wealth and producing goods. They have families, and possessions but have no desire to rule or attain honour or knowledge unless it benefits their business. The three groups work for the mutually benefit of each other in harmony. Each class is working in the things they are best at. All interests will be served. Society is organized for the common good. Aristotle 364-362 BCE Student of Plato’s Academy Agreed with Plato’s theory that the most just rulers rule for the common good of all. Sent his students all over the world to discover the types of governments used. Aristotle Defined three categories of governments Rule by the one, Rule by the few, Rule by the many. Correct regimes rule for the benefit of all, corrupt regimes rule for the benefit of themselves. Deviations of the correct regimes. Correct regimes are Monarchy (ruled by the one), Aristocracy (rule by the few), Polity (rule by the many). Corrupt are Tyranny (rule by one), Oligarchy (rule by the few), Democracy (rule by the many). Why Democracy was Corrupt Aristotle also ranked the regime Monarchy was the best, Aristocracy, Polity, Democracy, Oligarchy, Tyranny (the worst) During this time women, slaves, and Manual labourers were not considered citizens. Why Democracy was Corrupt They existed for the common good of the citizens so they could have a privileged life. In places with democracy there are two groups: The few rich and the many poor. These two groups are always in conflict. Why Democracy was Corrupt Because of this conflict people who are not virtuous are free to take power. There are more people in Plato’s producer class and therefore they will get more votes. The producers will always outnumber the most virtuous groups. Machiavelli Author of The Prince First to separate politics and ethics Believed good politics is politics that succeeds. Good or bad does not matter as long as you win. Machiavelli He argued that it didn’t matter if a ruler was ethical or good as long as the people believed he was good. Leaders should wear a mask and create an image to convince or fool the public. They should do whatever it takes to gain power including lie. Machiavelli Machiavelli stated that it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved. Divisions of Government Modern Governments consist of three branches of government. Executive Legislative Judicial Executive Executive is composed of elected individuals and chosen by the Leader to act as their advisors. In Canada this would be the PM and all of the Ministers i.e minister of Education, Health, Defence etc. Legislative Voted into power during elections and usually belong to a political Party. This branch makes and approves laws and bills. In democracies they approve actions created by the leader of the executive. These are the Members of Parliament in Canada. Judicial Branch Composed of Courts Usually appointed by executive Ensures the constitution is followed This includes Charter of Rights and Freedoms cases. Types of Government Authority Traditional – Leaders are chosen by hereditary. Family usually associated with being divine. Usually Monarchy Legal Authority Governments are also formed but have to abide by rules or a constitution. They must follow previously established rules such as term lengths, elections. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms limits government powers. Agreement between the Government and the people. Autocratic Authority This is a government achieved by the use of force. Ideological or religious beliefs form the basis of support. Usually have to be supported through military and the elite. Laws are imposed from above. Autocratic Authority Political Leadership and Change There are many ways leadership changes in society. Elections Hereditary and Designated Succession Coups d’Etat Elections Most orderly way of having leadership change. Most modern systems have one person one vote. Uses the party system Everyone that is a citizen may run for office Fraud in Elections Throughout history there have been limits to true democracy. Literacy tests used as a way to keep African Americans from voting. (it was illegal for them to be taught to read) Women were not given the vote in Can until 1919. Threats at the polls 2000 U.S Elections between Gore and G W Bush so close had to be determined by the supreme court Came down to state of Florida where Bush’s Brother was governor. Led to many protests Hereditary and Designated Succession Used in Monarchical Systems tradition or cultural rule determines next leader. Rulers are believed to be gods or chosen by god Leadership usually given to oldest son. Hereditary and Designated Succession Autocratic authority governments designate successors Fidel Castro handed over power of his country to his brother Raul Kim Il Sung gave power to his son Kim Jong-Il. North Korea had to mourn the father’s death for three years. Coup D’Etat Means “blow against the state” Overthrows an existing government to establish an autocratic government Usually involves violence. Coup D’Etat Takes place quickly supported by a military. Fidel Castro and Che Guevara in Cuba. Political and Social Ideologies Political Ideology is an organised collection of ideas and values that describes a political system, movement or way of thinking. Political Spectrum An imaginary scale that places your opinions in regards to Left wing, Center, Right wing. Political Spectrum Communism NDP Capitalism Liberal Conservatism Right Wing Left Wing Centrist Social Spectrum – aims to measure human rights and other societal issues. Scale goes from Libertarianism to Authoritarianism. Libertarianism – belief in total individual freedom without rules. Authoritarianism belief that individuals have a duty to follow established rules. Conservatism Believe that traditional values are the building blocks of society. Traditional institutions hold society together and puts people in orderly roles. Traditional family - Religion Role of women - Immigration Crime - Social issues Traditional family – Same sex marriage Role of Women – were against women working as threat to family Religion – abortion, euthanasia laws Immigration – other cultures moving to Canada threaten the stability of society Others should assimilate to our culture. Criminals should be punished severely Social Responsibility Conservative stresses individual responsibility “gov’t should act as a police officer but not a babysitter.” If adults make bad decisions they should look to themselves not gov’t for help No gov’t intervention Gov’t should stay out of the economy and people’s lives. Oppose social programs like welfare, EI, taxes, gov’t health care, gov’t schooling. What issues would challenge these traditional values and what would be the conservative response? Traditional family - Religion Role of women - Immigration Crime - Social issues (poverty, etc) Liberalism Evolution of Liberalism Classic Liberalism Developed in Europe in the 18th century Encouraged analysis of traditional ideas and structures, institutions. Church, authority, Police powers etc. Distrust of state power ( rulers, monachs chosen by God) Classic Liberalism Gov’t involvement Least government involvement in society. Based on individual freedoms Government should not be involved in the lives of people Few laws, limited police powers No economic involvement. Evolution of Liberalism Utilitarianism Utilitarianism created by John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham. Ethics - A good or ethical action is measured by the amount of people it helps. Governments can be involved as long as its actions help more people than it hurts. Evolution of Liberalism Modern Liberalism Modern Liberalism is a combination of Classic and Utilitarianism Emphasizes individual rights freedom of choice and dignity of people Freedom of individual expression Modern Liberalism Liberals view people as essentially good Strict rules are unnecessary as people will learn from their mistakes Supports new ideas, especially those that promote equality. Ex. Support Same Sex marriage because it promotes equality. Modern Liberalism Government should provide opportunities for women, minority groups, poor. Believe human history as the development of progressive reforms such as the abolishment of slavery, equal rights for women. Types of Government Democracy Direct Democracy Direct Democracy – first practiced in Athens. Native-born Free Men over 18 involved in decisions Thousands would gather in a forum and discuss issues. At the end of discussions a vote happened, majority ruled. Democracy Representative Democracy Decisions affecting the public are made by elected representatives. Elections are usually mandated every so many years. Allows many people to have their say without being present. Democracy Representative Democracy Two forms are the Constitutional Monarchy and the Republic. Constitutional Monarchy usually has a hereditary ceremonial head of state. Elected officials run the government according to the constitution. Britain, Canada, Netherlands Democracy Representative Democracy In republics the people elect the head of state. The head of state and the head of government might be the same person as in the U.S. Or two separate groups. France has a head of state President and a head of government Prime Minister. Democracy 3 stages Partial democracies have some elements of Democracy. Emerging Democracy are trying to become Full democracy. Full Democracy has a constitution that guarantees equality of rights and freedoms. Indicators of Full Democracy 1 Ensures majority rule while protecting minority rights. Agree to govern by the constitution or Charter. For example Language rights of French Canadians are guaranteed. U.S Civil Rights Act, Voters Rights Act. Indicators of Full Democracy 2 Full Democracies ensure the Rule of Law. This means that no one is above the Law and the law is applied equally. Applies to government officials as well. Indicators of Full Democracy 3 Ensures a choice of parties Recognizes free and fair elections and responds to wishes of electorate. Citizens may join or form their own parties or can join interest groups Indicators of Full Democracy 4 Independent Judiciary – acts as a check to the power of government. Can test laws passed by the government and declare it unconstitutional. The Canadian Supreme Court practiced this when government made abortions illegal. (R.v. Morgentaler) 2003 Halpern v. Attourney General granted full marriage rights to all Canadians Indicators of Full Democracy 5 Government has full control over its military and police. U.S. President had to relieve General Macarthur of his duties in Korea for threatening China. Ipperwash 1995 Ontario Police officer shot and killed Dudley George during a peaceful protest and was found guilty of negligence. Indicators of Full Democracy 6 Full Democracies are open to change from its citizens. Divorce, Lesbian and Gay rights, abortion laws are all advancements made in the late 20th century. Indicators of Full Democracy 7 Full Democracies allow for freedom of information and freedom of the press, expression and religion. Laws for access to government documents. Freedom of the press to ask questions without fear of arrest. Freedom of expression allows. Limits to Full Democracy 1. Money – traditionally mostly rich and educated vote and be elected. Poor and uneducated tend not to vote. In the U.S donations are unregulated, last campaign cost Obama 234 million. In Canada we have regulations where a corporation may only donate 1000. Limits to Full Democracy 2. Lobby and Interest groups This groups promise large donations and support in exchange for favours once in office. Examples good be oil companies not having to increase safety or environmental protections. Lower taxes. Limits to Democracy 3. Electoral systems In many countries people do not vote. Only 59% in last Canadian election. 41% of the people are not heard. Leaders can form government without the majority of support. This means more people disagree with the leader than agree. Limits to Democracy 4. Inability to protect minority groups. With majority rule minority rights may be overlooked or ignored. If the majority supports discrimination then those practices may be allowed. Ex. 1942 Canada interned 22,000 Japanese Canadians 5. Democratic Rights Fail in Emergencies. Anti Terrorism Act, Public safety act, Patriot act are all believed to limit rights after 9/11. Germany after the Reichstag burning. Dictatorships Left Dictatorship Form of government in which one person or small group holds absolute power. Not held accountable to their citizens. Originated in Rome and was only to be used in Emergency situations for 6 months. In 44 BCE Caesar removed the 6 month limit and all limits to his In 20th century left wing dictatorships arose in USSR, People’s republic of China, Cuba, Vietnam, Cambodia. Right Wing dictatorships arose in Italy, Germany, Spain, Argentina and South Korea. People’s Republic of China 1927 after the Manchu Dynasty collapsed China fell into a civil war. U.S supported Kuomintang party fought against the Chinese Communist party led by Mao Zedong. Conflict paused during WW2 as China is invaded by Japan. After the war the conflict resumes. Communist seize control Kuomintang goes to Taiwan while claiming to still rule China. US supports this claim and refused to acknowledge Mao. Maoism Mao redistributed land to all the poor peasants. All agricultural and industrial production was nationalised, owned by the country. Started the Great Leap Forward Program which merged all land and families into Communes. When Production failed and people began to starve Mao encouraged his citizens to “let a hundred flowers (ideas) bloom” and come up with solutions. The flowers turned out to be forcing Mao to step down. Mao jailed executed and banished these people to labour camps. Mao became a cult like figure. Sent a “Red Book” of his famous quotes to millions in Society including schools. Mao recruited millions of students and formed the Red Guard. They would look for opposition and kill, beat or imprison them. “Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is politics with bloodshed” Mao dies in 1976 Deng Xiaoping becomes leader. Focuses on modernizing economy allows market economy along side communism. Deng One Family, One Child Policy Freedoms still limited under Deng. Families could only have one child to limit population and number of people to feed. If you obeyed you got better housing and salaries, defiance meant you loss your job. Females did not get paid a wage for work. Led to infanticide of female babies Deng Political dissent was tolerated until 1989 when the government crushed a student uprising wanting democracy. Led to the killing of hundreds at Tiananmen Square. This eventually led to free elections however the communist party still holds the majority of seats. . Limits to Freedoms No school, factory, mayor can make a decision without party permission No freedom of the Press. Internet is limited to mostly Chinese sites. Search engines (google) limit sites available to people. Dictatorships Left Dictatorship Form of government in which one person or small group holds absolute power. Not held accountable to their citizens. Originated in Rome and was only to be used in Emergency situations for 6 months. In 44 BCE Caesar removed the 6 month limit and all limits to his In 20th century left wing dictatorships arose in USSR, People’s republic of China, Cuba, Vietnam, Cambodia. Right Wing dictatorships arose in Italy, Germany, Spain, Argentina and South Korea. People’s Republic of China 1927 after the Manchu Dynasty collapsed China fell into a civil war. U.S supported Kuomintang party fought against the Chinese Communist party led by Mao Zedong. Conflict paused during WW2 as China is invaded by Japan. After the war the conflict resumes. Communist seize control Kuomintang goes to Taiwan while claiming to still rule China. US supports this claim and refused to acknowledge Mao. Maoism Mao redistributed land to all the poor peasants. All agricultural and industrial production was nationalised, owned by the country. Started the Great Leap Forward Program which merged all land and families into Communes. When Production failed and people began to starve Mao encouraged his citizens to “let a hundred flowers (ideas) bloom” and come up with solutions. The flowers turned out to be forcing Mao to step down. Mao jailed executed and banished these people to labour camps. Mao became a cult like figure. Sent a “Red Book” of his famous quotes to millions in Society including schools. Mao recruited millions of students and formed the Red Guard. They would look for opposition and kill, beat or imprison them. “Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is politics with bloodshed” Mao dies in 1976 Deng Xiaoping becomes leader. Focuses on modernizing economy allows market economy along side communism. Deng One Family, One Child Policy Freedoms still limited under Deng. Families could only have one child to limit population and number of people to feed. If you obeyed you got better housing and salaries, defiance meant you loss your job. Females did not get paid a wage for work. Led to infanticide of female babies Deng Political dissent was tolerated until 1989 when the government crushed a student uprising wanting democracy. Led to the killing of hundreds at Tiananmen Square. This eventually led to free elections however the communist party still holds the majority of seats. . Limits to Freedoms No school, factory, mayor can make a decision without party permision No freedom of the Press. Internet is limited to mostly Chinese sites. Search engines (google) limit sites available to people. Cambodia The golden age of Khmer civilization lasted from 9th to 13th centuries. It was called the kingdom Kambuja or Cambodia. Constantly under attack by its neighbours, Thailand, and Vietnam. 1854 Monarchy asked France to help defend it. Country cam under French control which lasted nearly a century. Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953. Allowed democratic elections. Sihanouk takes power. Popular with Buddhist monks and rural population. During the cold war tried to stay neutral between the US and USSR. He allowed the Communist Vietcong to use his land to help supplies come from China. He accepted US aid. 1965 during Vietnam war US kill Cambodians while chasing the Vietcong. Cambodia end relationship with U.S. U.S then Supports a coup and the Sihanouk government falls. A capitalist pro U.S government is installed. U.S begins bombing Cambodia in search of Communist Vietcong fleeing Vietnam. People revolt against U.S installed government. They sympathize with the Communist party and install the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot. To implement communism he began persecuting any opposition and taking all private possessions. Many groups threatened to take power from Pol Pot which led to brutal atrocities. Creates enemies of his state which are executed, or worked and starved to death in forced labour camps. Classification of Enemies Anyone with connections to former governments. Professionals and intellectuals Anyone with glasses since it might mean they could read and therefore educated. Other ethnicities Economic saboteurs who were not working hard enough. Rural Utopia Pol Pot forced all residents out of cities as he believed this is how revolts are organized. Wanted everyone in rural areas to be farmers and peasants. It would get rid of all classes in society. Results of Pol Pot In four years 2 million people killed by the Khmer Rouge. Used a school in the capital Phnom Phen to house 1500 people at a time and eventually executing them. End of Pol Pot Pol Pot regime collapsed after Vietnam invaded in 1979, US helped Pol Pot fight the Vietnamese. 1989 vietnam withdraws from Cambodia and the United Nations installed a government free of Khmer Rouge influence. 1998 Pol Pot dies. Oligarchy Oligarchy Plato stated that rule by the few could be achieved through two systems. Aristocracy and Oligarchy In Aristocracy the few rule for the common good of all. In Oligarchy power is used by a wealthy minority to oppress a majority of the population. South African Apartheid South Africa is rich in resources including diamonds and gold. Throughout history the Dutch and British oppressed the native populations and forced them in to slave labour in mines. This led to a group of white dutch settlers called Afrikaners in South Africa and made up 15% of population. In 1948 the Afrikaner led government implemented Apartheid. This was designed to separate the 85% Africans and 15% Afrikaners. The Afrikaners are classified as a Oligarchy. African mobility, occupations, and social lives were tightly restricted Sex and marriage between races forbidden. Blacks were moved to reservations. 85% all lived off 5% of the land. Land given was not farmable. The idea of the reserve system came from Canada. In 1960 the African National Congress party is banned after a peaceful protest led to 180 members being killed in Sharpeville. Nelson Mandela was a leading member in the party and is sentenced to life in prison. Oligarchy Oligarchy Plato stated that rule by the few could be achieved through two systems. Aristocracy and Oligarchy In Aristocracy the few rule for the common good of all. In Oligarchy power is used by a wealthy minority to oppress a majority of the population. South African Apartheid South Africa is rich in resources including diamonds and gold. Throughout history the Dutch and British oppressed the native populations and forced them in to slave labour in mines. This led to a group of white dutch settlers called Afrikaners in South Africa and made up 15% of population. In 1948 the Afrikaner led government implemented Apartheid. This was designed to separate the 85% Africans and 15% Afrikaners. The Afrikaners are classified as African mobility, occupations, and social lives were tightly restricted Sex and marriage between races forbidden. Blacks were moved to reservations. Land given was not farmable, rural areas where people were forced to hunt and gather. Whites took control of all major urban areas The idea of the reserve system came from Canada. In 1960 the African National Congress party is banned after a peaceful protest led to 180 members killed in Sharpeville. Nelson Mandela was a leading member in the party and is sentenced to life in prison. World found out about apartheid in the 70s United Nations condemned the policy. Countries (except for US and Britain) refused to trade with South Africa. Government began to collapse and president De Clerk rewrote constitution to allow one person one vote system open to Africans and whites. 1990 De Clerk orders Mandela released. The African National Congress was made legal again. Nelson Mandela was the first democratically elected president of South Africa 1994. South Africa transformed from Oligarchy to democracy. International Humanitarian Law Geneva Conventions Geneva Conventions Made up of 4 treaties and 3 additional protocols. Ratified by 194 countries Aim is to set a standard for treatment of victims of war. Defines rights of those captured during the war. Establishing protections for the wounded Addresses protections for the civilians in and around a war zone. Henri Dunant wrote a book (Memoir of Solferino) in which he proposed a permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war A government treaty recognizing the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in war zones. This led to the Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions. Dunant became the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Basic Rules 1. Attacks must be limited to combatants and military targets 1.1 Civilians may not be attacked 1.2 Civilian objects (houses, hospitals, schools, places of worship 1.3 Using civilians to shield military targets is prohibited 1.4 prohibited for combatants to pose as civilians 1.5 Starvation of civilians as a method of combat is prohibited 1.6 illegal to attack objects that are important to survival (farms, drinking water 1.7 illegal to attack dams, dykes, nuclear power plants Weapons 2. Attacks or weapons which indiscriminately strike civilian and military objects and persons, and which cause excessive injury or suffering are illegal 2.1 chemical and bio weapons, blinding laser weapons, weapons that injure the body by fragments, poison, anti personnel land mines. Victims of War 3 Civilians, wounded combatants, and prisoners should be spared, protected and treated humanely. 3.1 no one shall be subjected to physical or mental torture or cruel or degrading treatment 3.2 sexual violence illegal 3.3 prisoners are entitled to respect and must be treated humanely 3.6 taking hostages is illegal 3.7 Prohibited to kill or wound an enemy who has surrendered 3.10 Illegal to recruit children below the age of 15 for any type of military service. 3.11 everyone is entitled to a fair trial 4. Military and civilian medical personnel and facilities must be respected and protected 4.1 illegal to attack any person vehicle or building that wears the red cross red crescent symbol 4.2 No priority is given when treating wounded people except on medical grounds. Nationalism Nationalism Nation – a political community of people that shares an identity. May be based on ethnicity (race, language, culture, history, religion) Anthems Institutions (Health care, Military) Symbols (flags, images) Athletics, hobbies, pastimes ( hockey, olympics) State State – geographical territory containing a population led by a government. European concept. Most states are decided on by nationalism. Sovereignty – is the right to exercise force in a territory and to control it by a government. Canadian Artic Sovereignty Free trade agreements. United Nations IHL laws All these challenge the idea of sovereignty. Conflicts Nations exist within or without a state. Canada has a French and Aboriginal nation. Palestinians were forced to give up their land so that Israel could have a state for their nation. Two Ideologies of State Formation Civic Nationalism – state is home to all people who believe in what the state stands for politically and morally. Ethnic Nationalism – Culture was the most important factor to defining a state. Language was the imperative part of culture historically. Quote “Patriotism is when love of your country comes first, Nationalism, when hate for people other than your own comes first.” - - French President Charles de Gaulle Internationalism States do not exist in isolation Internationalism promotes economic and political cooperation. cooperation among states, not nationalistic self interest, will help further Plato’s common good. Quote …it is impossible for one to be Internationalistic without being a nationalist…It is not nationalism that is evil, it is the narrowness, selfishness, exclusiveness which is the bane of modern nations which is evil.- Mahatma Gandhi Rwanda Some Info Population: 7,810,056 Capital: Kigali Government type: Republic President: Paul Kagame Ethnicity: 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi Major languages: Kinyarwanda, English and French are official languages. Swahili is also used. Major religions: Catholic (56.5%), Protestant (26%), Adventist (11.1%), Muslim (4.6%) Some Info Life expectancy: 39.33 years Median age: 18.1 years Natural resources: Gold, tin ore, tungsten ore, methane Canadian imports from: Coffee ($700,000) Canadian exports to: Electrical machinery ($800,000 and worn clothing $100,000) History First colonized by Germany in 1890. Germany forced to give it over to Belgium in Treaty of Versailles in 1919. Natives made up of two ethnic groups, Tutsi and Hutu who lived together for 600 years. Hutu Tutsi Both groups spoke the same language, shared the same religion, and traded resources. Both followed the Belgian chosen leader and thought he was godlike. Intermarriages were common between the two. Differences Hutu Tutsi Physically the Tutsi were lighter skinned, thinner and taller than Hutus Hutus were shorter and stocky, darker skinned. Tutsi were cattle herders, Hutu were famers. 85% of people were Hutu, 15% Tutsi Large Hutu Majority. Belgium Influence Belgium orders the citizens to carry identity cards stating who was Tutsi and Hutu. Belgium viewed the Tutsi as ethnically superior because they had lighter skin, were taller. Tutsi were richer since they had cattle. Gave privileged jobs and government positions to Tutsi. This angered Hutus as they were the Conflict In 1959 Rwandan Tutsi king dies and Belgium installs another Tutsi king. This angered Hutus and a violent revolution resulted. Rwanda holds an referendum and vote for independence from Belgium. Hutu Power 1962 First Hutu, Gregoire Kayibanda, elected to power. Throughout the 60’s and 70’s Hutus kill and persecute Tutsi and remove them from powerful jobs. 2 million Tutsi fled to Uganda, Congo, Tanzania. In 1973 military coup installs Hutu General Habyarimana He changes constitution that states Tutsi can only fill 9% of government positions. Tutsis in Rwanda and all neighboring countries from the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) to fight for Tutsi rights. 1990 RPF in all countries invade Rwanda. France and Zaire send troops to stop the invasion and force a cease fire in 1991. Hutu Government declares Tutsis as enemy of the state. United Nations intervenes to make sure the cease fire is not broken. Mission is called United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda UNAMIR 2500 troops 370 from Canada 400 Belgium 800 Ghana Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire is put in charge of the mission to support Arusha Accords cease fire. Ethnic Division President Habyarimana takes this event to create a Tutsi enemy threat. Gave him more support in the country. Organized massacres of Tutsi and opposition groups. Formed a youth militia called the Interahamwe (those that attack together). Interehamwe recruiters offered them food, drugs, freedom to rape, cash. Encouraged them to take Tutsi possessions. Hutu Power Radio Habyarimana also started the radio station RTLM also known as Hutu Power. Used to spread hatred and blame the Tutsi for all problems. Called them Inyenzi or “cockroaches” Also spread hate against UNAMIR and Belgium. In Burundi, Tutsis murdered the Hutu president making the Rwandans more frightened. Hutu Power Radio Radio announces that Tutsi should exterminate their neighbours and take their land and possessions. False reports of the Tutsi attacking Hutu in rural parts of country led by the RPF. Civilian Civil Defense Force Habyarimana organizes another militia (Civilian Civil Defense Force) of ordinary citizens and gives them clubs and machetes. It is now believed that France supplied weapons and training for the Interahamwe and the Civilian force. Structure Habyarimana then kills all local leaders that does not support him and replaces them with his own Hutu leaders. Police chiefs, Mayors, government employees all support killing the Tutsi. They wait for the signal from the Hutu power radio station. Dallaire’s Cables Dallaire captures shipments of weapons from France (in violation of Arusha Accords) destined for Hutu Government. Meets with Interahamwe informant “Jean Pierre” who tells of weapons caches throughout Rwanda. Dallaire sends cable (communication) requesting permission to capture weapons and is denied. Forced to tell Habyarimana what he knows. Start April 6th 1994 President Habyarimana is killed when his plane is shot down. Colonel Bagosora takes charge and orders the military, Interahamwe, Civilian Civil Defense to begin extermination of the Tutsi for self defense. Strategies Organised to kill 1000 every 20 minutes Since Rwandans were forced to identify, Hutus knew where they lived. Went house to house killing families. Local officials order militias to create barriers on roads to prevent Tutsis from leaving. Strategies Force Tutsi to go to public buildings (churches, schools, govt buildings) where they are massacred in large scale. Women were raped in exchange for their life. Belgium Deaths Once the killings started, Romeo Dallaire sent 10 Belgium peacekeepers to protect the Prime Minister Agathe uwilingiyimana She is killed Troops are captured, tortured and killed by the Tutsi. Evacuations France, Belgium, U.S send 2000 in troops and Military planes to evacuate its citizens in Rwanda, and leave. Belgium removed its troops after the deaths. Dallaire was left with 270 troops from Canada and Ghana. UN ordered Dallaire to leave, he denied the order. End of Genocide The genocide came to an end after the RPF invaded once again. Estimated 800,000 Tutsi and Hutu killed in 100 days. RPF capture Kigali and form an interim government composed of Tutsi and Hutu.
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