14_HUL 204 - Communication - Communication_ Organizational Climate_ and Leadership

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14_HUL 204 - Communication - Communication_ Organizational Climate_ and Leadership Powered By Docstoc

                         Snehlata Jaswal

            HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
                       Organizational climate
Organizational climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the
  process of quantifying the “culture” of an organization. It is a set of
  properties of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly
  by the employees, that is assumed to be a major force in influencing
  employee behavior

Four assumptions underlie our attempt to together understand climate,
  communication and leadership.
• Organizations with similar circumstances differ greatly in productivity
• Productivity is often linked to individual and group motivation
• Motivation is enhanced or inhibited by the organizational climate
• Executives (leaders) shape organizational climate
                     Communication climate
Communication climate can be defined as the internal environment of
information exchange among people through an organization's formal
and informal networks. Communication climate is open when
information flows freely; closed when information is blocked.

In an open climate, employees feel free to express opinions, voice
complaints, and offer suggestions to their superiors. Employees talk
freely among themselves about important policy decisions and their
production, personnel, or marketing concerns. Information passes
without distortion upward, downward, and horizontally throughout the
organization. And, while the risks in an open communication climate can
be high, the rewards can be great. Typically, these rewards include
increased worker morale; prompt notification of, and solutions to,
problems; a sense of collaboration, as all work together to articulate
operations and policies; and an increased empowerment of employees,
who come to see themselves as central to the success of the corporate

Research shows that this open communication climate has at least three
distinct characteristics: it is supportive, participative, and trusting.
                          Communication climate
Supportive Environments
In supportive environments, employees convey information to superiors without
hesitation, confident that superiors will readily accept it, whether good or bad,
favorable or unfavorable. If employees think that reporting regulatory violations to
their superiors will brand them as whistleblowers, thereby endangering their jobs,
they will probably say nothing. But because supportive superiors are seen as non-
threatening, perhaps even nurturing, employees will usually open up to them and
share unpleasant or dangerous information.
Fear, shame, and pride encourage people to keep their mouths shut if they feel
vulnerable or unsupported. In a meeting, for example, an individual may not tell the
group that product delivery will be late because the receiving agents were not notified
in time. A late delivery date puts the whole marketing plan in jeopardy, resulting in
millions lost and in eroded market share. With so much at stake, the employee's self-
protective reaction to say nothing, in a non-supportive climate, is a rational choice to
safeguard employment. Communication closes down in non-supportive environments
because information poses a threat.
In supportive environments, employees communicate more readily for a number of
reasons: The reporting mechanism accords them dignity and respect. They have no
need to fear reprisals for sharing bad news. They are rewarded for being forthright.
They are appreciated as sources of information crucial to the organization's success.
                          Communication climate
Participative Environments
Employees have to feel that what they say counts for something. The best suggestions
for improving production processes come from employees who work everyday on the
assembly line. Sales people know what the customers want because they are in daily
contact. Customer service representatives are acquainted firsthand with the technical
and functional problems that can spell future marketing disasters. All these employees
have valuable information. That information will be shared only if employees feel
management regards them as legitimate participants in the enterprise. Employees
know they are valued participants when their suggestions are implemented, their
questions answered, and their concerns recognized.
Sometimes, however, employee participation is not actively deterred by management
but rather by the corporate structure, the competitive business environment, or
environmental regulatory agencies. Highly formalized, bureaucratic organizations, for
example, through their complex reporting procedures, encumbering paperwork, and
labyrinth of regulatory guidelines, tend to discourage active participation and thereby
stifle the free flow of information. It's easier to do nothing and suffer a tolerable
inconvenience than to pursue corrective action and incur an intolerable cost of time,
patience, and energy. Taking action is the key, therefore, to encouraging employee
participation. Those for whom the message is intended must act upon the information
they receive.
                        Communication climate
Trusting Environments
All parties in information exchange must tell the truth as they perceive it. They
must also ensure that information is correct. Credibility is any employee's
greatest asset. A reputation for carelessness, lying, deceit, or manipulation
undercuts all future messages. The result of credibility is trust; it underpins all
human relationships. Employees have to believe their information sources. If,
for example, at weekly meetings, the staff hears contradictory information
about project plans, decisions, or salary, they will dismiss all information
because they cannot confidently choose which to believe.
Repeated instances of passing such contradictory information will corrupt the
integrity of the communication channel. People quickly dismiss information
sources that prove to be wrong or untrustworthy. For the communication
climate to remain open, the information must be true and the source trusted.
Belief in the source's ability to convey accurate information and to follow
through with appropriate action is essential to maintain open communication.
Open communication puts both sides at risk, however, because in the process
of recognizing employees as participants, supervisors must open themselves
up to criticism, must explain their actions, and must actually correct difficult
situations. And as participants, supervised employees must be willing to
articulate difficulties for which they share responsibility with management.
Ultimately, employees and supervisors must work collaboratively to ensure
successful implementation of communicated intentions.
                         Communication climate
Defensiveness and Communication Barriers
Open communication climates derive from the nature of the people participating in
the information transactions. Barriers to open communication ultimately spring
from an individual's unfavorable past experiences. Our nature and background
shape our values, beliefs, opinions, attitudes, and expectations. Because our sense
of self-worth and dignity evolve from these, we often erect barriers to defend them
from attack. Some people have deep-seated psychological needs for these
defenses; others have short-term tactical needs.
People may hide behind defensive barriers because of deep-seated feelings of
inadequacy. Employees, for example, whose egos cannot tolerate criticism simply
will not share information that exposes them to personal critique. Unable to assert
themselves, they refuse to voice opinions, make suggestions for improvement, take
the initiative in forming tasks, lead project teams, cold-call customers, correct
wayward employees, or perform any of the myriad chores that could oust them
from their silent withdrawal into psychological safety.
If such people somehow rise to supervisory or management levels, they are usually
comfortable only in giving unquestioned orders and directives, in tending to
routine, and in operating within thoroughly controlled, self-protective, situations. In
an open communication climate, these people withdraw.
                     Communication climate
Tactical advantage seeking in lack of communication
For some people, defensiveness may be marked by the need to close
down communication because information-sharing poses some kind
of short-term, tactical disadvantage or discomfort. In a meeting, for
example, employees may remain silent because speaking out will
make them vulnerable. They may be asked to elaborate and not have
the facts at hand. They may be forced to defend an unpopular
decision. They may lack confidence in their vocabulary or logical skills
to engage others in the give-and-take of robust debate. Or perhaps
they fear they will be caught in error or that someone will belittle
them for asking a stupid question or making a silly comment. Rather
than say anything and appear the fool, they choose to say nothing.
Unfortunately, such defensiveness can have serious ramifications for
the organization. In protecting themselves, employees may put
everyone at risk by withholding information crucial to a sound
decision. A person truly open in communicating with others must
continually guard against erecting these barriers.
                   Communication climate
What can we do?
Whatever the cause, self-defense ultimately inhibits honest exchange
of information. Such honesty, however, does not come easily for any
of us.
Few people actually like a forthright discussion of shortcomings,
blisteringly honest criticism of the working conditions, salary,
operational dysfunctions, amenities, safety issues, procedures, and
lack of management support.
But, lowering defenses, and encouraging honest information
exchange, is the only way to guarantee a climate in which truth can

As a leader, one can model such behaviour oneself and create a
reward structure for such behaviour exhibited by others, and this
create the infrastructure for open climates.

What else can a leader do?
Leaders’ role in communication
    Communication and Organizational climate
How do you find out what’s going on within an organization?
You ask people what’s on their minds.
Climate refers to how open people feel about voicing their opinions
or making suggestions.
In places where the culture is repressive, many people are afraid to
voice concerns even to coworkers, let alone to their boss. They also
become distrustful of management because they feel that whatever
anyone in management tells them is either untrue or bad news.
By contrast, in nurturing cultures, people not only are open to one
another, but feel free to make suggestions to their boss. Messages
from the leaders are received with much more credence because
people have learned to trust management.
One specific way to assess the organizational and communication
climate is the Communication Audit
                       Communication Audit
A Communication Audit is a thorough evaluation of an organization’s ability to transfer
  information. The purpose of a communication audit is to uncover the strengths and
  weaknesses within the various stages of the information transfer – whether
  occurring directly within the company itself, or with clients/stakeholders.
An assessment of the effectiveness and credibility of current communication vehicles
  and media, including publications, web site, intranet, blogs, town meetings, face-to-
  face communication, and other communication media.
Uses processes such as observations, analyses and evaluations, focus groups,
  interviews and surveys of employees and other key audiences whose support is
  needed by the organization.
Results are in the form of:
• Review of existing communication policies, publications, and vehicles, indicating
  strengths and weaknesses of each.
• Summary of comments of focus groups and interviews.
• Report of the employee survey results.
• Recommendations for strengthening communication strategies and programs
                Communication Audit
A strategic communications audit has evaluative and formative value.
• It is evaluative in that it provides a “snapshot” of where an
     organization currently stands in terms of its communication
     capacity or performance.
• It is formative in that it also points to areas in which the
     organization can strengthen its performance.

Communications audits are a relatively common practice, though
   they are more common among for-profits than non profit
   organizations, and not familiar to most non-communication

Audits are most often performed by external communications or
    evaluation experts, but can also be performed internally.
            Benefits of a communication audit
Depending on magnitude, a communication audit may deliver as follows:
• It helps build support for communication / HR/ or organization change Initiative.
• It demonstrates commitment to improving communication in the organization.
• It demonstrates willingness to listen and to respond to employees and other stake-
  holders'views - a key step in building positive relationship, creating credibility and
  fostering mutual trust.
• An audit will find out what major segments of employees / stake-holders think about
  the organization's communication and initiatives.
• An audit will deliver practical recommendations for improving communication in the
• An audit can save money and effort as the leader will be able to minimize, or
  eliminate, the programs that do not yield benefits and strengthen, those that do.
• An audit can become the basis for creating an effective strategic communication plan
  for the organization, ensuring that it gains maximum benefits from communication
• An effectively designed and implemented communication audit can be a driver for
  corporate culture change where everyone is engaged in building a new work culture
  of open communication, credibility, and collaboration.
              Assessing the climate (1)
Before embarking on any study, one must ensure the confidentiality
of participants.

A sample disclaimer:
We are doing this interview (focus group, survey) to get your opinion
about the climate of communications. We value your opinions and
your ideas. We will also keep all comments confidential. Your
comments and ideas will not be linked to your name.

The best way to find out about the organizational or communication
culture is to conduct a three-pronged study that uses interviews,
focus groups, and surveys.

                 HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
               Assessing the climate (2)
Interviews are best for getting to the heart of what people think about
the organization. Individual interviews give you the opportunity to explore
a question or issue with someone in more depth than is possible with any
other method. A skilled interviewer can make the interviewee feel
comfortable by assuring confidentiality, opening with small talk, and
having an open and friendly demeanor. When people feel at ease, they
will reveal a great deal about how they see themselves within the context
of the team or the organization.
Sample questions might include:
Has your boss set clear expectations for your job? Why do you say that?
Do you know the objectives of your team/department? How do you know
or not know?
Do you know where the organization is headed? How do you know this?
What is the climate for communications within your organization?
The other factor in this type of research is choosing whom to interview.
Consider interviewing at least two people from every function or
organizational level. In this way, you get a more balanced understanding
of what individuals think and what they do within the organization.
                  Assessing the climate (3)
Focus Groups
Focus groups are good for getting different viewpoints in a short period
of time. You can use the interaction within the group to stimulate
conversation as well as to bring differing points of view to the surface.
Keep in mind that some people are shy in groups and are uncomfortable
voicing their opinions, particularly when those opinions might be contrary
to what the rest of the group thinks or what the organization fosters. Use
an experienced facilitator to draw out the opinions of the group. Group
dynamics will have a big impact on the quality of the responses and the
nature of the discussion; you need someone who is experienced and
skilled in managing these dynamics effectively. In a focus group, limit the
time to no more than 2 hours.
Sample questions might include:
How do senior leaders communicate to you?
What kind of feedback do you receive from your boss?
Think of what people are saying about your organization. Do their views
differ from those of senior leadership? In what way?
What happens when someone expresses an opinion that differs from that
of his or her boss?HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
              Assessing the climate (4)
When you want to take the pulse of an organization and find out the
extent to which an attitude or belief is held across the organization,
use a survey. The survey typically will ask between 10 and 20
questions. It can be done using a paper-and-pencil format, or it can be
done using email or the Web. The format selected depends on the
culture of your organization and how people use technology. Usually,
the computer-based formats get a better return rate than hard copy.
It is best to send surveys to as many people as possible. If the company
has more than 10,000 employees, however, sending the survey to
everyone may be impractical or too costly. In this case, you may wish to
limit the surveys to people within a particular function (e.g., marketing,
sales, or purchasing) or at a particular management level (e.g.,
supervisors, middle managers, or senior managers). If you receive
responses from more than 50 percent of those surveyed, and this
number is at least 30 (and preferably 100 or more), you can consider
your results valid. There will, of course, be some bias as a result of
differences between those who do and do not respond, but the
numbers of returned surveys should give you a good idea of the issues
and concerns facing people in the department or organization.
              Assessing the climate (5)
Do you have to use all three methods of analysis?
No, but the more types of analysis you use, the greater the validity of
your conclusions. Also keep in mind that any one of these analysis
methods is a form of intervention. And when you intervene, you must
provide a context for it. For example, you must always explain why you
are gathering data and what you will do with it.
If you study the entire organization, you can slice (organize) the data
according to specific groups. Specific groups will often have more or
less concern about particular issues; this is typically due to the nature
of their jobs, but it is useful to know this when designing
communications plans. For example, supervisors may need more
communications on issues related to hiring, while middle managers
may need greater levels of communications on development planning.
The information gained from the surveys can help you plan accordingly.
Get help from an expert in designing the study. There is an art and a
science to constructing questions so that you get valid and reliable
results. And there are techniques for distributing and collecting the
survey that will increase the likelihood that you will get a sufficient
number of surveys returned.
Leaders’ role in communication
    Leader as a strategist – communication planner
The ability to communicate is the cornerstone of leadership. The leader sends a
good number of messages related to change. As a change agent, the leader
A) a sense of confidence and control (or lack thereof) to employees.
B) his or her own feelings about the change.
C) the degree to which he trusts the abilities of the employees to adopt the change.
D) a sense of purpose and commitment (or lack thereof).
E) the degree to which he accepts the reactions and feelings of employees.
F) expectations regarding behaviour that is seen as appropriate or inappropriate
(rumour-mongering, back-room meetings).
G) the degree to which he/she is "connected to" employees situations and feelings or
is "in-touch" with them.
It is clear that if the leader communicates effectively, he or she will be sending
messages that decrease resistance, and encourage moving through the change
more effectively and positively. The bottom line with all of this is if you mess up
communication, even the smallest changes can result in ugly problems.
For purposes of change, communication is CREATING UNDERSTANDING.
                    Communicating Change
A) Although you communicate in a way that seems clear to you, the
receiver of the communication, filters the information through a very
complicated set of pre- conceptions, that can function to distort the
message received.
B) Receivers listen selectively. They hear and process some things and
gate out other things. That means that while you may have explained
the "whole picture", is it likely that the whole thing wasn't received.

The ONLY way you can ensure that you have created common
understanding is by asking the other people what they have heard, and
what their reactions are to it.
                        Communicating Change
Important Messages Regarding Changes
Whenever you communicate to employees about change, convey:
A) that you are personally committed to the change, and seeing it through, even if
it has negative consequences.
B) that you recognize that the change negatively impacts upon some people.
C) that you are open to discussion of the feelings of employees regarding change.
D) that you are confident that the "team" can make it through the changes.
E) that you want and need input to make the changes work.

Sometimes you won't be committed to the change, or you won't be very confident
that you and your staff can pull it off, particularly when the change is imposed from
above. While some may disagree, it is important that you still convey an image of
strength and commitment despite your own misgivings. The change leader has a role
to play, and if you have misgivings or strong negative emotional reactions of your own
it may be more effective if you underplay them. If you show anger about a change,
you may legitimize the same kind of negative behaviour in your staff. While you
shouldn't hide your own negative reactions completely, it is probably wise to keep
them in the background by stating them in a matter of fact way and moving on.
                       Communicating Change
Communication of Change -- Who, What, When, How?
Managers sometimes have a tendency to communicate about change on a "need
to know basis". However, effective change leaders recognize that almost any
change will have effects on most people in an organization, no matter how removed
they are from the change.
The basic rule of thumb is that communication should take place directly between the
manager and employees when employees NEED TO KNOW OR WANT TO KNOW.
Except for situations that involve confidentiality, even those who are
indirectly affected will likely want to know what is going on, and how it may affect
them. This applies to your own staff, and those organizations that are related to you
(other branches within a division or department, client organizations, etc).
You are better off over-including people in your communication, than leaving people
                        Communicating Change
Communication of Change -- Who, What, When, How?
When you communicate you are trying to:
A) give information that will reduce uncertainty and ambiguity regarding change.
B) Pre-empt the hidden information system of the grapevine, so you can ensure
incorrect anxiety provoking information is not spreading.
C) Provide forums for employees to communicate their reactions and concerns
When deciding what should be communicated, communicate as much information
about the change as is available to you. Obviously, you need to exercise judgement
where there is confidential and/or sensitive information involved, or where your
information may be unreliable.
Be aware that if you only have a small amount of information about a negative
change, communicating it may increase anxiety levels and rampant speculation. You
should also be aware that if you have preliminary information about a change, that
others do also, and that it is likely that your employees will hear rumours regardless of
what you disclose.
Finally, keep in mind that you are communicating messages about the facts of
the change, and also about your own reactions to it. As a change leader, you must
be aware that your staff will watch you carefully to guess how you are feeling
about the change, and they will draw their own conclusions based on your behaviour.
Sometimes these conclusions will be wrong and destructive.
If you choose to state your own reactions to the change, state them quickly
(particularly if they are negative).
                          Communicating Change
Communication of Change -- Who, What, When, How?

The longer you wait to communicate details of change, the more likely you are to
extend the period of adjustment. This is because it is very difficult to "keep a lid“ on
anything in government, and even if you are silent, your staff will likely hear vague
things through the grapevine. Grapevine information tends to be sketchy enough that
it creates a high degree of anxiety, and also a high degree of mistrust of management.

So, the earlier you communicate the less likely erroneous or upsetting information will
come through the grapevine. Communicate as early as possible about change, but do
not assume that once you have done this the job is over.

Communication should occur in anticipation of change, during the implementation,
and after the change has been stabilized.
                             Communicating Change
Communication of Change -- Who, What, When, How?
How?                  Issue #1: Group or Single Meetings
You need to decide whether to communicate in group settings, or in one-on-one meetings with
employees. Most situations require both group communication and one-to-one
communication. They compliment each other. Using only one or the other will create
Communicating in groups ensures that each person present is hearing the same information at
the same time. Group communication also allows people to interact with each other about the
changes and can help people develop a sense of team, particularly in a climate of adversity.
Communicating in groups also has some disadvantages. In many organizations there will be
people who will not feel comfortable talking in a group context. The more "personal" the
effects of the change, the more likely people will withdraw from the group process. A second
danger of group communication is that one or two particularly vocal and negative people can
set the tone for the group, and foster unproductive negative discussion. While expression of
concerns about change are healthy, the "doom- sayer" can cause this process to become
destructive. For this reason, group communication needs to be managed with skill and
expertise. Sometimes an external facilitator is necessary. Finally, there are some issues that
cannot be discussed within a group. For example, in downsizing situations, it is inappropriate to
announce to a group that X and Y are losing their jobs. When changes are likely to create a high
degree of upset to individuals, they must be dealt with in private.
Communicating on a one-to-one basis has the advantage of privacy. When bad news is
communicated, the person receiving the news is less pressured to withhold their
reactions. One-to-one communication also allows more in-depth exploration of the person's
feelings, ideas and reactions to the change.
A disadvantage to using one-to-one communication is that it may fragment your team. There is
also a possibility that you will send slightly different messages to different staff members.
                            Communicating Change
How?                  Issue #2: Written Or Oral
Oral communication is more appropriate when:
A) Receiver is not very interested in getting the message. Oral communication provides more
opportunities for getting and keeping interest and attention.
B) Emotions are high. Oral communication provides chances for both you and the other person
to let off steam, cool down, and create a climate for understanding.
C) You need feedback; easier to get feedback by asking and observing body language.
D) The other person is too busy or preoccupied to read. Oral communication provides better
opportunities to gain attention.
E) You need to convince or persuade. Oral communication provides more flexibility,
opportunity for emphasis, chances to listen and remove resistance.
F) The details and issues are complicated, and cannot be well expressed on paper.
Written communication is appropriate if:
A) You require a record of the communication for future reference.
B) Your staff will be referring to details of the change later.
C) You are communicating something with multiple parts or steps and where it is important that
employees understand them.
Generally, it is wise to use both written and oral communication (Use multiplexing). The more
emotional the issues, the more important it is to use oral communication first. Written
communication can be used as backup.
Key areas of communication by leaders
Leaders’ role in communication
                     Leader as a communicator
According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management
consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction
(Lamb and McKee, 2004). They found that:
Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable
predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.
Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key
to winning organizational trust and confidence:
   – Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.
   – Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business
   – Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and
     how an employee's own division is doing — relative to strategic business
So in a nutshell — you must be trustworthy and you have to be able
to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go.
                        Leader as a communicator
Ten principles every great leader should know:
1. Everything communicates. The way programs, policies, tools, and initiatives are
   designed and delivered communicates more strongly than the marketing and
   information about them. As a leader, how you act and what you do, communicates
   more clearly than the words coming out of your mouth.
2. Model the behavior you are looking for from others.Communicate with your
   employees the way you would like to be communicated with — transparent, open,
   with respect and trust. And do the things you believe matter. If you focus on
   employees and customers, so will everyone else.
3. Have a point of view. It's much easier to have consistent communication when you
   have a clear brand or market-facing value proposition and core values — whatever
   you want to call it. But whatever you call "it", you better have it. Just be sure it is
   clear, easy to remember, makes sense for the business, has an element of
   inspiration, differentiates you as an employer, will hold up for at least ten years,
   and is everyone's job to live it — and that means you.
4. What you hear is as important as what you say.Communication is a two-way
   process. Have a number of upward channels and do something with what you hear
   — and tell people about it.
                      Leader as a communicator
5.   You haven't communicated anything until you have been heard by your
     audiences. Understand your audience. Take a lesson from the marketers —
     know the demographics and psychographics of your various audiences and tailor
     communication messages, content, style, and channels to them.
6.   They both end in "tion" but there's a big difference between "information" and
     "communication". Communication influences thoughts, feelings, and actions.
     Information simply informs. And how you communicate depends on what you
     are communicating. If you are trying to engage people, don't use e-mail.
7.   Communicate courageously. If you communicate openly and honestly, you will
     make some mistakes but those mistakes will be better than the bland, sanitized,
     and uninspiring communications in many companies. And there will be times
     when you don't have the answer. Admit it. Your employees will understand and
     will respect your courage and honesty. Both are in short supply.
8.   Remember you are competing for attention. Every employee receives hundreds
     of messages every day. Your message competes with all of them. Each person
     selects what to pay attention to and what to ignore. Why should employees pay
     attention to messages from you?
                        Leader as a communicator
9. If it looks important, it must be important. How you package the communication
    about programs has a big impact on perceptions of the program itself. Match the
    packaging to the level of importance. And if you follow up, it must be even more
    important. Too many executives think once they've communicated, they are done.
    They couldn't be more wrong. Redundancy matters.
10. Practice. Great communicators practice. A lot. Writers write and rewrite. Great
    orators like Winston Churchill and J L Nehru practice and rehearse. Gladwell writes
    out every word of every speech.

And if you do just one thing, do this:

   Choose future managers for their communication skills as much as their
   achievements. Front line managers have the greatest influence over an employee's
   engagement. Managers who are good communicators get more from their direct
   reports than managers whose strong skills lie elsewhere. Managers who are good
   communicators are the insurance policy for keeping the best workers focused,
   engaged, and productive.
                    Leader as a communicator

As a leader, communication is your primary and most important tool.

There is no substitute for good judgement, and leaders need to be
reflective and thoughtful about the ways they communicate. There is
also no substitute for LISTENING, MULTIPLEXING, and RECEIVING
FEEDBACK from your staff and colleagues about how you
communicate. You may make communication mistakes, but the mark of
an effective leader is that these mistakes are quickly identified through
feedback and discussion, and corrective action is taken.
Leaders’ role in communication
         Thank you


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