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Leadership, communication and Decision is a must have course for every one. For a good Leadership you should have good communication skills and Decision making skills. These documents will teach you all that for free.
LEADERSHIP: TRAITS OF A LEADER Traits and Personality Snehlata Jaswal HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations WHAT ARE TRAITS? Term used in psychology in a specific way to refer to components of ‘Personality’ What is personality? Allport (1937) “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment" What is a trait? Traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person. Allport (1937) "a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior.“ Traits are a readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response to a variety of different stimuli or situations. HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations TYPES VS. TRAITS Traits in contrast to ‘types’ of personality Type approach Trait approach Layman’s idea Scientific concept Divides people into categories People differ in degree and profile Discontinuous measurement Continuous measurement Binomial distribution Normal distribution Few in number Many in number HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations TYPES OF TRAITS Classification of traits (Allport): • Cardinal • Central • Secondary Classification of traits (Cattell): • Source vs. surface traits • Ability , Temperament, and Dynamic traits Ability Traits fluid intelligence crystallized intelligence Temperament Traits style and tempo of behavior biological influence Dynamic Traits : Exist in a ‘Dynamic lattice’ ergs: dynamic, constitutional source traits anger, fear, sex, etc. meta ergs: environmental-mold (learned) dynamic source traits sentiments and attitudes HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations MEASUREMENT OF TRAITS/ PERSONALITY Personality assessment through psychological tests Anastasi (1988): ‘A psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behaviour’ Types of tests: Intelligence/Ability tests vs. Personality tests vs. Attitude scales Individual vs. group tests Verbal vs. Non verbal tests Paper and pencil vs. Performance tests Speed vs. Power tests Objective vs. Subjective tests (E.g: Multiple choice vs. essay type) Self report vs. Projective tests Self learning/ behaviour change after trait awareness ??? HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations USUAL TRAITS ASSESSED BY TESTS Cattell’s 16 PF Eysenck’s Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism Big Five: First given by Fiske (1949) and later expanded upon by others such as Norman (1967), Smith (1967), Goldberg (1981), and McCrae & Costa (1987) • Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. • Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors. • Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details. • Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness. • Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations Thank you HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
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