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4_HUL 204 - Leadership - Traits of a Leader - Traits and Personality

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Leadership, communication and Decision is a must have course for every one. For a good Leadership you should have good communication skills and Decision making skills. These documents will teach you all that for free.

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									LEADERSHIP: TRAITS OF A LEADER
     Traits and Personality




                   Snehlata Jaswal


      HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
                WHAT ARE TRAITS?
Term used in psychology in a specific way to refer to components of
‘Personality’

What is personality?
Allport (1937) “Personality is the dynamic organization within the
individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his
unique adjustments to the environment"

What is a trait?
Traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person.
Allport (1937) "a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system
(peculiar to the individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli
functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent forms
of adaptive and expressive behavior.“
Traits are a readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response
to a variety of different stimuli or situations.
                 HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
                   TYPES VS. TRAITS
Traits in contrast to ‘types’ of personality

Type approach                                    Trait approach

Layman’s idea                                    Scientific concept

Divides people into categories                   People differ in degree and profile

Discontinuous measurement                        Continuous measurement

Binomial distribution                            Normal distribution

Few in number                                    Many in number

                  HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
                         TYPES OF TRAITS
Classification of traits (Allport):
• Cardinal
• Central
• Secondary

Classification of traits (Cattell):
• Source vs. surface traits
• Ability , Temperament, and Dynamic traits
          Ability Traits
               fluid intelligence
               crystallized intelligence
          Temperament Traits
               style and tempo of behavior
               biological influence
          Dynamic Traits : Exist in a ‘Dynamic lattice’
               ergs: dynamic, constitutional source traits anger, fear, sex, etc.
               meta ergs: environmental-mold (learned) dynamic source traits
               sentiments and attitudes

                        HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
MEASUREMENT OF TRAITS/ PERSONALITY
Personality assessment through psychological tests

Anastasi (1988): ‘A psychological test is an objective and
standardized measure of a sample of behaviour’

Types of tests:
Intelligence/Ability tests vs. Personality tests vs. Attitude scales
Individual vs. group tests
Verbal vs. Non verbal tests
Paper and pencil vs. Performance tests
Speed vs. Power tests
Objective vs. Subjective tests (E.g: Multiple choice vs. essay type)
Self report vs. Projective tests

Self learning/ behaviour change after trait awareness ???

                  HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
       USUAL TRAITS ASSESSED BY TESTS
Cattell’s 16 PF

Eysenck’s Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism

Big Five: First given by Fiske (1949) and later expanded upon by
others such as Norman (1967), Smith (1967), Goldberg (1981), and
McCrae & Costa (1987)
 • Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability,
   talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
 • Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust,
   altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors.
 • Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of
   thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those
   high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.
 • Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional
   instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.
 • Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight,
   and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.

                       HUL 204 Leadership, Decision making, and Communication in Organizations
         Thank you




HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY

								
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