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PowerPoint Presentation - CHAOS Verhulst' population model

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					Ocean waters 1

  water masses
      and
   acoustics


                 1
Boyle                Buchanan                     Dittmar




                                                            2
        Forchhamer              Marcet’s wife, Jane
dissolved solids in seawater




                               3
seawater constituent residence times

constituent              time (years)

Chloride (Cl-)            100,000,000
Sodium (Na+)               68,000,000
Magnesium (Mg2+)           13,000,000
Potassium (K+)             12,000,000
Sulfate (SO42-)            11,000,000
Calcium (Ca2+)              1,000,000
Carbonate (CO32-)             110,000
Silicon (Si)                   20,000
Water (H2O)                     4,100
Manganese (Mn)                  1,300
Aluminum (Al)                     600
Iron (Fe)                         200

                                        4
      Rosette Sampler




       Niskin bottles




                        Nansen bottle
                           tripping




                             5
CTD
Temperature - Salinity graph paper
density value calculated for T,S and at atmospheric pressure

                                                               6
7
8
9
10
11
                                                                     sinking of Antarctic Intermediate Water
                                                                        observed by hydrographic surveys




                                                                                       AAIW




                   conceptual model of sinking along constant density lines
note that, at “ A “, the vertical distribution of T,S reflects its horizontal counterpart in the source region
                                                                                                                 12
Challenger   T@ 700 m




                        13
                    temperature   pressure   sound speed



         1000
   d
   e
             2000
   p
   t
   h
             3000
[ meters ]




                                                           14
15
16
17
This graph traces sound energy propagation paths from the surface to 3000 meters
depth over a range of 10 to 45 nautical miles from an underwater explosion detonated
at the depth of the sofar channel axis. Cyclic behavior in energy transmission
brought about by the physical process of refraction will produce concentrations of
paths and enhanced sound levels at approximately every range step of 35 km.            18
S   s
O   o
U   u
N   n
D   d

                                                               *
                                                                *
E   e
N   n
E   e
R   r
G   g
Y   y




                                                                               TIME
                                                                               time


    This graph presents sound energy arriving at a hydrophone positioned on the axis of
    a local sofar channel that is 1350 nm from an explosion detonated on a sofar channel
    axis. The depths of the axes are not necessarily the same. The sound energy arriving
    at the time associated with the asterisk above traveled the shortest distance at the
    slowest sound speed, along the axis. Sound arrivals to the left, at earlier times,
    traveled longer cyclic paths at higher sound speeds and have lower peak energy
    levels due to losses that are a function of, and occur, along transmission paths.
                                                                                      19

				
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