Memory Typical memory hierarchy Struktur disk drive by dzN2lf9

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									Matakuliah     : T0316/sistem Operasi
Tahun          : 2005
Versi/Revisi   :5




                  Pertemuan 2
         Klasifikasi Sistem Operasi dan
                Review Hardware




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         Learning Outcomes


Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa
akan mampu :
• menyebutkan jenis-jenis sistem operasi serta
  fungsinya pada sistem komputer (C1)




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                    Outline Materi

• OS Zoo
   –   Main frame operating system
   –   Server operating system
   –   Multiprocessor operating system
   –   PC operating system
   –   Real time operating system
   –   Embedded operating system
   –   Smart card operating system
• Computer Hardware
   – Processors
        • Registers
        • Pipeline
        • System Call
   – Memory
   – I/O Devices
        • Device driver
        • I/O Methods
   – Buses                               3
    CLASSIFICATION OF
OPERATING SYSTEM (OS ZOO)




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OS ZOO (1)
Mainframe Operating System
- Oriented toward processing many jobs at once, most of which
  needs large amount of I/O
- Three kinds of services: batch, transaction processing, and
  timesharing
- Eg: OS/360, OS/390

Server Operating System
- Serve multiple users at once over the network
- Allow users to share hardware and software resources
- Eg: Unix, Windows 2000

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OS ZOO (2)
Multiprocessor Operating System
- Connect multiple CPUs into a single system
- Need special operating system or variations on the server
  operating systems


Personal Computer Operating System
- Provide good interface to a single user
- Used for word processing, spreadsheets, and internet
  access
- Eg: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Macintosh, Linux


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 OS ZOO (3)
Real Time Operating System
- Key parameter  time
    Hard Real-Time System
    Soft Real-Time System
- Eg: VxWorks, QNX

Embedded Operating System
- Run on the computers that control devices that are not
  generally thought as computers
- Palmtop computer or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)
- Eg: PalmOS, Windows CE
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OS ZOO (4)
Smart Card Operating System
- Run on smart card, credit card-sized devices containing a
  CPU chip
- Severe processing power and memory constraints
- Some are Java oriented  ROM on the smart card hols an
  interpreter for Java Virtual Machine (JVM)




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REVIEW PERANGKAT KERAS




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Komponen PC




              10
              Processor

• Siklus dasar CPU:
  – Fetch, decode dan execute instruction


    General Register
       berisi variables dan hasil perhitungan
       sementara
    Special Register
       Program counter
       Stack Pointer
       PSW (Program Status Word)
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             Processor (2)

• Pipeline

                             Three stage pipeline

                                     Superscalar CPU




     System Call                                    12
             Memory

• Typical memory hierarchy




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• Struktur disk drive:




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• Nonvolatile RAM:
  – ROM (Read Only Memory)
     • Programmed at the factory and cannot be changed afterward
  – EEPROM (Electrically Erasable ROM) and flash RAM
• Volatile memory: CMOS
  – Hold the time and date, configuration parameters
• If there are multiple programs int the memory at
  the same time, the problem which must be
  solved:
  – Protecting program from the other
  – Relocation

                                                              15
• One base-limit pair and two base-limit pairs




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• Virtual address
  – address yang dihasilkan dari program
• Physical address
  – address yang dipakai oleh memory
• MMU (Memory Management Unit)
  – device yang melakukan pemeriksaan dan
    mapping
• Contect switch
  – peralihan dari suatu program kepada yang
    lainnya
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             I/O Devices

• Terdiri dari:
  – Controller
     • memberikan interface yang sederhana kepada
       operating system
  – Device
• Device driver
  – software yang berhubungan dengan
    controller, memberinya instruksi dan
    menerima response

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• I/O dapat dilakukan dengan 3 cara:
  – Busy waiting
  – Interrupt
  – DMA (Direct Memory Access)




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• Langkah memulai I/O device dan
  mendapatkan interrupt




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• Pemrosesan interrupt




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• Buses
  – Multiple bus pada Pentium




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• Dua jenis bus yang utama:
    – ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)
       • dari IBM
    – PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
       • dari Intel
•   USB (Universal Serial Bus)
•   SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
•   IEEE 1394 atau FireWire
•   Plug and Play
•   BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
    – Held in flash RAM

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