The Most Tough Undesired
Components and Pollutants in
1. Scale and Water Hardness
2. Corrosion and Rust
3. Bacteria and Algae
1. Scale and Hard
Water with higher content of
alkali earth (Ca, Mg),
bicarbonates is called hard
How do you recognize hard
•Hard water prevents soap
from lathering by causing
the development of an
insoluble precipitate in the
Origin of ions that cause hardness in
•As ocean water evaporates, it form clouds, which condenses and
•As rain water falls it encounters carbon dioxide and reacts with it to
form a mild acid (Carbonic Acid).
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3
•Thus as rain water comes into contact with limestone in the earth, the
limestone dissolves and goes into solution with the water.
CaCO3 + H2CO3 = Ca + 2 HCO3
Surface waters also encounter
carbon dioxide from the decay of
organic materials. As these waters
contact limestone, the limestone
gradually dissolves and goes into
How hard water is formed in nature?
When the concentration
of calcium and
due to the intensive
reactions of rain water
when it falls on
carbonate rocks this may
cause water hardness.
The main problem
associated with the use
of hard water in the
different applications is
•Scale is a precipitate deposited on surfaces
(e.g. inner pipe surfaces) that are in contact
•Scale forms rocklike deposits inside
and/or on water pipes and equipments.
1.The degree of supersaturation
(high saturation index enhances scale formation)
Ca2+ + 2 HCO3- CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
(increase temperature, decreases solubility of CaCO3 and
enhances scale formation)
( increase PH, decreases solubility of CaCO3 and enhances
4. Organic Processes
Orthorhombic Aragonite Hexagonal Calcite
•Limescale is only a problem if calcium carbonate
precipitates as hexagonal calcite crystals.
•Orthorhombic aragonite crystals, which are 19
times more soluble than calcite, are less prone to
form hard scale.
Calcite crystal seed needs a surface (the
wall of the pipe) to precipitate upon.
Aragonite may nucleate in solution and
form soluble substance which does not
adhere to surfaces
CaCO3 Crystal Structures
Electron microscope photographs for water
samples with (A) and without (B) scale
•It is common that calcium carbonate scale to adhere to
the inner wall of the pipes. This causes the following
problems in the pipe networks:
1.Reduction in the flow rate. This may require increased
pressure to maintain the water flow.
2. Reduction in the efficiency of heat exchangers.
3. Increasing the cost associated with
operating systems using water
2. Corrosion and
• Corrosion is the result of some bacterial
and/or chemical reactions inside pipes.
•Rust is a combination of trivalent iron with
oxygen i.e. ferric oxide (Fe2O3).
Corrosion leads to
biting the water pipes.
This ends up to great
1. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB)
5(CH20106(NH3)l6(H3PO4 + 55S34O4 106CO2 + 16NH3 + 5532S +
H2O + CO2 H2CO3
H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
Ca2+ + 2 HCO3- CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
This kind of bacteria is catastrophic for pipe network via:
enhancing scale, poising water and causing pipe biting.
2. Infectious bacteria, algae and viruses
•These include pathogenic (disease
producing) bacteria, viruses, algae
and protozoans (microorganisms).
•These organisms constitute a major
problem for drinking water potability.
Water treatment is a process of making water
suitable for its different applications and uses.
The most tough water treatment processes include:
1. The removal of scale and water hardness (water softening).
2. The removal of bacteria, algae and other organic
3. The prevention of corrosion of water pipes.
These water treatment processes may
involve physical, chemical and biological
• Labor intensive,
•Flushing out the system with acid,
•Plant shutdown necessary,
•Corrosive (early renewal of piping),
• Recurring expenses
•Bad for environment,
•Plant shutdown necessary,
•Friendly for the environment,
• No corrosion,
•No plant shutdown necessary,
•One time investment,
•Capital equipment last longer
•Magnetic •Electrolysis (Static electric field).
•Of restricted use (Not suitable • Invasive.
for large pipe sizes)
• Low effectiveness.
•Needs mechanical filter up
•Electrodes corrode and will have to be
• Low effectiveness.
•Friendly for environment.
•No filter upstream required
•No chemicals needed
•Life span over 20 years
•No restrictions in pipe size
•Removes old carbonate scale layers.
•Friendly for environment.
Methods of Bacteriological Control
•This process may be harmfull for man health in many instances.
• You may always add some disinfection byproducts (trihalomethanes,
•Ozone treatment can create undesirable byproducts that can be
harmful to health (e.g., formaldehyde and bromate).
Ultra Violet (UV)
•UV radiation is not suitable for water with high levels of suspended
solids, turbidity or soluble organic matter.
Methods for Corrosion Prevention
After we have talk about water problems and the
conventional solutions, which themselves may
become extra problems
What is the new technology we have?
And why we believe that it offers the perfect solution for:
Scale and water hardness problems
Pipes Corrosion and Rust
Bacteria and other harmful organisms
It is an electronic equipment that get use of a
natural (Physical) phenomenon in solving the
most tough problems of hard water, scales,
corrosion and bacteria.
It is the time of Science.
It is the time of technology
Just relax and let Descaler works
Reduced maintenance expenses
No undesired hard scale in pipework
Extended equipment life
No more chemicals
Improved water texture
Prevent decreasing the heat exchange
Can be installed on all types of
pipes (steel, copper, plastic)
Payback typically 3-12 months
How it Works?
•The Descaler microprocessor based devise
creates a specially designed frequency-modulated
time-varying electromagnetic fields through the
inductor coil unit, which are wrapped around the
The electromagnetic waves varies in three ways:
polarity, frequency and amplitude.
•Polarity changes from positive to negative many
thousands of times per second.
•Frequency varies from 2,000 cycles per second to 7,000
cycles per second. That range of frequencies is wide
enough to affect the water and the materials in the water.
•Amplitude varies from 0 milliamps to 250 milliamps. This
means that the water molecules and the material in the
water are being subjected to a wide range of field forces.
Ca HCO3 Ca
Induced Electromagnetic Waves Will Exert
an Effect on Five Things Inside The Pipe
•The alternating or switching directions of the
Electromagnetic Multi-Frequency Fields uniquely created
by the Digital Descaler rotates the ionized calcium
and bicarbonate molecules toward alignment with the
•This rotation for alignment agitates the
molecules and breaks the bonds between the
molecules and bonded water molecules.
•The oppositely-charged ions (i.e. Ca2+, HCO3-) will then be
forced to move in opposite directions, thereby producing
•This may result in the formation of microscopic nuclei that
cause the calcium carbonate to precipitate within the water
(in the form of aragonite), instead of on the surfaces of pipes,
as hard insoluble calcite
and thus prevents the formation of new scale.
When the Ca and HCO3 ions are freed
in solution why they combine to form
aragonite and not calcite?
The answer is:
Only aragonite polymorph can be
formed at this higher energy level
Electromagnetic Descaler Effectiveness
Descaling effectiveness can be easily
verified by a simple experiment:
•Water with hardness of 300 – 400 ppm, PH=9,
TDS=1500 ppm approximately are placed in two
•In each container, a small pump is used to
circulate the water through a transparent hose .
•The water in both containers is then heated to 70
degree C to promote the growth of hard scale .
•In one of the containers, the transparent hose
is passed through the Descaler unit for
treatment. The other act as a control with no
•After 2-3 hours, it can be seen that the hose transporting water treated
by the Descaler remains very clear without any scale deposit.
•The hose of the control has significant quantity of hard scale
deposited along the hose wall .
•When the calcium and bicarbonate ions are
removed from water in the form of inert aragonite:
•The water loses some of its alkalinity and
becomes undersaturated with calcite.
•This makes the water capable to attack the old
scale surrounding the pipe wall and dissolve it.
Before treatment 1 month after 3 month after
The induced stream of
electrons transform trivalent
iron into divalent iron.
Rust particles are dislodged
and flushed out until a
protective film of saturated
ferrous oxide is formed
inside the pipe.
•Alternating and pulsed electromagnetic fields
have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth.
•Moreover, it is evident that scale is an optimum
substrate where Bacteria (e.g. sulfate reducing
•Removing of scale using Descaler will
provide an environment not suitable for bacteria,
algae to live.
Water Molecular Structure
H2O molecules link up to
each other because of the
dipole nature of the
individual H2O molecules.
electromagnetic fields may
There is a trade-off between
affect the bonding strength
the covalent and hydrogen Covalent bond
bond strengths; the may be
The breakage of bondsstronger O
is the H····O hydrogen bond, H O
due to the more energetic H
the created by the
statesweaker the O-H covalent Hydrogen bond
bond, and the shorter
electromagnetic fields the
WHAT IS "WETTER WATER"
•"Wetter Water" is the result of reduced
covalent hydrogen bonding between
adjacent water molecules.
•The surface tension will be reduced and
separated water clusters may be formed.
•It is more reactive
• Enables soap and detergent to break up into
smaller groupings and interface with the
smaller H2O groupings.
•Existing hard scale in pipelines/equipment
surfaces will disintegrate after weeks or months
of treatment with the Descaler.
•Saving in energy consumption and regulating
heat exchange due to scale prevention and
•Cleaner system resulting in lower bacteria level .
•No corrosive pipes anymore.
•Enhanced Bacteriological Control
•Enhanced Heat Transfer
COOLING TOWER WATER CONDITIONING
Evaporation cooling tower
Dissolved deposits removed
from the cooling tower
within 4 weeks
•In Europe this physical treatment technique is today installed in
more than 3500 cooling towers.
•It takes only 3 to 6 months to dissolve 2 tons of solid impurities from
the coiller in a cooling tower after the installation of the chemical free
Descaler physical water treatment
•No expensive chemical additives,
• no environmentally pollution and
• pay back time is in general less than 7-8 months!
•Further the reduced water surface tension increases dispersion of the
water drops. Thus, a better heat exchange and cooling effect.
•No more Fouling
•Reduction in Chemical Usage
Our Children Deserve It
A glass of water with
•Even distilled water you purchase in plastic bottles at
the store will eventually have some carbon dioxide
(CO2) from the air dissolved in it forming a weak acid
•Ca and Mg are considered undesirable contaminants
for forming scales inside water pipes regardless of the
•In the USA in 1994-1995, there were 3,641 water
purification utilities in the US that reported violating
the federal health standards for fecal bacteria
•The "Wetter Water" penetrates soil
better and faster.
•Salt and scale-dissolving properties
of treated water increase its ability for
leaching away excess salinity
accumulated in the soil.
•Grow Faster without
Concrete and Cement Manufacture
•Up to 18% Stronger Concrete
•Less Water Required
•Increase the consistence volume by 3 to 6 cm.
•Reduce the water consumtion and cement volume.
•Less additives required.
•The water overall at the pool has improved
•Scum deposits are removed from around the pool edge.
•Steel fittings return to their former pristine condition.
•Lime scale is removed from within the swimming pool plant.
•Stabilizers are no longer required to correct the pH balance.
•Less chlorine usage
•The shower heads were cleaned
Sheraton Hotel and Towers in Riyadh
Three different areas of the Sheraton Hotel were fitted with anti-scale
units, These were:-
•the main water supply to the Guest rooms, Kitchens, Laundry and other
•the Swimming Pool and
•the Calorifier room
The manufacturers of the humidifiers, Anstan
Technologies, South Africa, have recommended the
use of AquaVantage as a retro-fit to all their existing
5000+ customers and have specified AquaVantage as
a supplied option to their units.
Photo after one week Photo after two weeks Photo after three weeks
NEW SCALE ELIMINATED AND EXISTING SCALE REMOVED
•Remove scale from pipe work
•Remove scale from calorifiers
•Reduce the scale in desalinization equipment
•Help maintain a constant water pressure
•Increase the life of capital equipment
•Reduce scale in water-fed galley equipment
•Reduce lime scale build-up from around baths, basins & sinks
•Combat scale build-up in shower heads
•Reduce maintenance of seawater cooled diesel engines
•Reduce cleaning costs, chemicals & labor
•Provide a short term payback