PSSA prep homework Feb 13

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					Generation Date: 02/10/2012
     Generated By: Monica Mancini


                                         Context Clues
1.     The Arctic explorers watched carefully for crevasses, deep cracks that form in glaciers.




     What is the meaning of crevasses in the sentence above?


     A. bad storms
     B. deep cracks
     C. glaciers
     D. arctic explorers




                              Inferences and Conclusions
                                Astronauts Living in Space
                                   by Becky Bray and Patrick Meyer

    Astronauts living in space do many of the same things they would do on Earth. They eat, sleep,
work, wash, and have fun, just as we do on land.
    The astronauts are prepared to meet the challenges of living in space. They must have a college
degree in engineering and must complete at least 1500 hours of instructional flying time. They must
graduate from a school for jet pilots.
    They also must meet stiff requirements and undergo difficult training before they are approved for
a space trip. Training in jet aircraft and simulated spacecraft prepares them to cope with the effects
of weightlessness. In addition, they must be in excellent physical condition when they enter the
spacecraft, and they must maintain their health during the flight.
    Astronauts have to be careful when eating in the space shuttle because their food can float away.
Sticky foods are the best, and crumbly food isn't sent to space. Many foods have the water removed,
so they weigh less and take up less room. Before eating, the astronauts add water and squish the
food and water around in a plastic bag so that it is not too dry to eat. Astronauts can add hot water
for hot food, but there is no refrigerator on the shuttle, so no cold drinks.
    Astronauts agree that sleeping in the shuttle is an adventure, too. Some astronauts like to float
free in the shuttle to sleep, gently bouncing off a wall once in a while. Other astronauts sleep better if
they are zipped into a sleeping bag. They say it feels more like sleeping in a bed on Earth. There's
even a little pillow that they can fasten to their heads with a strap.
     Staying clean is harder in space, too. There is no shower or bathtub on the shuttle, so astronauts
have to take sponge baths. They can brush their teeth the regular way but have to be careful that
toothpaste globs don't drift away.
     One of the most important things astronauts must do every day in space is exercise. Without
gravity, the human body starts to lose muscle and bone tissue. To keep their bodies strong,
astronauts exercise using a treadmill or rowing machine.
     In spite of the many similarities between living on Earth and living on the space shuttle, space is
still a hostile environment for human beings. We still have much to learn about how to make our
astronauts comfortable in space.

2. Which sentence from the article supports the idea that astronauts have to be
   educated?


    A. "They must have a college degree in engineering and must complete at least 1500
       hours of instructional flying time."
    B. "Before eating, the astronauts add water and squish the food and water around in a
       plastic bag so it is not too dry to eat."
    C. "They can brush their teeth the regular way but have to be careful that toothpaste
       globs don't drift away."
   D. "Some astronauts like to float free in the shuttle to sleep, gently bouncing off a wall
      once in a while."




                                      Pretest - Reading
                                        Stormy Lessons
                                          by Jennifer Thayer

                         Supine, our heads pillowed by the soft earth,
                         we watched the sky race by, wind whipping
                         through scattering bits of grass and
                         blowing our hair in our eyes.

                         My mother reached out her hand to me
                         either for comfort or
                         to make sure I didn't blow away
                         as the earth and trees heaved heavy breaths.

                         Stormy, angry fingers stirred the
                         over-heated air and every living thing seemed
                         charged with electricity like a live wire,
                         pulsing and crackling.

                         Finally the heavens tore and light spilled
                         forth, splitting the sky
                         a mirror cracking, a spider web
                         flashing so quickly I wondered if it had existed at all.

                         "Here it comes," she said as the thunder
                         rolled and tumbled, rumbling like a
                         freight train from the ground up and out
                          of our bodies, set free from the core itself.

                          Learning about nature from a desk
                          had not prepared me for this powerful display,
                          and I grasped her hand tighter as the world shook
                          teaching me lessons mere words couldn't touch.

 3. Which of these best describes the poem's theme?


     A. Storms are scary and dangerous and not worth watching.
     B. Sometimes the frightening things are the most worthwhile.
     C. Parents should always be there to protect their children.
     D. Everything we need to know we can learn from books.




                                          Context Clues
4.     The harp, fiddle, flute, pipes, and bodhrán are all popular among the Irish who keep the
     Celtic traditions.

     What type of object is a bodhrán in the sentence above?


     A. a hat
     B. an instrument
     C. a bow
     D. an animal




                               Inferences and Conclusions
                                Astronauts Living in Space
                                    by Becky Bray and Patrick Meyer

    Astronauts living in space do many of the same things they would do on Earth. They eat, sleep,
work, wash, and have fun, just as we do on land.
    The astronauts are prepared to meet the challenges of living in space. They must have a college
degree in engineering and must complete at least 1500 hours of instructional flying time. They must
graduate from a school for jet pilots.
    They also must meet stiff requirements and undergo difficult training before they are approved for
a space trip. Training in jet aircraft and simulated spacecraft prepares them to cope with the effects
of weightlessness. In addition, they must be in excellent physical condition when they enter the
spacecraft, and they must maintain their health during the flight.
    Astronauts have to be careful when eating in the space shuttle because their food can float away.
Sticky foods are the best, and crumbly food isn't sent to space. Many foods have the water removed,
so they weigh less and take up less room. Before eating, the astronauts add water and squish the
food and water around in a plastic bag so that it is not too dry to eat. Astronauts can add hot water
for hot food, but there is no refrigerator on the shuttle, so no cold drinks.
    Astronauts agree that sleeping in the shuttle is an adventure, too. Some astronauts like to float
free in the shuttle to sleep, gently bouncing off a wall once in a while. Other astronauts sleep better if
they are zipped into a sleeping bag. They say it feels more like sleeping in a bed on Earth. There's
even a little pillow that they can fasten to their heads with a strap.
     Staying clean is harder in space, too. There is no shower or bathtub on the shuttle, so astronauts
have to take sponge baths. They can brush their teeth the regular way but have to be careful that
toothpaste globs don't drift away.
     One of the most important things astronauts must do every day in space is exercise. Without
gravity, the human body starts to lose muscle and bone tissue. To keep their bodies strong,
astronauts exercise using a treadmill or rowing machine.
     In spite of the many similarities between living on Earth and living on the space shuttle, space is
still a hostile environment for human beings. We still have much to learn about how to make our
astronauts comfortable in space.

5. Based on information in the article, what can the reader conclude about
   astronauts who go into space?


    A. They need to pack light suitcases.
    B. They have to take a shower first.
    C. They have to take their own food.
   D. They must be physically healthy.




                                       Pretest - Reading
                                        Stormy Lessons
                                           by Jennifer Thayer

                         Supine, our heads pillowed by the soft earth,
                         we watched the sky race by, wind whipping
                         through scattering bits of grass and
                         blowing our hair in our eyes.

                         My mother reached out her hand to me
                         either for comfort or
                         to make sure I didn't blow away
                         as the earth and trees heaved heavy breaths.

                         Stormy, angry fingers stirred the
                         over-heated air and every living thing seemed
                         charged with electricity like a live wire,
                         pulsing and crackling.

                         Finally the heavens tore and light spilled
                         forth, splitting the sky
                         a mirror cracking, a spider web
                         flashing so quickly I wondered if it had existed at all.

                         "Here it comes," she said as the thunder
                         rolled and tumbled, rumbling like a
                         freight train from the ground up and out
                         of our bodies, set free from the core itself.
                        Learning about nature from a desk
                        had not prepared me for this powerful display,
                        and I grasped her hand tighter as the world shook
                        teaching me lessons mere words couldn't touch.

 6. The stormy weather in the poem might symbolize


   A. that hiding from scary things is always wise.
    B. how weather changes with the seasons.
    C. the hard things we go through in life.
   D. the importance of handling problems alone.




                                        Context Clues
                                             Warthog
                                        by Jennifer Kirkpatrick

   Under a blazing African sun a female warthog, a kind of wild pig, kneels on a grassy plain. With
her wide snout the warthog digs grass roots and eats them while her two piglets stand nearby.
Scrambling onto the mother's back, birds called oxpeckers eat bloodsucking ticks and other insects
that feed on the warthog's skin.
   Suddenly the oxpeckers raise their beaks and hiss. A lion dashes from its hiding place toward
them. The birds scatter, and the mother warthog, alerted to danger, grunts loudly. Her piglets squeal
and scurry away.
   The mother waits a second, then speeds toward her offspring with her tail stiffly erect. The piglets
run headfirst into a burrow, then the mother whirls around and backs in. Her large head and tusks
block the entrance. The lion circles and soon leaves.
   With four tusks and large shovel-shaped heads, warthogs look fierce, but they often avoid fighting
predators such as lions, cheetahs, leopards, wild dogs, or hyenas by running away or dodging into a
burrow. Warthogs can run as fast as 30 miles (48 kilometers) an hour, often outdistancing a pursuer.
   When cornered by predators, warthogs will attack with their sharp lower tusks, which can
measure 6 inches (15 centimeters) long. Older warthogs have long curved upper tusks that can grow
as long as 2 feet (61 centimeters). These too serve as weapons. Warthogs are generally peaceful,
but sometimes a male may attack another male during mating season. The snarling attacker, with
his mane and tail erect, charges into his opponent's lowered head. The fleshy, wartlike bumps that
cover male warthogs' heads may cushion the blows.
   The warthogs butt each other with their snouts and try to push each other down. Most often the
weaker male will give up and walk away. Very rarely will a warthog be wounded in these attacks.

7. In the passage, opponent means


   A. advocate.
    B. opposite.
    C. assistant.
   D. rival.
                              Inferences and Conclusions
                                Astronauts Living in Space
                                   by Becky Bray and Patrick Meyer

     Astronauts living in space do many of the same things they would do on Earth. They eat, sleep,
work, wash, and have fun, just as we do on land.
     The astronauts are prepared to meet the challenges of living in space. They must have a college
degree in engineering and must complete at least 1500 hours of instructional flying time. They must
graduate from a school for jet pilots.
     They also must meet stiff requirements and undergo difficult training before they are approved for
a space trip. Training in jet aircraft and simulated spacecraft prepares them to cope with the effects
of weightlessness. In addition, they must be in excellent physical condition when they enter the
spacecraft, and they must maintain their health during the flight.
     Astronauts have to be careful when eating in the space shuttle because their food can float away.
Sticky foods are the best, and crumbly food isn't sent to space. Many foods have the water removed,
so they weigh less and take up less room. Before eating, the astronauts add water and squish the
food and water around in a plastic bag so that it is not too dry to eat. Astronauts can add hot water
for hot food, but there is no refrigerator on the shuttle, so no cold drinks.
     Astronauts agree that sleeping in the shuttle is an adventure, too. Some astronauts like to float
free in the shuttle to sleep, gently bouncing off a wall once in a while. Other astronauts sleep better if
they are zipped into a sleeping bag. They say it feels more like sleeping in a bed on Earth. There's
even a little pillow that they can fasten to their heads with a strap.
     Staying clean is harder in space, too. There is no shower or bathtub on the shuttle, so astronauts
have to take sponge baths. They can brush their teeth the regular way but have to be careful that
toothpaste globs don't drift away.
     One of the most important things astronauts must do every day in space is exercise. Without
gravity, the human body starts to lose muscle and bone tissue. To keep their bodies strong,
astronauts exercise using a treadmill or rowing machine.
     In spite of the many similarities between living on Earth and living on the space shuttle, space is
still a hostile environment for human beings. We still have much to learn about how to make our
astronauts comfortable in space.

8. What is the most likely reason that crumbly food is not sent into space?


    A. Astronauts only like to eat dry food.
    B. Little crumbs would float in the air.
    C. Crumbly food does not taste good in space.
   D. Crumbly food does not mix with water.




                                       Pretest - Reading
                                        Stormy Lessons
                                           by Jennifer Thayer

                         Supine, our heads pillowed by the soft earth,
                         we watched the sky race by, wind whipping
                         through scattering bits of grass and
                         blowing our hair in our eyes.
                         My mother reached out her hand to me
                         either for comfort or
                         to make sure I didn't blow away
                         as the earth and trees heaved heavy breaths.

                         Stormy, angry fingers stirred the
                         over-heated air and every living thing seemed
                         charged with electricity like a live wire,
                         pulsing and crackling.

                         Finally the heavens tore and light spilled
                         forth, splitting the sky
                         a mirror cracking, a spider web
                         flashing so quickly I wondered if it had existed at all.

                         "Here it comes," she said as the thunder
                         rolled and tumbled, rumbling like a
                         freight train from the ground up and out
                         of our bodies, set free from the core itself.

                         Learning about nature from a desk
                         had not prepared me for this powerful display,
                         and I grasped her hand tighter as the world shook
                         teaching me lessons mere words couldn't touch.

 9. The metaphor "a mirror cracking, a spider web" refers to


    A. lightning.
    B. rain.
    C. wind.
   D. thunder.




                                         Context Clues
                                              Warthog
                                         by Jennifer Kirkpatrick

   Under a blazing African sun a female warthog, a kind of wild pig, kneels on a grassy plain. With
her wide snout the warthog digs grass roots and eats them while her two piglets stand nearby.
Scrambling onto the mother's back, birds called oxpeckers eat bloodsucking ticks and other insects
that feed on the warthog's skin.
   Suddenly the oxpeckers raise their beaks and hiss. A lion dashes from its hiding place toward
them. The birds scatter, and the mother warthog, alerted to danger, grunts loudly. Her piglets squeal
and scurry away.
   The mother waits a second, then speeds toward her offspring with her tail stiffly erect. The piglets
run headfirst into a burrow, then the mother whirls around and backs in. Her large head and tusks
block the entrance. The lion circles and soon leaves.
   With four tusks and large shovel-shaped heads, warthogs look fierce, but they often avoid fighting
predators such as lions, cheetahs, leopards, wild dogs, or hyenas by running away or dodging into a
burrow. Warthogs can run as fast as 30 miles (48 kilometers) an hour, often outdistancing a pursuer.
   When cornered by predators, warthogs will attack with their sharp lower tusks, which can
measure 6 inches (15 centimeters) long. Older warthogs have long curved upper tusks that can grow
as long as 2 feet (61 centimeters). These too serve as weapons. Warthogs are generally peaceful,
but sometimes a male may attack another male during mating season. The snarling attacker, with
his mane and tail erect, charges into his opponent's lowered head. The fleshy, wartlike bumps that
cover male warthogs' heads may cushion the blows.
   The warthogs butt each other with their snouts and try to push each other down. Most often the
weaker male will give up and walk away. Very rarely will a warthog be wounded in these attacks.

10. The best meaning for the word predator in this passage is


    A. a bloodsucking tick.
    B. an animal that preys on other animals.
    C. an animal with four tusks and a large shovel-shaped head.
   D. an animal who befriends other animals.




                              Inferences and Conclusions
                                Astronauts Living in Space
                                   by Becky Bray and Patrick Meyer

     Astronauts living in space do many of the same things they would do on Earth. They eat, sleep,
work, wash, and have fun, just as we do on land.
     The astronauts are prepared to meet the challenges of living in space. They must have a college
degree in engineering and must complete at least 1500 hours of instructional flying time. They must
graduate from a school for jet pilots.
     They also must meet stiff requirements and undergo difficult training before they are approved for
a space trip. Training in jet aircraft and simulated spacecraft prepares them to cope with the effects
of weightlessness. In addition, they must be in excellent physical condition when they enter the
spacecraft, and they must maintain their health during the flight.
     Astronauts have to be careful when eating in the space shuttle because their food can float away.
Sticky foods are the best, and crumbly food isn't sent to space. Many foods have the water removed,
so they weigh less and take up less room. Before eating, the astronauts add water and squish the
food and water around in a plastic bag so that it is not too dry to eat. Astronauts can add hot water
for hot food, but there is no refrigerator on the shuttle, so no cold drinks.
     Astronauts agree that sleeping in the shuttle is an adventure, too. Some astronauts like to float
free in the shuttle to sleep, gently bouncing off a wall once in a while. Other astronauts sleep better if
they are zipped into a sleeping bag. They say it feels more like sleeping in a bed on Earth. There's
even a little pillow that they can fasten to their heads with a strap.
     Staying clean is harder in space, too. There is no shower or bathtub on the shuttle, so astronauts
have to take sponge baths. They can brush their teeth the regular way but have to be careful that
toothpaste globs don't drift away.
     One of the most important things astronauts must do every day in space is exercise. Without
gravity, the human body starts to lose muscle and bone tissue. To keep their bodies strong,
astronauts exercise using a treadmill or rowing machine.
     In spite of the many similarities between living on Earth and living on the space shuttle, space is
still a hostile environment for human beings. We still have much to learn about how to make our
astronauts comfortable in space.
11. According to the selection, which statement about living in space is true?


   A. Living in space is easier for women than it is for men.
   B. Living in space is exactly like living at home on Earth.
   C. Astronauts have to learn different ways to do simple tasks.
   D. Astronauts do not have time to sleep when on the shuttle.




                                      Pretest - Reading
                                        Stormy Lessons
                                          by Jennifer Thayer

                         Supine, our heads pillowed by the soft earth,
                         we watched the sky race by, wind whipping
                         through scattering bits of grass and
                         blowing our hair in our eyes.

                         My mother reached out her hand to me
                         either for comfort or
                         to make sure I didn't blow away
                         as the earth and trees heaved heavy breaths.

                         Stormy, angry fingers stirred the
                         over-heated air and every living thing seemed
                         charged with electricity like a live wire,
                         pulsing and crackling.

                         Finally the heavens tore and light spilled
                         forth, splitting the sky
                         a mirror cracking, a spider web
                         flashing so quickly I wondered if it had existed at all.

                         "Here it comes," she said as the thunder
                         rolled and tumbled, rumbling like a
                         freight train from the ground up and out
                         of our bodies, set free from the core itself.

                         Learning about nature from a desk
                         had not prepared me for this powerful display,
                         and I grasped her hand tighter as the world shook
                         teaching me lessons mere words couldn't touch.

 12. The poet uses a simile to compare thunder to


   A. a cracked mirror.
   B. a live wire.
   C. a spider web.
   D. a freight train.
                                        Context Clues
                                             Warthog
                                        by Jennifer Kirkpatrick

   Under a blazing African sun a female warthog, a kind of wild pig, kneels on a grassy plain. With
her wide snout the warthog digs grass roots and eats them while her two piglets stand nearby.
Scrambling onto the mother's back, birds called oxpeckers eat bloodsucking ticks and other insects
that feed on the warthog's skin.
   Suddenly the oxpeckers raise their beaks and hiss. A lion dashes from its hiding place toward
them. The birds scatter, and the mother warthog, alerted to danger, grunts loudly. Her piglets squeal
and scurry away.
   The mother waits a second, then speeds toward her offspring with her tail stiffly erect. The piglets
run headfirst into a burrow, then the mother whirls around and backs in. Her large head and tusks
block the entrance. The lion circles and soon leaves.
   With four tusks and large shovel-shaped heads, warthogs look fierce, but they often avoid fighting
predators such as lions, cheetahs, leopards, wild dogs, or hyenas by running away or dodging into a
burrow. Warthogs can run as fast as 30 miles (48 kilometers) an hour, often outdistancing a pursuer.
   When cornered by predators, warthogs will attack with their sharp lower tusks, which can
measure 6 inches (15 centimeters) long. Older warthogs have long curved upper tusks that can grow
as long as 2 feet (61 centimeters). These too serve as weapons. Warthogs are generally peaceful,
but sometimes a male may attack another male during mating season. The snarling attacker, with
his mane and tail erect, charges into his opponent's lowered head. The fleshy, wartlike bumps that
cover male warthogs' heads may cushion the blows.
   The warthogs butt each other with their snouts and try to push each other down. Most often the
weaker male will give up and walk away. Very rarely will a warthog be wounded in these attacks.

13. What is the best meaning for outdistancing in the passage?


   A. a final or decisive result
    B. to run a distance of 48 kilometers
    C. to leave someone or something behind
   D. characteristic of, or belonging outdoors




                              Inferences and Conclusions
                                            Cy Young
And here's the pitch. Steee-rike three! You're out!
Fans of the Cleveland Spiders from 1890 to 1901 heard that cry often when their talented pitcher,
the great Cy Young, was on the mound. Young pitched his first professional game on August 6,
1890, leading his team to a win against the Chicago White Sox. That was the beginning of a great
baseball career.
He was the first major league pitcher to pitch a perfect game, allowing no batter to reach first base.
Over the course of his 22-year career, Young won 511 games—a major league record—and
averaged about 123 victories a season. After his time with the Spiders, Young played with the
Boston Red Sox. Then, he played with the Boston Braves and finally with the Cleveland Indians. His
record put him into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937.
Cy wasn't his real name. He was born Denton True Young in Gilmore, Ohio, on March 29, 1867. He
earned his nickname when a bystander observed that he could throw the ball with the force of a
cyclone. He was known as Cy from that moment on. Young retired from baseball in 1911.
Young's sport is played by people of all ages. Before professional athletes became interested in the
sport and started playing, it was played by children and amateurs. Since Cy Young's time, baseball
has been known as "the national pastime." Today, millions of people throughout the world attend
baseball games at state-of-the-art ballparks. Broadcasts of baseball games are watched on millions
of televisions for every game.
adapted from http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/progress/cy_1

14. Near the beginning of the selection, the author writes, "That was the beginning
    of a great baseball career." Which sentence found later in the selection best
    supports this idea?


   A. "He was born Denton True Young in Gilmore, Ohio, on March 29, 1867."
   B. "Young's sport is played by people of all ages."
    C. "Broadcasts of baseball games are watched on millions of televisions for every game."
   D. "His record put him into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937."




                                     Pretest - Reading
                                       Stormy Lessons
                                         by Jennifer Thayer

                        Supine, our heads pillowed by the soft earth,
                        we watched the sky race by, wind whipping
                        through scattering bits of grass and
                        blowing our hair in our eyes.

                        My mother reached out her hand to me
                        either for comfort or
                        to make sure I didn't blow away
                        as the earth and trees heaved heavy breaths.

                        Stormy, angry fingers stirred the
                        over-heated air and every living thing seemed
                        charged with electricity like a live wire,
                        pulsing and crackling.

                        Finally the heavens tore and light spilled
                        forth, splitting the sky
                        a mirror cracking, a spider web
                        flashing so quickly I wondered if it had existed at all.

                        "Here it comes," she said as the thunder
                        rolled and tumbled, rumbling like a
                        freight train from the ground up and out
                        of our bodies, set free from the core itself.
                       Learning about nature from a desk
                       had not prepared me for this powerful display,
                       and I grasped her hand tighter as the world shook
                       teaching me lessons mere words couldn't touch.

15. In the context of the poem, charged means


 A. accused of a crime.
 B. asked the price of.
  C. full of energy.
 D. attacked head on.

				
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