Azerbaijan in the Second World War by 100yHvRi

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       Tahir Gaffarof


     Azerbaijan
      in the
 Second World war
 The contribution of Azerbaijan on a
victory above a fascism in the Second
             World war.




               London
                2000
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 The Khazar Mission`s Publishing House.
London, 2000.
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 Beginning of the war. Azerbaijan in
    the annexationist plans of the
  struggled parties. Mobilization of
 forces of the people for reflection of
       aggression of an enemy.

        The international situation in 30 years
has become much more complicated. The
opportunities of continuation of struggle with
peace ways behind world domination, behind
sources of raw material and the markets, for
redistributions of spheres of influences were
lost. Above the world has hung danger of new
World War. England and France tried to keep
the colonies, to get new spheres of influence,
to oppose Germany and USSR with the
purpose to weaken both, to render a mortal
blow to a fascism and communism, which
aspired to dominate above the world.
Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to get the
raw and trade markets, and also the spheres of
influence, which they almost had no. USA,
which was the supporter of preservation of an
existing political situation in Europe, intended
to consolidate the positions on East and
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Southeast Asia. England, USA and France
most of all was disturbed by existing danger of
connection material riches of USSR with
technological opportunities of Germany.
Therefore, they, it is possible to tell, almost
helped the fascists to receive authority and
will became stronger in it. These countries
looked to maintenance interests of Germany
in Central Europe, to Munich bargain
(September 29, 1938), which has agreed to
attach to Germany             of Austria and
Czechoslovakia, as means delivering of a
fascism      against      communism.         For
strengthening the positions in Near East, they
aspired to take possession of Southeast
Europe, Black Sea straits, Southern Caucasus,
especialy of Azerbaijan and Baku petroleum.
USSR wanted to take in the sphere of
influence territory from Finland up to the
Persian gulf, Bulgaria, to liquidate the right of
Japan on productions of petroleum and coal in
Sakhalin, to grasp east grounds (up to a line
Керзон) of Poland, and as the Baltic countries,
Western Ukraine, Western Belorussia,
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, to create
military bases on Bosporus and Dardanell.
USSR aspired to a deepening of the
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contradictions between the western countries,
their easing as a result of military collisions, to
creation of the appropriate conditions for
global communist revolution, growth of
number of the countries with a communist
mode.
           Any of the large states did not
concern to the Soviet empire as to serious war-
economy force and potential ally. It was
natural: many generals of the USSR army
were announced "an enemy of the people", the
army has remained, how to tell, without the
chapter, manufacture was based to the non-
economic laws. The foreign countries looked
on USSR as at artificial union of the peoples,
which by force were incorporated and did not
trust on its stability. The opportunities of
barracks socialism in transformation the
country in uniform military camp in extreme
conditions were not correctly estimated. At the
same time, any of these countries did not want
that USSR approached with other states. Not
by serious attempts for creation System of the
International Safety, on the one hand USSR,
which was the initiator of creation of this
system, and on the other hand England and
France aspired to keep each other from a
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conclusion of peace with Germany. Therefore,
negotiation, which five months since March,
1939 proceeded were ineffectual.
              Germany, which came nearer with
England and France and together with them
has put Japan against USSR, faster having
made a conclusion from a victory of Red
Army in Far East (Red Army in July, - August
1939 has routed armies of Japan in regions of
Khassan gol and Khalkhin gol.), having
convinced that can not achieve the purpose in
east yet, offered union to USSR to conquer of
Western Europe. In August 23, 1939 the
contract about a non-aggression within ten
years was concluded between Germany and
the USSR. By this way the USSR was rescued
from danger to conduct war in two fronts - in
west and in east, has received time for a
strengthening of the defense capability of the
country (though not absolutely effectively has
used it), has achieved that the war between the
large groupings of the capitalist states began.
In that time V. M. Molotov (Minister of
foreign affairs USSR) wrote that, to conduct
war now against a fascism is a crime.
             The Second World War began in
September 1, 1939 with an attack of fascist
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Germany on Poland. In September 28 the
USSR and Germany have concluded the
contract about the friendship and borders and
breaking the sovereign rights of the states have
divided the East Europe into spheres of
influence among themselves. In September the
Soviet Army by an attack has conquered
Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia.
The USSR by plot began war with Finland.
According the Moscow contract (March 12
1940) concluded between them the USSR had
expanded the borders to the north of
Leningrad, had taken in rent of a peninsula
Khanko for the military purposes. In autumn
of 1939 the USSR had concluded the contracts
on the mutual help with governments of the
Baltic republics, had placed troops in their
territory. In summer of 1940 the Soviet
government by military blackmail had forced
Romania to repudiate from Bessarabia and
Northern Bukovina. Last never included into
structure of Russia and was not mentioned in
Soviet-German       confidential      protocols,
therefore Germany had expressed discontent.
In November, 1940 Germany had offered to
the Soviet Union to join the Tripartite pact
signed in September of this year by Germany,
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Italy and Japan and to take part in capture of
British India and other southern territories.
However Stalin was more interested in new
purchases on Balkan, than in far India, and it
did not suit Hitler.
              In December 14, 1939 the USSR
as the aggressive state was excluded from
structure of the League of Nations.
             Having secured itself from east,
fascist Germany and its ally Italy for short
term have grasped or have subordinated to the
influence almost all countries of Western and
Central Europe. Within 1939-1941 years the
peoples of Poland, Norway, Denmark, France,
Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia
and Greece were grasped by the German
fascists. The hopes of the USSR that wars
between the capitalist countries will be long
and wearisome were not justified. The fascist
block had subordinated to itself military and
economic potential of the conquered countries.
In comparison with an initial period of war the
armed forces of Germany have increased
twice. The mutual claims on Balkan finally
have upset union of Germany and USSR. On
ways of Germany to the world domination
there was only Soviet Union. June 22, 1941
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fascist Germany has attacked on the USSR.
The plan "Barbarosse", based on strategy of
"lightning war", which provided by drawing
several strong impacts to break Red Army and,
pressing home an attack, till winter to leave on
a line Arkhangelsk - Astrakhan. In the
annexationist plans of Germany the special
place held of Azerbaijan, petroleum Baku
having the important strategic and geopolitical
meaning. The German government as a
primary factor in realization of annexationist
policy in east considered assignment of the
Ukrainian bread and Baku petroleum. On the
basis of      "The Plan of management of
Caucasus", made         by Rossenburg, was
supposed the creation of managements of
Azerbaijan, Georgian, Mountain-Caucasian,
Cuban and Terek. All this managements
submitted to Caucasian Reichcommissariat.
After a victory above the USSR, Germany
intended to continue war and to grasp
territories up to the Persian gulf and Indian
ocean. In territories, where lived the Turkish
peoples, Germany planned creation of the
state, dependent on it - Turkistan. Structure of
this state alongside with Northern and
Southern Azerbaijan should enter Central
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Asia, Kazakhstan, Bashkirdistan, Tatarstan,
the Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Western
China and Afghanistan.
          It was supposed to charge production,
processing and with transportation of the Baku
petroleum German "continental petroleum
company". The chiefs of the large industrial
enterprises of Azerbaijan were already
nominated.
          Concerning Baku Hitler had the
special plan. July 16, 1941 at governmental
Meeting he has informed, that after capture of
Baku this city would turn in strategically
important for Germany military item. The
detailed plans - cards of all important
industrial and military objects of Absheron
and Baku were prepared.
           About the beginning of the war,
taking place on western borders military parts
of the USSR which were not completed up to
the end, not maintaining onslaught, well
armed and having battle experience German
troops and their allies, carrying the large
losses, receded.
            The fascist block hoped for speed
rout of the Soviet Army, But, Germany as in
the plans, and actions had underestimated of
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opportunities of a totalitarian control system in
the USSR, its ability in short terms to mobilize
potential of the country and to transform it
into uniform military camp. With the
beginning of war the Soviet manual has
managed to mobilize all peoples of empire on
rebuff to an aggressor. June 30, 1941 all
authority in the country was concentrated in
hands of State Committee of Defense, which
chairman became I. V. Stalin. The ideological
and political work in the country was
reconstructed. Was offered the slogan "All for
front, all for a victory". In a month was created
the Main Management of Rear. August 25,
1941 the Soviet Army was included in North
of Iran - Southern Azerbaijan. 77 Azerbaijan
division took part in this operation too.
USSR could consolidate the southern borders.
            As well as in other regions of
empire, in Azerbaijan was consolidated the
administrative device of management. The
large role began to play in it bodies of State
Security and          Internal    affairs,  party
committees, and created at them new branch
departments,         political departments at
Machine-Tractor Stations .
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            More than 40 thousand young men
and girl of Azerbaijan have submitted
applications to military commissariats with the
request of sending them to army in the first
weeks of war. Till august in Republic of 123
thousands men have entered the name in a
national home guard. At the end of 1941 in
stracture of a national home guard were
already of 187 thousand citizens, including
more than 30 thousand women. For struggle
against sabotage, gangsterism 87 fighting
batallions including 12 thousand men, and also
1124 groups of self-defense, 15 thousand
groups of an anti-aircraft defense were
created. In auxiliary groups of fighting
batallions and group of self-defense were
involved more than 44 thousand men. In
Azerbaijan were organized in August, of 1941
402-nd, in October 223, in March, -
September of 1942 416-th, in August –
September 271-st national rifle divisions. In
total for 1941-1945 years from Azerbaijans
about 640 thousand citizens, including more
than 10 thousand women were mobilized in
lines of the Soviet Army.
          For a short interval of time the
national economy of Azerbaijan SSR was
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transferred to the militarian road. It was very
difficult. Financially technical base of
economy was much more weakened. Were
sharply reduced a capital investment to an
industry       and       agriculture.     From
Azerneftcombinat have selected 161 tractors, 1
155 motor vehicles, 694 horses for need of
army.Only per 1941-1942 years for these
purposes from collective farms were taken
5457 cargo and 672 other of a motor vehicle,
476 tractors and 50 thousand horses. Were
reduced, and then absolutely stopped import of
materials and equipment for the enterprises
from the central regions. In 1941 some
factories of petroleum mechanical engineering
were moved to east. In 1942 was suspended
manufactures of the petroleum equipment.
Level of production of petroleum was steadily
reduced. In 2000 petroleum chinks have
suspended work. One third workers of a
petroleum industry were caused to army. A
situation were such and in mechanical
engineering, transport and in other branches of
economy. Only in 1941 from collective farms
225 thousand of the workers were mobilized
in army or on work in an industry.
Housewifes, teenagers, veterans of work,
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invalids of war, able-bodied people were
involved on work. The short-term rates of
qualification were created. In republic worked
28 factory schools, 12 schools of craft, 17
schools of agricultural craft. 2 railway schools.
By this way were prepared more than 43
thousand the qualified workers the staff. Since
June 26 the holidays were abolished ( in a
place them paid of money), the working day
was lengthened till 11 hours. The discipline of
work has become stronger. Was determined
punishment deprivation of freedom for 5-8
years behind a unwarranted leaving from
work. Were established a rationing system on
sale of products (since November, 1941) and
industrial (since April, 1942) goods. The
workers of a petroleum industry and defenсе
enterprises received the raised norms.At the
enterprises there was a struggle for fulfilment
of the plan on 200, 300 percents, the brigades
"Front-line soldier", "Komsomolets" were
created. The industry began to let out
production for front.
           Baku has turned to one of the main
military arsenals of the Soviet Army. Despite
of shortage of engineering and the labours (the
production of petroleum these years has
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decreased twice and in 1945 has made all of
11,1 thousand tons.), Baku within war have
given to the country about 75 millions tons of
petroleum. It has made more than 3/4 of
petroleum, extracted in the country. Within
war on oil refining factories was developed of
17 millions tons of petrol, lubricant oils and
other kinds of petroleum. For years of war the
battle engineering of the Soviet army has spent
of 17 millions tons of various petroleum, of 13
millions from them falls on a share of the
Baku petroleum refiners. "Baku gave front and
country so much fuel, how many it was
necessary for protection of our Native land, for
a victory above the enemy" - was written by
the marshal G.K Jukov. Within the Second
World war the Azerbaijan petroleum played a
historical role of the world importance. 80
percents of battle engineering of the Soviet
Army, which has put heavy impact to fascist
army on east front were set in motion by the
Baku petroleum. Within war in petroleum and
chemical factories of Baku were made the
goods 200 names, including 9 grades of air
petrol, 8 grades of diesel fuel, 36 grades of
machine oils, 26 grades lighting and explosive
means.     Much      more      has    increased
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manufactures of a powder "ОП-2", which
twice raised forces of the weapon of fire.
                In the beginning of 1942 began
to work the Baku factory (N 610) of the
equipment, which was under construction on
the basis of engineering of the enterprises,
moved to east. Is incorporated a basis of an
automobile plant in Baku. The machine-
building factories for manufacture of the
military goods created different cooperative
societies. In the machine-building enterprises
of city was adjusted an armament production,
including famous jet - artillery battle machine
"Katyusha",             machine        gun      ``
Shankin``(ППШ), air bombs (ФАБ- 250,
1000, 2000), manual bombs (Ф-1, РГД-33),
50 mm mortars, spare parts of mortar "М-13",
parts for military planes and on repair of parts
of tanks. In Baku have collected the fighter -
plane " YАК- 3 ". In 1942 130 kinds of the
weapon and shells were let out here. And in
other cities of republic the industrial enterprise
have acquired manufacture of the military
goods. From middle 1941 up to the end of
1943 in Sumgait worked the factory N 570,
making the weapon and equipments. In city
Ganja 12 industrial enterprise have
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reconstructed the work on a military way. In
1942 here began to work a new mechanical
factory. The military goods on 26 name were
made in the enterprises of this city. Have
acted in build in 1944 new shoe, and in 1945
tea packing mills in Baku. The enterprise of a
local industry from a local material made
equipment, economic goods, valenki (kind of
felt boots) for army, clothes against the
chemical weapon, furniture for hospitals, fire-
prevention equipment for shelter. 70 grades
the canned food made canning factories.
Within war a food-processing industry of
republic has sent to front 1260 cars crackers,
1100 cars of macaroni products, 1300 cars
tobacco and cigarettes, 1800 cars canned food,
350 cars vegetable oil, much medical
preparations. Six times raised manufactures of
the medical goods in meat - dairy combine. At
the end of war this combine let out 30 grades,
or on 10 times more than in 1940,
preparations. In republic were adjusted
manufactures of the important medical
preparations, surgical silk, syringe, gauze etc.
Was made from the Greek nut vitamin "С" and
as the caustic soda. The scientists have
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received oil from a bush of juniper in a oil
factory in Geychay.
          In ability to live of republic the large
role played transport, it had also huge defenсе
importance. In 1942 the construction of
railway lines Julfa-Minjivan, Osmanli-Astara,
Salyan-Neftchala, Papanin-Hajigabul having
the large military and economic meanings was
finished.
          Within war the railwaymen of
Azerbaijan have transported of 1300 thousand
cars and 600 thousand tanks( систерны) of
military and economic cargoes. Actively
worked 65 cargo ships of the Caspian flotilla.
In 1942, when began impossible to
ensure(supply) front with fuel by rail, the
seamen of Caspi, for the first time in the world
practice have carried out transportation of 35
carload tanks and 3 simple tanks, filled by
petroleum on tows to Krasnovodsk. Within
war the Caspian seamen have sent to front of 2
million 400 thousand tons of petrol. From
Iranian ports ( basically from Khorremshahr
and Bandar-Shahpur), from Krasnovodsk and
Makhachkala in Baku have brought 2 783
thousand tons cargoes. Part of military
engineering,     weapon,       equipment,      and
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foodstuffs sent to the USSR under the
agreement "Lend-Liz" per 1942-1945 years
have passed through Iran and Azerbaijan.
         Despite of essential easing of
productive forces Azerbaijan villages has
given to the country hundred thousand tons of
food products, cotton, tobacco, cocoon etc.
Per 1941-1945 years in collective-farm herds
number of animals have raised on 1 million
head.
          The population of Republic per
1941-1943 years in a Defense Fund has
transferred 15 kg of gold, 952,5 kg of silver,
bonds on 311 millions roubles. For years of
war in funds of organization of tank and air
groups was listed of 230 million ( including
8,1 million from Nakhichivan Avtonomic
Republic and 11,2 million from Daglig
(Mountain) Garabag Avtonomic Area and
10,1 million from Absheron region.) rouble.
U. Hajibayov gave to this fund of 25 thousand
rouble, that has made then the large sum. On
front were sent 125 cars of clothes and 1,6
millions of parcels.
          Azerbaijan    has    brought     the
contribution to restoration of a national
economy of regions freed from the fascist
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aggressors in 1943-1944 years. With this
purpose by autumn of 1943 were created
Republican Committee of the help and its
regional bodies. To the petroleum workers of
Northern Caucasus, to the enterprises of
Leningrad, Stalingrad, Stavropol, Ukraine the
plenty of money, products of a food, building
materials, cattle, industrial equipment was
sent.
          The attitude to war with Germany in
different layers of the population was not
lonely. Under ideological pressure the long
years in a part of the population could educate
blind belief to the leaders, "communism",
"global communist revolution", habits
mechanically to execute will of higher. Many
people trusted that the USSR is the country
which tries to create all conditions for
happiness of the workers and considered as
honour to defend it. Thousands people
showed true patriotism and selflessness on
fronts and rears.
          Were much and those who
understood a true situation of Azerbaijan, as
colony of the USSR, saw that the authority is
taken away from the people. The most part of
the figures of a science and the cultures deeply
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trusted in that that freedom of the Azerbaijan
people is not in a victory of a fascism,
Germany will not bring to Azerbaijan
independence, it is necessary to protect the
people from some more large troubles and
necessarily to win the fascism. In the
Azerbaijan branch of an Academy of sciences
of the USSR was created under the direction
of the talented scientist Yusif Mammadaliyev
a department of the Central Advic of a Science
and Engineering on problems of chemistry, in
which structure have come R.Ismailov, R.
Afandiyev, A. Guliyev, J. Shahtakhtincki, S.
Mehtiyev and others. In petroleum factories
worked 75 scientific laboratories of new
technologies. In summer of 1941 in Baku was
created of the first groups of hydrogen
connections. Other words, under the direction
of Yusif Mammadaliyev was created original
and more effective technology               for
manufacture of air petrol with high percent of
oktan. The engineer T. Aliverdizade has
created a way of cold punching of metals. The
geologists Mirali Gashgay, Shаmil Azizbayov
and others have opened new sources strategic
materials, which can replace of rare metals.
Were found a deposit of fireproof clay, fosforit
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and mineral dyes. They offered to use volcanic
ashes in manufacture of cement and heat-
shielding materials. The scientists of physics
have offered thermal ways of exploring of
petroleum. Scientifics, the engineers have put
forward the offer on creation of a shell of guns
against armour – engineering, self-regulated
bombs, electrical mines against tanks,
multistage mines, means against a rust,
zincation of surface of manual bombs etc.
They have prepared effective technologies
smelting of steel pig-iron in liquid fuel, also
have received other strategic materials as
hydrogen, perozin, jet toluol etc. The ammiak
gas, used in refrigerating devices, was
replaced with propan of local manufacture.
The engineers have found a way definition of
a rust on underwater weldings, having
militarian important. Mystafa Topchubashov
and his followers have created new and more
effective methods of military surgery, have
returned in life of thousand fighters. In Baku
the number of hospitals has increased from 5
up to 41, and place in them from 5 thousand
up to 31,4 thousand. The ships "Dagistan",
"Turkmanistan" and "Kazakhstan" have turned
in floating hospitals. In treatment of the
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wounded soldiers took part such known
scientific professors as M. Mirgasimov, F.
Afandiyev, M. Malikov, Z. Mammadov etc.
The women gave 10 tons of blood for the
wounded soldiers of. 70 percents of the
wounded soldiers, which were treated in more
than 150 military hospitals organized within
war in republic completely have recovered and
have returned again to a field of battles.
             The scientists of public sciences
have created hundreds proceedings about a
heroic history and battle traditions of the
people. In 1943 was published "The short
history of the Azerbaijan literature" under
editions of H. Huseynov and М. Dadashov. In
the first months of war were published the
collections of products of the Azerbaijan poets
and writers on a patriotic theme             as
"Struggling pen", "The Collection of fictions",
"Songs about a native land" (for the teenagers)
and collection of publicistic works "The
Fascism destroys human culture". Were
created 12 collections of works on patriotic
themes for front. The best examples of the
Azerbaijan poetry within war were “Sister
mercy ", "Gold hawks ", "Manual of the
mother ", "Feat of the hero" by Samad
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Vurgun, "Mother and postman" by Suleyman
Rustan, "Words of the soldier`s mother" by
Rasul Rza, "Tell a fairy tale, grandmother" by
Аhmad Jamal, "Pleasure" by Mirvarid Dilbazi,
"Dream of favourite" by Mammad Rahim etc.
             The Azerbaijan dramatic art was
enriched by such works as "Farhad and Shirin"
by Samad Vurgun, "Nizami" by Mehdi
Huseyn. In too time hundreds product in
hastes written, not free from a conjuncture
have appeared. The poets and writers
frequently visited military parts, acted before
the soldiers.
             The composers of Azerbaijan have
created within war about 400 new march,
symphones, songs,           operas etc. Wide
popularity have received songs "Sister mercy
", "Hymn of a victory " by Uzeyr Hajibayov, "
Wait for me " by Suleyman Alaskarov. Аshug
M. Bayramov in "Dastan about Kamal" had
shown heroism of the Azerbaijan soldiers in
battles against the fascists. With interest were
accepted opera "Native land" of the young
composers Gara Garayev and Jovdat Hajiyev.
In 1941 on the initiative of U. Hajibayov the
«Ensemble of national tools” was created at
Committee of Radio. 82 front concert brigades
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have acted before the soldiers on fronts. 35
thousand concerts were organized on military
parts. The Azerbaijan cinematography has
created cinema of a tape on themes of
patriotism and military chronicle. "Son of a
native land", "Bakhtiyar", "Submarine Т-9 "
etc. the films were more popular.
              In education of military patriotism
the active role was played also foremen of fine
art. 50 political posters were published by
mass circulation. Was issued 400 numbers of
the art collection "Агитокон" (Window of
propaganda). Were prepared and published the
political posters under a heading "The
struggling pencil". Political caricatures of A.
Azimzade and I. Akhundov were especially
valuable. S. Salamzade,             T. Tagiyev,
S.Sharifzade, M. Rakhmanzade etc. have
created interesting pictures on themes of war,
soldier's life, about life of rear. The works of
the Azerbaijan artists and sculptors were
demonstrated on tens exhibitions, including in
1943 on Tretyakov`s Gallery.
           In mobilization of the people against
a fascism active participation accepted also
clergy of Azerbaijan. In April 14, 1944 after
the decision of Presidium of the Supreme
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Soviet of the USSR was created «Religious
Management Moslems of Zagafgaziya
(Southern Caucasus)». On congress               of
moslems of Southern Caucasus was chosen its
chairman – sheykh-yl-islam, assistant of
chairman – myfti            and members of
management. The first chairman of
management sheykh-yl-islam Aga Alizada in
mosque of ``Taza Pir`` called moslems to obey
the laws of government and with this way "to
preserve religion".
          In    mobilization      of     potential
opportunities the important role has played
high organizing ability, insistence, adherence
to principle and even cruelty of first secretary
of CC of CP of Azerbaijan Mir Jafar
Bagirov.
           As a result of wise, far-seeing policy
of azerbaijanian, Aziz Aliyev (earlier was the
secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan and
chairman of the Azerbaijan Committee of the
help wounded soldiers and commanders),
who in 1942 was to put forward on a post of
first secretary of     Regional Committee of
Dagistan of CP of Russia more than 30
peoples of this area was successfully
mobilized against an enemy and is rescued
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from horrors of deportation from their native
grounds, as it was with their neighbours -
Chechens, Ingyshs, Kalmyks, Tatars of
Crimea etc.
          Tens talented commanders as Hazi
Aslanov, Akim Abasov, Mehti Mahmudov,
Yagub Guliyev, Habibulla Huseynov, Aslan
Vazirov etc. have shown brilliant organizing
abilities and feats for rescue of the peoples
from a fascism.


             In fields of battle.

           Despite of selflessness the Soviet
soldier, departure in the first months of war
from behind serious errors of command, was
represented by the Russian officers as result of
cowardice and inability of the soldiers from
other nationalities, including turks (uzbeks,
azerbaijanians, turkmens, kirghizes, kazakhs
etc.), whom they as a sneer have named
"yoldashi". However, the history has proved
injustice of these think. Thousands young men
and girl heroically battled on fronts. Since the
first days of war many azerbaijanians differed
on battles. 44 azerbaijanians (between them
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were the military doctor M. Gadirov, soldiers
A. Gafarov, I.Dadashov, A.Maysurov, A.
Aliyev and others) were among the heroic
defence counsels of a fortress of Brest, which
more than month was held by defenses and
carried to the fascists the large losses. Group
of the soldiers under the command of
lieutenant     D. Javadov during 7 days
courageously has reflected strong attacks of an
enemy and has destroyed his tens alive force.
The military pilot lieutenant Huseynbala
Aliyev on the sky of Leningrad has destroyed
6 planes of the enemy. On last fight in july
29, not withstanding what he has received 30
wounds ( From them 3 were fatal) could
successfully land. Per the first days of war
(June 25) pilot of 63-rd air brigade of the
Black Sea Navy Mazahir Abasov, who carried
out the task to bombard bases of the opponent
in Konstantce has entered battle with two
enemy battle planes. Not withstanding what
one of engines of his plane has left out of
operation, M. Abasov safely struggled and has
beaten one plane of the enemy. On one
working motor he has reached the purpose and
has dumped bombs. On a return rate the
second motor of the plane also has left out of
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operation, but the brave commander could put
the wheel plane on water. For courage on
battles against the fascists, which came nearer
of Moscow in October, - December 1941, the
commander tank subdivision Hazi Aslanov
was awarded with a military award "Gold
Star". Guards the senior sergeant, the machine
guner Idris Veliyev on battles with the fascists
in the field Borodino personally has destroyed
more than 50 soldiers and officer of enemy.
The younger sergeant Israfil Mammadov on
battles for village Pustinka, not far from
Novgorod, has shown of the large heroism (
To 20 soldiers about 10 hours battled with a
batallion of an enemy and has not given it to
pass, having destroyed 300 - itself personally
70- fascists.) and became first azerbaijanian,
received a high rank "Hero of the Soviet
Union ".
            Azerbaijan 77-th division accepted
active participation in landing operation of the
Soviet Army on a peninsula Kerch at the end
of 1941 and in the beginning of 1942. In the
beginning of January it has come to region
Ag-Manay of peninsula Taman. It 105
regiment expelled the fascists from
Vladislavka, which had the large tactical
                      30


meaning. Was destroyed 18 infantry division
of an enemy. 77-th division in March, 1942
helped forces of the Soviet army, which were
compelled to recede, to pass to peninsula
Taman. This          division accepted active
participation in a defense of Novorosiysk.
             The large victory of the Soviet
army at the end of 1941 under Moscow and
heroic defense of Leningrad (in which was lost
also my uncle lieutenant Sirmammed
Gaffarov) has destroyed the plan lightning war
of the German fascism. The myth about
invincibility of fascist army was destroyed. In
January 1, 1942 in Washington 26 states,
switching USA, the Great Britain and the
USSR, have signed the declaration on
connection of the military, economic resources
for destruction of the fascist block. The anti-
fascist coalition of the states was formed and
became stronger. 50 states of the world took
part already in April, 1945 in this union.
              The enemy still was strong. This
time fascists have begun attack on a southern
direction of the German – Soviet front. In the
beginning of May, 1942 they having grasped
Kerch, Stavropol and Kharkov came nearer to
Volga. By the plan "Edelveys" after capture
                       31


Kharkov continuing attack on Caucasus the
fascists wanted to conquer industrial and
agricultural region with rich petroleum, other
strategic raw materials, to deprive the USSR
from the help of the allies on a way Basra-
Iran-Khazar and to open the road to capture of
Near and Average East. For this purpose was
created group of army "А" under command of
general-feldmarshal List. It 1-st tank army (the
commander was the general – colonel Kleyst)
in September 6 having begun attack in a
direction      Grozni-Makhachkala-Baku        in
September 25 should grasp Baku. Hitler
marked that, we having grasped Baku shall
transform tanks and planes of the Soviet Army
in " iron toys ".
             In July 25 the fascist armies
forcing Don passed to approach, in August
have grasped Krasnodar, Stavropol and
Maykop. A situation was very heavy and
dangerous.
             Notwithstanding what there were
in one coalitions with the USSR against a
fascism the USA and England wanted to take
in the hands Caucasus, especially Azerbaijan.
By their plan of "Vilvet" the forces of Soviet
Army leaving from Caucasuses              should
                      32


engage on Stalingrad front. And on the
Caucasian front against an enemy should
battle the American- English military parts in
which structure entered 10-th army of Britain
and 20 air squadrons.
             The Soviet management, were
afraid that azerbaijanians will cooperate by
forces of enemy in behind of Soviet Army,
have prepared the plans of deportation of the
inhabitants of Azerbaijan to Central Asia and
Kazakhstan. And even was accepted about it
the decision from December 7, 1942.
However, the management of republic,
especially M. J. Bagirov could assure Stalin
that the deportation azerbaijanians will not
serve for a victory in economic, and political
sense. It will promote reduction of
manufacture of the strategic goods in republic
and to demoralize the soldier of army from
Azerbaijan.
               With the special efforts of the
chairman of State Committee on resettlement,
created in October 25, 1941, A. Mikoyan was
made and approved the plan of destruction of
Baku in case of real threat of capture.
                 The front successes of the
Soviet Army have played determining role in
                       33


destruction of these terrible plans. It is
necessary to note that, by the end of war - in
1944 a part of azerbaijanians with Mehceti
turks were expelled from native grounds in
Georgia.
                   In September 16, 1942 the
State Committee of a Defense has made a
decision about a defense of Baku. 58-th army
and the incorporated horse regiment was
transferred in this region. The Main Command
in September 24 has announced a military rule
in the Transcaucasian republics, including
Azerbaijan SSR. The Baku defense area was
created. Have begun construction of defenсе
structures. Were dug out tranchs in vicinities
of city. The defence line became stronger with
long-range guns and tanks. For a defense of
city were involved 10-th rifle brigade, military
school, and force of an anti-aircraft defense of
the Baku district. As a result of vigilance of
the pilots and the soldiers of air-defence
devices the attempts of the fascists in 1942 71
times and in 1943 3 times were not held to
rush in the sky of Baku. 96 planes of enemy
were destroyed. The strategic bridge on the
river Samur also successfully defended from
air attacks.
                       34


              Among the defence counsels of
the Transcaucasian front were of 66,1
thousand         azerbaijanians.        Division
azerbaijanians on all fronts was display
mistrust to them of a management. However
in the Caucasian battles azerbaijanians
courageously struggled against the fascists.
The enemy grasping Mozdok, has met by a
persistent defense and changed direction
attack, has gone to Nalchik and Orjonikidze.
In battles on region Mozdok 402-nd, 416-th
and 223 Azerbaijan divisions were included
into structure the basic shock forces of 44-th
Soviet army. 77-th Azerbaijan division took
part in defenсе operations. 833-rd regiment
under command of the major Akim Abasov
have shown heroism in battles for Mozdok,
reflected 30 attacks of an enemy and have
destroyed 36 their tanks.
              In the beginning of October,
1942 the Soviet Army having destroyed the
basic forces of enemy at Orjonikidze also has
expelled him to north. Such elected military
parts sent to this front for capture of Baku as
23 tank division from Paris, regiment of
"Brandenburg" and division Alp were
destroyed here. By heroic defense of Caucasus
                      35


the Soviet troops has held down large forces
of an enemy, which to it was necessary under
Stalingrad.
              The soldiers of 77-th, 223, 227,
271-st, 296-th, 402-nd and 416-th Azerbaijan
divisions and 707-th division, which in
structure there were much Azerbaijan soldiers
accepted active participation in counter-attack
of the Soviet Army on Northern Caucasus, in
clearing cities and villages from the fascist
aggressors. 77-th division participated in
clearing     Kerch,      Taman      peninsulas,
Novorossiyck, Mozdok, Mineralniye Vodi,
Stavropol, Lebedi and Rostov, together with
other occupied items from the fascists. 402-nd
division has cleared from the enemy 10
occupied items in region Mozdok, and has
destroyed a plenty of his alive force and
engineering. Having lost a part of personal
structure this division then was joined with
416-th division. In the beginning of December
416-th division has expelled the fascists from
the occupied items Novo-Lediyov and
Kapustino. In January, - April 1943 this
division accepted active participation in
clearing Mozdok, Grafskoe Lenilin, Stavropol
and Armovir, together with coast of the Azov
                       36


sea from the enemy. In clearing of Taman
peninsula personal structure of 227 division
differed by heroism and it have appropriated a
honourable rank " Temyurt`s division ".The
soldier of 18 army Gafur Mammadov has
shown courage on battles for Tuapse, in one
battle has destroyed 13 fascists, and by life has
rescued from death his Russian commander.
After death he has received a high rank "Hero
of the Soviet Union". For heroism on battles
with the enemy the platoon commander of 43-
rd rifle brigades Idris Syleymanov also has
received such rank. In common, fascists on
Caucasus lost more than 100 000 alive forces,
and a lot of military engineering.
           The rout of fascist army on
Caucasus was rescueed southern regions of the
USSR, including Azerbaijan, and in the first
turn of Baku from threat of capture, has
destroyed the plans of the enemy, connected
with Near and Average east.
           Azerbaijanians courageously battled
and in Stalingrad battles. During two months
group of the snipers of Baloglan Abbasov has
destroyed approximately 3 thousand soldiers
and officers of the enemy. The fearless
                      37


commander and itself was lost in one of
battles.
           The Soviet Army passing to a
contour approach in winter of 1942 besieged
of a troops of enemy. The large heroism has
shown 55-th separate tank regiment of the
lieutenant colonel Hazi Aslanov. The
Aslanov`s tank regiment during 6 days
heroically battled to a part of general
Manshteyn`s army, trying to come for the help
to 6-th army, which has got in siege at
Stalingrad and having destroyed 45 tanks
(from 70 tanks) and alive force of an enemy
has not given him to pass. And Hazi Aslanov
has received a rank "Hero of the Soviet Union
".
            In February, 1943 the German
fascist army was completely to break under
Stalingrad. This year the Soviet Army has won
half of grounds, grasped from the USSR. Has
extended anti-fascist movement worldwide.
Went deep crisis in the fascist block. The
fascist mode in Italy fell and this country has
left war. And anti-Hitler coalition, on the
contrary, became stronger. In the Teheran
conference of the allies in November, 1943
was made a decision to open of the second
                       38


front in Europe against fascist Germany.
However, second front in Europe opened late,
after the allies were convinced that the Soviet
Union will win of a fascism and were afraid
that all territories grasped of Red Army will
get under influence of USSR.
            The brilliant victories of the Soviet
Army in Stalingrad and Caucasian battles
promoted change in a course of war.
              In summer of 1943 the Soviet
Army began strong attack. In all fronts the
Azerbaijan soldiers and the officers self-
denyingly battled. A banner of a victory above
city Oryol first was lifted by sergeant H.
Ajdarov. The great courage have shown
lientenant M. Bagirov in region of Oryol-
Belgorod, M. Maharramov and S. Kazimov in
battles for Dnieper, M. Guliyev in forcing a
gulf Kerch. The pilots A. Guliyev, Z.
Seyidmammadova           and     others     were
distinguished by battle merits.
               416-th division accepted active
participation in clearing city Togonrog and
under the order of the Supreme Main
Command for heroism has received a
honourable name "Taganrog`s division". This
division differed in battles for clearing
                      39


Melitopol from the fascists in October and was
awarded with "Red Banner". In the beginning
of September 271-st division actively
participated in operation "Donetsk" and for
courage has received a honourable name
"Gorlovka`s division ".
               In 1944 as a result of the
important victories of the Soviet army on
fronts all the territory of the USSR was freed
from the fascist aggressors. 416-th division in
structure of 5-th shock army took part in
forcing Dnieper and clearing cities Nikolayev
and Kishinev. For difference in battles in
clearing of city Odessa this division was
awarded with an award ``Suvorov`` of the
second degree. In April 13, 1944 fighters of
77-th division have shown of heroism in
clearing city Simferopol from the enemy and
has received a honourable rank "Simfiropol`s
division". For military merits in a capture of
height mountain of Sapun this division was
awarded with an award ``Suvorov`` of the
second degree. In summer of 1944 77-th
division was sent to Pribaltik front, took part
in clearing Pribaltik republics and East
Prussion from the fascists.
                       40


          At 23-30 of June, 1944 fighters of
35-th Guards tank brigade under command of
the general - major Hazi Aslanov with the
large courage forcing the river Berezina, have
cleared of the fascists of city Pleshenitsi and
other 580 occupied items, destroying many
alive forces and military engineering of the
opponent. It has created a favorable condition
for successful attack of the basic forces of 3-rd
Byelorussian front. Command of front has
presented Hazi Aslanov for decoration a high
rank "Hero of the Soviet Union" for the
second time. However, rank twice hero of the
USSR was given to him 47 years after death.
A tank brigade of Hazi Aslanov accepted
active participation in clearing Pribaltik. A
management of empire and armenian lobby in
army painfully have met an exit from
environment of azerbaijanians the skilful
commanders. In January 24, 1945 Hazi
Aslanov in a very mysterious condition was
fatally wounded in a place where there did not
pass military operations and has died.
           223 division deffered in battles
behind clearing of Southern Ukraine,
Kishinev, in operation of Yassi-Kishinev.
                      41




   In Guerilla groups. In anti-fascist
        movement in Europe.

            Within war a part of azerbaijanians
got in captivity to german continued struggle
against a fascism, have made escape from
captivity and entered into guerilla groups.
Akpar Aliyev accepted active participation in
organization of guerilla group in region
Belotsk of Byelorussia. Since 1942 he became
the chief of the headquarters of guerilla
connection, and since 1944 - the commander
of guerilla group after Suvorov. This guerilla
group frequently has attacked fascist garrison.
It buried 11 military echelons, 3 planes of the
enemy, 28 times cut of a telephone line Berlin
- front, have destroyed hundreds fascists, have
rescued from captivity of 4 thousand Soviet
people. Ismail Aliyev was the chief of the
headquarters of the guerilla brigade which was
at war in Kalinin area since October, 1942. 50
military captives – azerbaijanians under the
direction of the officer Mammad Aliyev in
September, 1943 have made escape from
fascist camp of military captivity and have
organized the special Azerbaijan guerilla
                       42


group of number 8 on Crimea. In autumn of
this year 400 azerbaijanians having made
escape from captivity have organized guerilla
group of a name Shors in the Ukrainian
woods. Guerilla group of a name Uritcki under
command A. Maharramov and H. Namazov
together with Czech partisans suddenly
attacking fascist air station at the village
Dobshina on Carpathians, have destroyed 21
military planes, 70 officers and soldier of
enemy. In 1944 this guerilla group having
united with other guerilla groups accepted an
active participation in the struggle against the
fascists on Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary
and Poland. They passed of 11 thousand km of
a road in back of the opponent, has destroyed
more than 2,5 thousand fascist officers and
soldier, 32 planes, more than 50 echelons of an
enemy, have put out of action hundreds
bridges and railway ways. B. Dadashov and A.
Aliyev were recognized as the courageous
fighter in known guerilla army under
command S. A. Kovpak. For courage 500
azerbaijanians were awarded in Ukrainian and
100 - in the Byelorussian guerilla groups.
           Azerbaijanians took part and in
guerilla warfare of the European peoples
                       43


against the fascism. In spring of 1942
azerbaijanians, who were in captivity under a
management of Hadi Giyasbayov and
Mirzakhan Mammadov have organized illegal
anti-fascist group in camp of military captives
in Poland`s city Edlin. In the autumn of this
year group of captives have made escape with
the help of this organization under the
direction of the officers Z. Zeynalov and H.
Novruzov, also joined with Polish partisans. In
the beginning of 1943 the fascists have got on
a trace of this organization. A part of captives
could make escape and having passed lines of
front joined with parts of the Soviet army. A
part exposed were sent in death camps in
France. Illegal organization continued the
work under the direction of M. Mammadov in
death camp which was in city Rodes. Only in
months March - April, 1944 from this camp
was organized escapes 200 captives. In spring
of this year illegal organization has adjusted
connection with a management of              the
Resistance Movement of France. The revolt
plan in April 15 and destructions of a death
camp with the help French partisans was
prepared. However, few hours up to a
beginning of revolt the fascists have received
                      44


the information on it and revolt was prevented.
The chiefs of illegal organization were
arrested and sentenced to a death penalty. But
they have attacked supervision. In struggle has
died 5 men, including M. Mammadov, and
others could run and joined with partisans.
The Azerbaijan soldiers run from death camps
in France were included into structure of the
First Soviet guerilla army and accepted active
participation in clearing Rodes, Larzak,
Kursak, Mond , Nim etc. cities and tens
villages of France from an enemy. The
important role have played in the French
Movement of Resistance A. Jabrayilov,
A.Abdullayev, Kh.Hajiyev, R. Rzayev etc.
Ahmadiyya Jabrayilov , who having run away
from a death camp in November, 1942, has
joined with partisans and accepted active
participation in liberation movement of
France, and has received of the high award of
this country " the Militarian medal ", which
gives the honourable right to the soldier to go
ahead of the general in military parades.
          Hundreds fighters from Azerbaijan
actively participated in guerilla movement
behind clearing of Italy and Yugoslavia. Their
large group battled in the Soviet guerilla
                       45


batallion, which conducted 9 months battle in
structure of IХ case of National Liberation
Army of Yugoslavia. 50 of them received for
courage awards and medals of Yugoslav ia.
          The fearless scout Mehti Huseynzade
- legendary "Mikhaylo", who has got in
captivity hardly wounded in region Kalach at
Stalingrad in August, 1942 and was included
in structure of the Azerbaijan national military
part, which was organized by Germans, soon
has understood present plan the fascists,
having made escape, has come in structure
partisans of Yugoslavia and heroically
struggled against the enemy. The chief of
subversive group of the Yugoslavian National
Army M. Huseynzade, and included in this
group Т. Aliyev, M. Seyidov, A. Mammadov,
D. Ismayilov together with sloven partisans
have destroyed more than one thousand
German officers in different operations. In
November 16, 1944 he has got in an
encirclement in a village Vitovli and not to get
in a hand of the enemy has killed itself. In
1957 he was awarded to a rank of "Hero of the
Soviet Union ".
             By one of groups, which were
organized by the prisoners run together from
                       46


fascist camps supervised A.Babayev. Differed
in battles for clearing of Northern Italy from a
fascism V.Husseynov, A. Mirzoyev,Sh.
Mejidov etc. Fearless machine-gunner Vilayat
Husseynov was among partisans which have
arrested the leader of the Italian fascism
Mussoli. He heroically was lost in battles
behind clearing Milan from the fascists.
              Was closely connected lieutenant
Hajibayov        to    guerilla    group      in
Czechoslovakia, which named "Sickle and
hammer". One of the active members of illegal
anti-fascist organization, which worked in a
death camp "Buhenvald" about city Weimar in
Germany was young azerbaijanian Akpar
Agayev. Having opened his activity the
fascists have killed him with heavy tortures.
Actively worked azerbaijanians in illegal anti-
fascist organizations of the prisoners in death
camps "Dahau", "Mauthausen" etc.

      Empty hopes of the patriots.
      Azerbaijan national legion.

            Between azerbaijanians together
with the Soviet patriots, and people, which
considering a fascism larger evil than
                       47


bolshevism also have joined struggle against
it, there were also those which in the future
victory of Germany above the Soviet empire
wrongly saw independence of Azerbaijan.
              The majority of the political
figures which were compelled from the
country, having saved from persecution of
authorities after violent sovietisation of
Azerbaijan, hoped for that, that Germany will
put the end of empire of communist elite, will
create conditions for restoration of national
freedom of the Azerbaijan people. There were
much people thinking so among the
population of Azerbaijan and among the
Azerbaijan soldiers of Soviet army.
          Could not up to the end suppress a
vote of the protest against injustice and
humiliation of national pride inside the people.
Though not long have passed from terrible
repression of 30-s` years, there were forces
trying incorporate and to be organized against
totalitarian mode. In spring of 1941 the illegal
antisoviet, national group was organized under
the direction of the student Suleyman
Iskandarov, which has put before itself the
purpose to unit all patriotic forces on struggle
for clearing of a native land. But this group
                       48


existed not long, it have opened and destroyed,
have shot its active members. But attempt to
struggle against a mode proceeded, the new
groups were organized. One of them was
illegal organization "Ildirim", working from
1943 among the students. This organization
created on the initiative of the student
Gulhusseyn       Abdullayev       (Husseynoglu)
seriously criticized national policy of the
Soviet government and communist party,
searched for means and opportunities for wide
propagation. In activity of this organization
participated    Ismikhan      Rahimov,       Haji
Zeynalov, Aydin Vahidov and others. From
1944 group of the young workers having
created illegal, international organization,
conducted propaganda with appeals to lift
revolt and to overthrow an existing antihuman
mode.
              There were people, which
purposely have got in captivity and passed to
the party of germans for active struggle
against the Soviet empire. The military expert,
major, graduate of the Moscow Military
Academy         Abdurrahman           Fatalibayli
Dudanginski (Abo bay) in the beginning of
war on Baltic in the first battles has passed to
                       49


the parties of Germans, in November, 1941
having written the letter to Hitler has
expressed desire to struggle against the Soviet
Union and England. In some years
Dudanginski wrote that, we could not battle
for Russia and for the Soviet Union, which
trampled down the tradition of our fathers and
enslaved our people.
             Having convinced, that the war
with the Soviet Union will be long, the fascists
have decided to use 3,6 millions (including
more than 150 thousand azerbaijanians)
captives soldiers and officers for achievement
of the purposes. From August, 1941 have
begun to group of captives in national and
religious attributes. Fascist government has
used influence and skill of the political
refugees for conducting works with the
prisoners, to assure them that devoted service
to Germany in interests of their peoples.
              Much earlier more in Germany
was studied the purposes of the Azerbaijan
political emigration. In Berlin worked the
committee of a party Musavat, under a
management Hilal Munshi. In Berlin were
published the books by Mammad Amin
Rasulzadeh "Some of a note about the
                       50


Azerbaijan Republic"(in 1933), "The Modern
Azerbaijan literature"(in 1936), "A problem of
Azerbaijan" (in 1938) and under his editions
the newspaper "Istiglal" (Independence, 1932-
1934) and magazine "Gurtulush" (Rescue,
1934-1938). M. A. Rasulzadeh and Kh.
Khasmammadov, sharply resisting to him, in
autumn of 1941 were invited to Germany by
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of this country.
In the beginning of 1942 in Berlin was
organized      "National      Committee        of
Azerbaijan" under the direction of M. A.
Rasulzadeh. As M. A. Rasulzadeh has noted,
this committee " worked on bases of struggle
of national Azerbaijan was to accept by the
German management". In the program of
committee was written that, the purpose of this
organization are " to protect the national rights
of Azerbaijan, to struggle for independence of
a native Land, for friendship of the Caucasian
nations and to ensure close cooperation with
Germany". The positions of the Azerbaijan
party were reflected in the special
memorandum in negotiation, which were held
in October 7, 1942 in hotel "Adlen". The
basic conditions (only 12 items) of this
memorandum were: rescue azerbaijanians
                       51


from fascist death camps, use them basically at
civil works, creation of national army,
assignment of azerbaijanian officer the chapter
of this army, use of this army only on east
front, maintenance to national parts first enter
Azerbaijan after exile of the Soviet army from
these places etc. The chief of the ministry of
East Rosenberg did not consider to possible
work with national committees, which were
sure that, the recognition of independence of
these nations is the important condition for
cooperation them with the German
government. By his advice Hitler, having
refused to work with committees, has decided
to organize "Group of communication"
(Vtubindunqstav) on functions connecting part
between national legions and army
headquarters. Into the Azerbaijan group of
communication entered F.Dudanginski, A.
Atamalibayov and F. Amirjan (Daryal).
         In December 22, 1941 Hitler has
given the order on organization together with
other national parts special military parts of
Caucasian moslems. These hired military parts
were formed by moslem prisoners, including
azerbaijanians of camps of military captives in
Poland. In searches of the Azerbaijan
                      52


prisoners, rescue them from correct death
(before    thousand     azerbaijanians   were
destroyed, wrongly thought that they are the
Jews), and in association them in national
military parts active participation accepted
M.A. Rasulzadeh and other political refugees.
The book by M.A. Rasulzadeh " The Three-
colour banner" was popularly among the
soldier of a national part. The large
educational work with the soldiers of these
parts order Abdulali bay Amirjan, Nuru pasha,
Israfil bay Isarafilbayov, Maryam khanym
Amirjan etc.
         The most part of military captives
were suitable for a military service. Many of
them wanted to battle in structure of national
military parts against the Soviet Union. The
large influence has rendered to them that
Stalin has named of captives " Enemies of the
mother Land", their families have sufferred to
persecution. But the fascists have shown
themselves as the friend of moslems and turks.
For effective work with them in Germany
have invited mufti (the religious figure) of
Guds (Yerusalem) Al-Husseyn. The order was
given up to military parts, that at capture of
Caucasus to not suppose humiliation national
                      53


and religious feeling of the population. The
commander of tank army, taking part in battles
on Caucasus, the general        fon Markisen
pointedly accepted islam and made a religious
service - namaz in mosque.
              With the help of the political
refugees Germans selected azerbaijanians
from camp of military captives "Telsit", which
was in Kenigsberk and carried them in camp
"Shelesi". After military training under a
management of the German officers knowing
turkish language they were sent in the military
part "Bergman", which was in Bavaria for
preparation to battles in mountain conditions.
As other national parts of the militarian
subdivision organized by azerbaijanians were
badly armed and did not pass enough military
preparation. German officers with contempt
have named the soldiers of these parts "as the
soldiers of the second grade".
               In summer of 1942 the
militarians connection organized from
Caucasian moslems took part in battles on the
Caucasian front. The military parts "Aslan",
"Boz Gurd", "Javad khan", "Gorkhmaz",
"Donmaz", "Vatan", etc., which had more than
7000 soldiers, courageously battled for
                       54


clearing of Caucasus from the Soviet empire.
They accepted active participation in a capture
of Mazdok and such strategic heights as
Elbrus and Kazbek. Many people have met
with pleasure these parts. Thousand soldiers of
the Soviet army from Caucasuses send to their
parties. Number passing in the party of
Germans turks and caucasians there was
approximately one million people, including
150 thousand azerbaijanians. The German
command highly have estimated battle
abilities of the Azerbaijan parts, many soldiers
and officers were awarded by a medal
"Infantri Sturmabsikhen".
               In connection with a capture in a
hand the initiative and transition in a contour
approach of the Soviet army in Caucasus and
Stalingrad, these parts were compelled to
recede with the large losses and took part in
persistent defensive battles Germans in
Crimea.
                After rout of Germans armies in
Caucasus and on coast Volga have begun the
oppressions of national parts. The reason to
this was desertion Russian, Armenian etc.
legioners. And in each Azerbaijan batallion, in
which were till one thousand soldiers, were
                       55


left till 300 men. Other soldiers till different
pretexts were sent in camps of captivе.
            But fascist government soon began
trusts that, without the help of the local
peoples it will be very difficult to conquer of
these territories, and ostensibly only by
representation of some hopes to these peoples
it is possible to influence to the soldiers of a
different nationality, which serve in the Soviet
army. Hitler has agreed to some concessions.
At the end of 1942- beginning of 1943 in
Berlin passed assembly of the representatives
of the peoples of the Soviet Union, including
azerbaijanians. Hitler with the purpose of
study of a history, psychology, culture and
training of personnel for management of the
puppet state - " Great Turkistan", which
creation was planned, has organized special
structure "Uniform organization of the
Turkestan workers" in Drezden. In May, 1943
was created the Turkish foot division (number
162). Military connection made from
Caucasian moslems was divided in two parts -
Azerbaijan legion and Legion of Northern
Caucasus.
            Germans do not send on
concessions in negotiation neither group by M.
                        56


A. Rasulzadeh, nor group by Kh.
Khasmammadov in a question of a recognition
of independence of Azerbaijan. М. А.
Rasulzadeh could not agree and had not
agreed with an idea that his native land at a
victory of the fascists will be colony in
structure of the puppet state dependent on
Germany. In the beginning of August, 1943
М. А. Rasulzadeh acting before Azerbaijan
legion, has opened the purpose of the fascists
in organization of these military parts. He has
told: "... I trusted on the Germans, for our
independence counted on them. But, it is vain!
To me their true intention is already clear. It is
naivety in clearing of slavery to hope to the
country, which having conquered the
independent states transforms them into the
colonies". Such open anti-fascist introduction
infuriated the German government and it
required of M. A. Rasulzadeh to leave
Germany.
            Some political refugees, officers of
Azerbaijan`s legion considering necessary to
agree with realities continued connection with
the German government. In November 6-9,
1943 in Berlin`s hotel "Kaiserhot" was held
"The Azerbaijan national congress" of the
                      57


representatives Azerbaijan turks abroad. The
chapter of the ministry "East"- Rosenberg
personally took part in congress. In the
resolution of congress it was marked that, the
participants of congress have deep hope about
restoration of independence of Azerbaijan as a
result of the Second World war. And first its
condition is the destruction of our eternal
enemy. Such position suited the German
government.        In autumn of 1943 under
protectorate of Germany in Berlin was created
emigratory "The Azerbaijan government". In
the chapter of government stood Fatalibayli
Dudanginski (Або bay). His assistant was
Fuad bay Amirjan. Israfil bay Israfilbayov,
professor Jabbar Aliyev and etc. were the
members of this government. The German
government has recognized of the Azerbaijan
emigratory government. This government
worked till winter of 1944. And М. А.
Rasulzadeh, at the end of 1944 illegally having
returned to Germany in Munhen has organized
political structure of "The Azerbaijan
Democratic Association". The "old" and
"new" emigrants not as could not will unit.
                 And when the destiny the most
German state was decided, the fascists on the
                       58


initiative SS have created under the direction
of the general Vlasov, who else in 1942 has
passed in their party, political organization so-
called "Committee of Rescue of Russian
Peoples"(CRRP), which purpose was creation
in territory of the Soviet Union the state
without the communists. In December of this
year was created Russian Army Rescue
(RAR). Political structure "The Caucasian
Council" at this time was formed also.
Azerbaijan here was presented by A.
Atamalibayov. Council has agreed to accept
the offer SS (October, 1944) enter structure of
CRRP only under condition of a recognition of
independence of the Caucasian countries. This
condition became the reason to the termination
of negotiation. Soon inflame CRRP and RAR.
           When Berlin was in an encirclement
by troops of the allies, in March 17, 1945
fascist government of Germany has
recognized independence of all nations of the
USSR. In first half of 1944 Azerbaijan legion
was in the south of France. In middle of
August the troops of the allies has begun
approach from the south of France in northern
and north – western direction. With the
German troops Azerbaijan legion has receded
                      59


in north of Italy. In autumn of 1944, when
legions were disbanded, was organized
military connection under the name "East
Turkish Military Force" (ETMF) under
command of shtandartan furer SS Kharun Ar-
Rashid bay. In December of this year fascist
government has decided to unit weakened
Northern Caucasian, Georgian, Azerbaijan and
Armenian military parts under the name "The
Caucasian Military Force". But azerbaijanians
have refused to battle together with the
armenians in one part and asked to include
their part in association ETMF. The SS army
headquarters has decided to include
Azerbaijan legion in the Northern Caucasian
military structure.
         On an ending of the war the
Azerbaijan military parts were placed in
territory of the neutral countries. About one
thousand azerbaijanians were occupied in the
different countries of Europe, three thousand -
in Turkey and 500 were sent to protectorate&
of the Egyptian king. Number of the people of
the Caucasian nationality, which Germans
handed over Red Army has made three
thousand.
                       60




            Ending of the war.

                   After clearing territory of
the USSR from the fascists a nature of war,
which this the country conducted with
Germany, has changed. The war proceeded for
an implementation of policy of the Soviet
empire`s chiefes directed to creation of
communist modes in East Europe and Far
East. The peoples of empire have given new
victims. As well as all soldiers of the Soviet
Army considering war against a fascism as
business of honour, both Azerbaijan soldiers
and officers actively accepted participations in
battles. 223 Azerbaijan division differed in
clearing Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and
Yugoslavia. To it was appropriated a
honourable rank of "Belgrad". 1945 of
heroism of this division in clearing city
Vienna from an enemy was marked by an
award " The Red Banner". 77-th Azerbaijan
division finished war in Kurlyandiya.
              In     clearing   Poland      and
Czechoslovakia from the fascists took part
also 271-st Azerbaijan division. 20
azerbaijanians, including     Ziya Bunyatov,
                       61


Aslan Vazirov, Mamish Abdullayev shown of
courage in these battles were awarded a high
rank of "The Hero of the Soviet Union". 416-
th Azerbaijan division in structure of 5-th
shock army accepted active participation in
clearing Poland. The battery commander B.
Mirzayev for heroism was awarded to a rank "
of the Hero of the Soviet Union ".
                 In February, 1945 416-th
division broke to resistance of the enemy had
left on a coast the river Oder and it steel by
one of the first military parts of the Soviet
Army running a road to Berlin (marshal G. K.
Jukov). 416-th division accepted active
participation in battles for a capture Kustrin -
gate of Berlin in February, - March 1945. In
Aprils 20, it having grasped Kolosserdorf
continued attack to Reichstag. 1374 regiment
of this division has grasped palace "Vilhelm".
For the large heroism on street battles and in
attack to Reichstag Yusif Sadigov was
presented to a rank of "The Hero of the Soviet
Union". In May 2, 1373 regiment of 416-th
division has lifted a banner of a victory above
the Brandenburgo gate of Berlin. In night of
May 9, 1945 military command of Germany
has signed the act of unconditional
                       62


capitulation. August 9, 1945 the Soviet Union
has joined in war against Japan. September 2
with capitulation of Japan finished the Second
World war.
               As the winner left war the
Soviet empire. And basic reason of this
victory was that, that the totalitarian mode
could mobilize forces of all nations of empire
against a fascism. The true patriots of the
country among the population and in lines of
the Soviet Army, the people considering that a
fascism is the even greater evil than
bolshevism, self-denyingly struggled against
the German fascism. For military feats only
from Azerbaijan 121 soldiers and officer,
including 45 azerbaijanians were awarded by a
high, honourable rank of "The Hero of the
Soviet Union". 30 men has received all levels
of an award "Glory", 176 000 men - award and
medal of the Soviet Union. On fronts more
than 400 000 azerbaijanians were lost.
            The fascists hoping for fragility of
union of the peoples of the USSR and the
Soviet Army, planned to destroy or to leave in
conditions of dependence of these peoples.
And consequently it was not possible to carry
out the plans of a raising the antisoviet
                      63


movement of the peoples, financially and
spiritually loosens multinational Red Army.
            The Soviet empire could keep the
territory, colonies, has expanded borders and
sphere of influence. There came to authority
communist modes on East Europe and Far
East.
             The spiritual consequences of a
victory of the Soviet empire in war were large.
A victory has consolidated belief to
"superiority" existing in the country of
political, economic and ideological system.
             The second World war for new
divisions both expansions of spheres influence
and world markets was self-denying struggle
of the peoples, which estimated of goods and
evil from different positions, against front of
evil. Each of these peoples hoped and
struggled for a victory. But has won validity
and truth. For this victory and people of
Azerbaijan made all, that could, gave the large
victims and it has proved that always in the
parties of the truth.
                       64




The literature
Abasov M. Baku within Great Patriotic War.
Baku, 1967. – in Russian.
Abasov M. The Contribution of the Workers of
Baku to Achievement of a Victory above
Germany. Baku, 2000. – in Russian.
Altstadt Audrey. The Azerbaijan Turks. Power
and Identity under Russian Rule. Stanford, 1992.
Gold Stars of Azerbaijan. Baku, 1975. – in
Azerbaijanian.
National Economy of Azerbaijan within the
Great Patriotic War. Baku, 1975. – in
Azerbaijanian.
Azerbaijan SSR in the Great Patriotic War
(1940-1945). The collection of the documents. I
and II volumes. Baku, 1976/77. – in Russian.
Alijanov M. Participation of the Azerbaijan
Soldiers in Guerilla Movement. Baku, 1975.- in
Azerbaijanian.
Bunyatov Z and Zeynalov R. From Caucasus
up to Berlin, Baku, 1990. – in Russian.
Gaffarov T. The History of Azerbaijan. 1920-
1991 .Baku, 1999. – in Azerbaijanian.
Gaffarov T. Activity of the Azerbaijan Political
Emigration and Azerbaijan National Legion in the
Second World War. - " The Teacher of
Azerbaijan ", July 20 1993. – in Azerbaijanian.
Gaffarov T.Azerbaijan Oil Industry During the
Soviet Power Period.- Materials by first
                        65


International Conference on the History of the Oil
Industry of Azerbaijan. Pennzoil Caspian
Corporation, 1997, pp. 76-83.
Ibrahimli Kh. The Azerbaijan Political
Emigration. (1920-1991) .Baku, 1996. – in
Azerbaijanian.
History of Azerbaijan in three volumes, III
volum, second book. Baku, 1963. – in Russian.
Madatov G. Azerbaijan in Great Patriotic War,
Baku, 1965.- in Azerbaijanian.
Orujov G. Azerbaijan and Battle for Caucasus.
Baku, 1984.- in Azerbaijanian.

								
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