1 Tahir Gaffarof Azerbaijan in the Second World war The contribution of Azerbaijan on a victory above a fascism in the Second World war. London 2000 2 The Khazar Mission`s Publishing House. London, 2000. 3 Beginning of the war. Azerbaijan in the annexationist plans of the struggled parties. Mobilization of forces of the people for reflection of aggression of an enemy. The international situation in 30 years has become much more complicated. The opportunities of continuation of struggle with peace ways behind world domination, behind sources of raw material and the markets, for redistributions of spheres of influences were lost. Above the world has hung danger of new World War. England and France tried to keep the colonies, to get new spheres of influence, to oppose Germany and USSR with the purpose to weaken both, to render a mortal blow to a fascism and communism, which aspired to dominate above the world. Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to get the raw and trade markets, and also the spheres of influence, which they almost had no. USA, which was the supporter of preservation of an existing political situation in Europe, intended to consolidate the positions on East and 4 Southeast Asia. England, USA and France most of all was disturbed by existing danger of connection material riches of USSR with technological opportunities of Germany. Therefore, they, it is possible to tell, almost helped the fascists to receive authority and will became stronger in it. These countries looked to maintenance interests of Germany in Central Europe, to Munich bargain (September 29, 1938), which has agreed to attach to Germany of Austria and Czechoslovakia, as means delivering of a fascism against communism. For strengthening the positions in Near East, they aspired to take possession of Southeast Europe, Black Sea straits, Southern Caucasus, especialy of Azerbaijan and Baku petroleum. USSR wanted to take in the sphere of influence territory from Finland up to the Persian gulf, Bulgaria, to liquidate the right of Japan on productions of petroleum and coal in Sakhalin, to grasp east grounds (up to a line Керзон) of Poland, and as the Baltic countries, Western Ukraine, Western Belorussia, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, to create military bases on Bosporus and Dardanell. USSR aspired to a deepening of the 5 contradictions between the western countries, their easing as a result of military collisions, to creation of the appropriate conditions for global communist revolution, growth of number of the countries with a communist mode. Any of the large states did not concern to the Soviet empire as to serious war- economy force and potential ally. It was natural: many generals of the USSR army were announced "an enemy of the people", the army has remained, how to tell, without the chapter, manufacture was based to the non- economic laws. The foreign countries looked on USSR as at artificial union of the peoples, which by force were incorporated and did not trust on its stability. The opportunities of barracks socialism in transformation the country in uniform military camp in extreme conditions were not correctly estimated. At the same time, any of these countries did not want that USSR approached with other states. Not by serious attempts for creation System of the International Safety, on the one hand USSR, which was the initiator of creation of this system, and on the other hand England and France aspired to keep each other from a 6 conclusion of peace with Germany. Therefore, negotiation, which five months since March, 1939 proceeded were ineffectual. Germany, which came nearer with England and France and together with them has put Japan against USSR, faster having made a conclusion from a victory of Red Army in Far East (Red Army in July, - August 1939 has routed armies of Japan in regions of Khassan gol and Khalkhin gol.), having convinced that can not achieve the purpose in east yet, offered union to USSR to conquer of Western Europe. In August 23, 1939 the contract about a non-aggression within ten years was concluded between Germany and the USSR. By this way the USSR was rescued from danger to conduct war in two fronts - in west and in east, has received time for a strengthening of the defense capability of the country (though not absolutely effectively has used it), has achieved that the war between the large groupings of the capitalist states began. In that time V. M. Molotov (Minister of foreign affairs USSR) wrote that, to conduct war now against a fascism is a crime. The Second World War began in September 1, 1939 with an attack of fascist 7 Germany on Poland. In September 28 the USSR and Germany have concluded the contract about the friendship and borders and breaking the sovereign rights of the states have divided the East Europe into spheres of influence among themselves. In September the Soviet Army by an attack has conquered Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia. The USSR by plot began war with Finland. According the Moscow contract (March 12 1940) concluded between them the USSR had expanded the borders to the north of Leningrad, had taken in rent of a peninsula Khanko for the military purposes. In autumn of 1939 the USSR had concluded the contracts on the mutual help with governments of the Baltic republics, had placed troops in their territory. In summer of 1940 the Soviet government by military blackmail had forced Romania to repudiate from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Last never included into structure of Russia and was not mentioned in Soviet-German confidential protocols, therefore Germany had expressed discontent. In November, 1940 Germany had offered to the Soviet Union to join the Tripartite pact signed in September of this year by Germany, 8 Italy and Japan and to take part in capture of British India and other southern territories. However Stalin was more interested in new purchases on Balkan, than in far India, and it did not suit Hitler. In December 14, 1939 the USSR as the aggressive state was excluded from structure of the League of Nations. Having secured itself from east, fascist Germany and its ally Italy for short term have grasped or have subordinated to the influence almost all countries of Western and Central Europe. Within 1939-1941 years the peoples of Poland, Norway, Denmark, France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia and Greece were grasped by the German fascists. The hopes of the USSR that wars between the capitalist countries will be long and wearisome were not justified. The fascist block had subordinated to itself military and economic potential of the conquered countries. In comparison with an initial period of war the armed forces of Germany have increased twice. The mutual claims on Balkan finally have upset union of Germany and USSR. On ways of Germany to the world domination there was only Soviet Union. June 22, 1941 9 fascist Germany has attacked on the USSR. The plan "Barbarosse", based on strategy of "lightning war", which provided by drawing several strong impacts to break Red Army and, pressing home an attack, till winter to leave on a line Arkhangelsk - Astrakhan. In the annexationist plans of Germany the special place held of Azerbaijan, petroleum Baku having the important strategic and geopolitical meaning. The German government as a primary factor in realization of annexationist policy in east considered assignment of the Ukrainian bread and Baku petroleum. On the basis of "The Plan of management of Caucasus", made by Rossenburg, was supposed the creation of managements of Azerbaijan, Georgian, Mountain-Caucasian, Cuban and Terek. All this managements submitted to Caucasian Reichcommissariat. After a victory above the USSR, Germany intended to continue war and to grasp territories up to the Persian gulf and Indian ocean. In territories, where lived the Turkish peoples, Germany planned creation of the state, dependent on it - Turkistan. Structure of this state alongside with Northern and Southern Azerbaijan should enter Central 10 Asia, Kazakhstan, Bashkirdistan, Tatarstan, the Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Western China and Afghanistan. It was supposed to charge production, processing and with transportation of the Baku petroleum German "continental petroleum company". The chiefs of the large industrial enterprises of Azerbaijan were already nominated. Concerning Baku Hitler had the special plan. July 16, 1941 at governmental Meeting he has informed, that after capture of Baku this city would turn in strategically important for Germany military item. The detailed plans - cards of all important industrial and military objects of Absheron and Baku were prepared. About the beginning of the war, taking place on western borders military parts of the USSR which were not completed up to the end, not maintaining onslaught, well armed and having battle experience German troops and their allies, carrying the large losses, receded. The fascist block hoped for speed rout of the Soviet Army, But, Germany as in the plans, and actions had underestimated of 11 opportunities of a totalitarian control system in the USSR, its ability in short terms to mobilize potential of the country and to transform it into uniform military camp. With the beginning of war the Soviet manual has managed to mobilize all peoples of empire on rebuff to an aggressor. June 30, 1941 all authority in the country was concentrated in hands of State Committee of Defense, which chairman became I. V. Stalin. The ideological and political work in the country was reconstructed. Was offered the slogan "All for front, all for a victory". In a month was created the Main Management of Rear. August 25, 1941 the Soviet Army was included in North of Iran - Southern Azerbaijan. 77 Azerbaijan division took part in this operation too. USSR could consolidate the southern borders. As well as in other regions of empire, in Azerbaijan was consolidated the administrative device of management. The large role began to play in it bodies of State Security and Internal affairs, party committees, and created at them new branch departments, political departments at Machine-Tractor Stations . 12 More than 40 thousand young men and girl of Azerbaijan have submitted applications to military commissariats with the request of sending them to army in the first weeks of war. Till august in Republic of 123 thousands men have entered the name in a national home guard. At the end of 1941 in stracture of a national home guard were already of 187 thousand citizens, including more than 30 thousand women. For struggle against sabotage, gangsterism 87 fighting batallions including 12 thousand men, and also 1124 groups of self-defense, 15 thousand groups of an anti-aircraft defense were created. In auxiliary groups of fighting batallions and group of self-defense were involved more than 44 thousand men. In Azerbaijan were organized in August, of 1941 402-nd, in October 223, in March, - September of 1942 416-th, in August – September 271-st national rifle divisions. In total for 1941-1945 years from Azerbaijans about 640 thousand citizens, including more than 10 thousand women were mobilized in lines of the Soviet Army. For a short interval of time the national economy of Azerbaijan SSR was 13 transferred to the militarian road. It was very difficult. Financially technical base of economy was much more weakened. Were sharply reduced a capital investment to an industry and agriculture. From Azerneftcombinat have selected 161 tractors, 1 155 motor vehicles, 694 horses for need of army.Only per 1941-1942 years for these purposes from collective farms were taken 5457 cargo and 672 other of a motor vehicle, 476 tractors and 50 thousand horses. Were reduced, and then absolutely stopped import of materials and equipment for the enterprises from the central regions. In 1941 some factories of petroleum mechanical engineering were moved to east. In 1942 was suspended manufactures of the petroleum equipment. Level of production of petroleum was steadily reduced. In 2000 petroleum chinks have suspended work. One third workers of a petroleum industry were caused to army. A situation were such and in mechanical engineering, transport and in other branches of economy. Only in 1941 from collective farms 225 thousand of the workers were mobilized in army or on work in an industry. Housewifes, teenagers, veterans of work, 14 invalids of war, able-bodied people were involved on work. The short-term rates of qualification were created. In republic worked 28 factory schools, 12 schools of craft, 17 schools of agricultural craft. 2 railway schools. By this way were prepared more than 43 thousand the qualified workers the staff. Since June 26 the holidays were abolished ( in a place them paid of money), the working day was lengthened till 11 hours. The discipline of work has become stronger. Was determined punishment deprivation of freedom for 5-8 years behind a unwarranted leaving from work. Were established a rationing system on sale of products (since November, 1941) and industrial (since April, 1942) goods. The workers of a petroleum industry and defenсе enterprises received the raised norms.At the enterprises there was a struggle for fulfilment of the plan on 200, 300 percents, the brigades "Front-line soldier", "Komsomolets" were created. The industry began to let out production for front. Baku has turned to one of the main military arsenals of the Soviet Army. Despite of shortage of engineering and the labours (the production of petroleum these years has 15 decreased twice and in 1945 has made all of 11,1 thousand tons.), Baku within war have given to the country about 75 millions tons of petroleum. It has made more than 3/4 of petroleum, extracted in the country. Within war on oil refining factories was developed of 17 millions tons of petrol, lubricant oils and other kinds of petroleum. For years of war the battle engineering of the Soviet army has spent of 17 millions tons of various petroleum, of 13 millions from them falls on a share of the Baku petroleum refiners. "Baku gave front and country so much fuel, how many it was necessary for protection of our Native land, for a victory above the enemy" - was written by the marshal G.K Jukov. Within the Second World war the Azerbaijan petroleum played a historical role of the world importance. 80 percents of battle engineering of the Soviet Army, which has put heavy impact to fascist army on east front were set in motion by the Baku petroleum. Within war in petroleum and chemical factories of Baku were made the goods 200 names, including 9 grades of air petrol, 8 grades of diesel fuel, 36 grades of machine oils, 26 grades lighting and explosive means. Much more has increased 16 manufactures of a powder "ОП-2", which twice raised forces of the weapon of fire. In the beginning of 1942 began to work the Baku factory (N 610) of the equipment, which was under construction on the basis of engineering of the enterprises, moved to east. Is incorporated a basis of an automobile plant in Baku. The machine- building factories for manufacture of the military goods created different cooperative societies. In the machine-building enterprises of city was adjusted an armament production, including famous jet - artillery battle machine "Katyusha", machine gun `` Shankin``(ППШ), air bombs (ФАБ- 250, 1000, 2000), manual bombs (Ф-1, РГД-33), 50 mm mortars, spare parts of mortar "М-13", parts for military planes and on repair of parts of tanks. In Baku have collected the fighter - plane " YАК- 3 ". In 1942 130 kinds of the weapon and shells were let out here. And in other cities of republic the industrial enterprise have acquired manufacture of the military goods. From middle 1941 up to the end of 1943 in Sumgait worked the factory N 570, making the weapon and equipments. In city Ganja 12 industrial enterprise have 17 reconstructed the work on a military way. In 1942 here began to work a new mechanical factory. The military goods on 26 name were made in the enterprises of this city. Have acted in build in 1944 new shoe, and in 1945 tea packing mills in Baku. The enterprise of a local industry from a local material made equipment, economic goods, valenki (kind of felt boots) for army, clothes against the chemical weapon, furniture for hospitals, fire- prevention equipment for shelter. 70 grades the canned food made canning factories. Within war a food-processing industry of republic has sent to front 1260 cars crackers, 1100 cars of macaroni products, 1300 cars tobacco and cigarettes, 1800 cars canned food, 350 cars vegetable oil, much medical preparations. Six times raised manufactures of the medical goods in meat - dairy combine. At the end of war this combine let out 30 grades, or on 10 times more than in 1940, preparations. In republic were adjusted manufactures of the important medical preparations, surgical silk, syringe, gauze etc. Was made from the Greek nut vitamin "С" and as the caustic soda. The scientists have 18 received oil from a bush of juniper in a oil factory in Geychay. In ability to live of republic the large role played transport, it had also huge defenсе importance. In 1942 the construction of railway lines Julfa-Minjivan, Osmanli-Astara, Salyan-Neftchala, Papanin-Hajigabul having the large military and economic meanings was finished. Within war the railwaymen of Azerbaijan have transported of 1300 thousand cars and 600 thousand tanks( систерны) of military and economic cargoes. Actively worked 65 cargo ships of the Caspian flotilla. In 1942, when began impossible to ensure(supply) front with fuel by rail, the seamen of Caspi, for the first time in the world practice have carried out transportation of 35 carload tanks and 3 simple tanks, filled by petroleum on tows to Krasnovodsk. Within war the Caspian seamen have sent to front of 2 million 400 thousand tons of petrol. From Iranian ports ( basically from Khorremshahr and Bandar-Shahpur), from Krasnovodsk and Makhachkala in Baku have brought 2 783 thousand tons cargoes. Part of military engineering, weapon, equipment, and 19 foodstuffs sent to the USSR under the agreement "Lend-Liz" per 1942-1945 years have passed through Iran and Azerbaijan. Despite of essential easing of productive forces Azerbaijan villages has given to the country hundred thousand tons of food products, cotton, tobacco, cocoon etc. Per 1941-1945 years in collective-farm herds number of animals have raised on 1 million head. The population of Republic per 1941-1943 years in a Defense Fund has transferred 15 kg of gold, 952,5 kg of silver, bonds on 311 millions roubles. For years of war in funds of organization of tank and air groups was listed of 230 million ( including 8,1 million from Nakhichivan Avtonomic Republic and 11,2 million from Daglig (Mountain) Garabag Avtonomic Area and 10,1 million from Absheron region.) rouble. U. Hajibayov gave to this fund of 25 thousand rouble, that has made then the large sum. On front were sent 125 cars of clothes and 1,6 millions of parcels. Azerbaijan has brought the contribution to restoration of a national economy of regions freed from the fascist 20 aggressors in 1943-1944 years. With this purpose by autumn of 1943 were created Republican Committee of the help and its regional bodies. To the petroleum workers of Northern Caucasus, to the enterprises of Leningrad, Stalingrad, Stavropol, Ukraine the plenty of money, products of a food, building materials, cattle, industrial equipment was sent. The attitude to war with Germany in different layers of the population was not lonely. Under ideological pressure the long years in a part of the population could educate blind belief to the leaders, "communism", "global communist revolution", habits mechanically to execute will of higher. Many people trusted that the USSR is the country which tries to create all conditions for happiness of the workers and considered as honour to defend it. Thousands people showed true patriotism and selflessness on fronts and rears. Were much and those who understood a true situation of Azerbaijan, as colony of the USSR, saw that the authority is taken away from the people. The most part of the figures of a science and the cultures deeply 21 trusted in that that freedom of the Azerbaijan people is not in a victory of a fascism, Germany will not bring to Azerbaijan independence, it is necessary to protect the people from some more large troubles and necessarily to win the fascism. In the Azerbaijan branch of an Academy of sciences of the USSR was created under the direction of the talented scientist Yusif Mammadaliyev a department of the Central Advic of a Science and Engineering on problems of chemistry, in which structure have come R.Ismailov, R. Afandiyev, A. Guliyev, J. Shahtakhtincki, S. Mehtiyev and others. In petroleum factories worked 75 scientific laboratories of new technologies. In summer of 1941 in Baku was created of the first groups of hydrogen connections. Other words, under the direction of Yusif Mammadaliyev was created original and more effective technology for manufacture of air petrol with high percent of oktan. The engineer T. Aliverdizade has created a way of cold punching of metals. The geologists Mirali Gashgay, Shаmil Azizbayov and others have opened new sources strategic materials, which can replace of rare metals. Were found a deposit of fireproof clay, fosforit 22 and mineral dyes. They offered to use volcanic ashes in manufacture of cement and heat- shielding materials. The scientists of physics have offered thermal ways of exploring of petroleum. Scientifics, the engineers have put forward the offer on creation of a shell of guns against armour – engineering, self-regulated bombs, electrical mines against tanks, multistage mines, means against a rust, zincation of surface of manual bombs etc. They have prepared effective technologies smelting of steel pig-iron in liquid fuel, also have received other strategic materials as hydrogen, perozin, jet toluol etc. The ammiak gas, used in refrigerating devices, was replaced with propan of local manufacture. The engineers have found a way definition of a rust on underwater weldings, having militarian important. Mystafa Topchubashov and his followers have created new and more effective methods of military surgery, have returned in life of thousand fighters. In Baku the number of hospitals has increased from 5 up to 41, and place in them from 5 thousand up to 31,4 thousand. The ships "Dagistan", "Turkmanistan" and "Kazakhstan" have turned in floating hospitals. In treatment of the 23 wounded soldiers took part such known scientific professors as M. Mirgasimov, F. Afandiyev, M. Malikov, Z. Mammadov etc. The women gave 10 tons of blood for the wounded soldiers of. 70 percents of the wounded soldiers, which were treated in more than 150 military hospitals organized within war in republic completely have recovered and have returned again to a field of battles. The scientists of public sciences have created hundreds proceedings about a heroic history and battle traditions of the people. In 1943 was published "The short history of the Azerbaijan literature" under editions of H. Huseynov and М. Dadashov. In the first months of war were published the collections of products of the Azerbaijan poets and writers on a patriotic theme as "Struggling pen", "The Collection of fictions", "Songs about a native land" (for the teenagers) and collection of publicistic works "The Fascism destroys human culture". Were created 12 collections of works on patriotic themes for front. The best examples of the Azerbaijan poetry within war were “Sister mercy ", "Gold hawks ", "Manual of the mother ", "Feat of the hero" by Samad 24 Vurgun, "Mother and postman" by Suleyman Rustan, "Words of the soldier`s mother" by Rasul Rza, "Tell a fairy tale, grandmother" by Аhmad Jamal, "Pleasure" by Mirvarid Dilbazi, "Dream of favourite" by Mammad Rahim etc. The Azerbaijan dramatic art was enriched by such works as "Farhad and Shirin" by Samad Vurgun, "Nizami" by Mehdi Huseyn. In too time hundreds product in hastes written, not free from a conjuncture have appeared. The poets and writers frequently visited military parts, acted before the soldiers. The composers of Azerbaijan have created within war about 400 new march, symphones, songs, operas etc. Wide popularity have received songs "Sister mercy ", "Hymn of a victory " by Uzeyr Hajibayov, " Wait for me " by Suleyman Alaskarov. Аshug M. Bayramov in "Dastan about Kamal" had shown heroism of the Azerbaijan soldiers in battles against the fascists. With interest were accepted opera "Native land" of the young composers Gara Garayev and Jovdat Hajiyev. In 1941 on the initiative of U. Hajibayov the «Ensemble of national tools” was created at Committee of Radio. 82 front concert brigades 25 have acted before the soldiers on fronts. 35 thousand concerts were organized on military parts. The Azerbaijan cinematography has created cinema of a tape on themes of patriotism and military chronicle. "Son of a native land", "Bakhtiyar", "Submarine Т-9 " etc. the films were more popular. In education of military patriotism the active role was played also foremen of fine art. 50 political posters were published by mass circulation. Was issued 400 numbers of the art collection "Агитокон" (Window of propaganda). Were prepared and published the political posters under a heading "The struggling pencil". Political caricatures of A. Azimzade and I. Akhundov were especially valuable. S. Salamzade, T. Tagiyev, S.Sharifzade, M. Rakhmanzade etc. have created interesting pictures on themes of war, soldier's life, about life of rear. The works of the Azerbaijan artists and sculptors were demonstrated on tens exhibitions, including in 1943 on Tretyakov`s Gallery. In mobilization of the people against a fascism active participation accepted also clergy of Azerbaijan. In April 14, 1944 after the decision of Presidium of the Supreme 26 Soviet of the USSR was created «Religious Management Moslems of Zagafgaziya (Southern Caucasus)». On congress of moslems of Southern Caucasus was chosen its chairman – sheykh-yl-islam, assistant of chairman – myfti and members of management. The first chairman of management sheykh-yl-islam Aga Alizada in mosque of ``Taza Pir`` called moslems to obey the laws of government and with this way "to preserve religion". In mobilization of potential opportunities the important role has played high organizing ability, insistence, adherence to principle and even cruelty of first secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan Mir Jafar Bagirov. As a result of wise, far-seeing policy of azerbaijanian, Aziz Aliyev (earlier was the secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan and chairman of the Azerbaijan Committee of the help wounded soldiers and commanders), who in 1942 was to put forward on a post of first secretary of Regional Committee of Dagistan of CP of Russia more than 30 peoples of this area was successfully mobilized against an enemy and is rescued 27 from horrors of deportation from their native grounds, as it was with their neighbours - Chechens, Ingyshs, Kalmyks, Tatars of Crimea etc. Tens talented commanders as Hazi Aslanov, Akim Abasov, Mehti Mahmudov, Yagub Guliyev, Habibulla Huseynov, Aslan Vazirov etc. have shown brilliant organizing abilities and feats for rescue of the peoples from a fascism. In fields of battle. Despite of selflessness the Soviet soldier, departure in the first months of war from behind serious errors of command, was represented by the Russian officers as result of cowardice and inability of the soldiers from other nationalities, including turks (uzbeks, azerbaijanians, turkmens, kirghizes, kazakhs etc.), whom they as a sneer have named "yoldashi". However, the history has proved injustice of these think. Thousands young men and girl heroically battled on fronts. Since the first days of war many azerbaijanians differed on battles. 44 azerbaijanians (between them 28 were the military doctor M. Gadirov, soldiers A. Gafarov, I.Dadashov, A.Maysurov, A. Aliyev and others) were among the heroic defence counsels of a fortress of Brest, which more than month was held by defenses and carried to the fascists the large losses. Group of the soldiers under the command of lieutenant D. Javadov during 7 days courageously has reflected strong attacks of an enemy and has destroyed his tens alive force. The military pilot lieutenant Huseynbala Aliyev on the sky of Leningrad has destroyed 6 planes of the enemy. On last fight in july 29, not withstanding what he has received 30 wounds ( From them 3 were fatal) could successfully land. Per the first days of war (June 25) pilot of 63-rd air brigade of the Black Sea Navy Mazahir Abasov, who carried out the task to bombard bases of the opponent in Konstantce has entered battle with two enemy battle planes. Not withstanding what one of engines of his plane has left out of operation, M. Abasov safely struggled and has beaten one plane of the enemy. On one working motor he has reached the purpose and has dumped bombs. On a return rate the second motor of the plane also has left out of 29 operation, but the brave commander could put the wheel plane on water. For courage on battles against the fascists, which came nearer of Moscow in October, - December 1941, the commander tank subdivision Hazi Aslanov was awarded with a military award "Gold Star". Guards the senior sergeant, the machine guner Idris Veliyev on battles with the fascists in the field Borodino personally has destroyed more than 50 soldiers and officer of enemy. The younger sergeant Israfil Mammadov on battles for village Pustinka, not far from Novgorod, has shown of the large heroism ( To 20 soldiers about 10 hours battled with a batallion of an enemy and has not given it to pass, having destroyed 300 - itself personally 70- fascists.) and became first azerbaijanian, received a high rank "Hero of the Soviet Union ". Azerbaijan 77-th division accepted active participation in landing operation of the Soviet Army on a peninsula Kerch at the end of 1941 and in the beginning of 1942. In the beginning of January it has come to region Ag-Manay of peninsula Taman. It 105 regiment expelled the fascists from Vladislavka, which had the large tactical 30 meaning. Was destroyed 18 infantry division of an enemy. 77-th division in March, 1942 helped forces of the Soviet army, which were compelled to recede, to pass to peninsula Taman. This division accepted active participation in a defense of Novorosiysk. The large victory of the Soviet army at the end of 1941 under Moscow and heroic defense of Leningrad (in which was lost also my uncle lieutenant Sirmammed Gaffarov) has destroyed the plan lightning war of the German fascism. The myth about invincibility of fascist army was destroyed. In January 1, 1942 in Washington 26 states, switching USA, the Great Britain and the USSR, have signed the declaration on connection of the military, economic resources for destruction of the fascist block. The anti- fascist coalition of the states was formed and became stronger. 50 states of the world took part already in April, 1945 in this union. The enemy still was strong. This time fascists have begun attack on a southern direction of the German – Soviet front. In the beginning of May, 1942 they having grasped Kerch, Stavropol and Kharkov came nearer to Volga. By the plan "Edelveys" after capture 31 Kharkov continuing attack on Caucasus the fascists wanted to conquer industrial and agricultural region with rich petroleum, other strategic raw materials, to deprive the USSR from the help of the allies on a way Basra- Iran-Khazar and to open the road to capture of Near and Average East. For this purpose was created group of army "А" under command of general-feldmarshal List. It 1-st tank army (the commander was the general – colonel Kleyst) in September 6 having begun attack in a direction Grozni-Makhachkala-Baku in September 25 should grasp Baku. Hitler marked that, we having grasped Baku shall transform tanks and planes of the Soviet Army in " iron toys ". In July 25 the fascist armies forcing Don passed to approach, in August have grasped Krasnodar, Stavropol and Maykop. A situation was very heavy and dangerous. Notwithstanding what there were in one coalitions with the USSR against a fascism the USA and England wanted to take in the hands Caucasus, especially Azerbaijan. By their plan of "Vilvet" the forces of Soviet Army leaving from Caucasuses should 32 engage on Stalingrad front. And on the Caucasian front against an enemy should battle the American- English military parts in which structure entered 10-th army of Britain and 20 air squadrons. The Soviet management, were afraid that azerbaijanians will cooperate by forces of enemy in behind of Soviet Army, have prepared the plans of deportation of the inhabitants of Azerbaijan to Central Asia and Kazakhstan. And even was accepted about it the decision from December 7, 1942. However, the management of republic, especially M. J. Bagirov could assure Stalin that the deportation azerbaijanians will not serve for a victory in economic, and political sense. It will promote reduction of manufacture of the strategic goods in republic and to demoralize the soldier of army from Azerbaijan. With the special efforts of the chairman of State Committee on resettlement, created in October 25, 1941, A. Mikoyan was made and approved the plan of destruction of Baku in case of real threat of capture. The front successes of the Soviet Army have played determining role in 33 destruction of these terrible plans. It is necessary to note that, by the end of war - in 1944 a part of azerbaijanians with Mehceti turks were expelled from native grounds in Georgia. In September 16, 1942 the State Committee of a Defense has made a decision about a defense of Baku. 58-th army and the incorporated horse regiment was transferred in this region. The Main Command in September 24 has announced a military rule in the Transcaucasian republics, including Azerbaijan SSR. The Baku defense area was created. Have begun construction of defenсе structures. Were dug out tranchs in vicinities of city. The defence line became stronger with long-range guns and tanks. For a defense of city were involved 10-th rifle brigade, military school, and force of an anti-aircraft defense of the Baku district. As a result of vigilance of the pilots and the soldiers of air-defence devices the attempts of the fascists in 1942 71 times and in 1943 3 times were not held to rush in the sky of Baku. 96 planes of enemy were destroyed. The strategic bridge on the river Samur also successfully defended from air attacks. 34 Among the defence counsels of the Transcaucasian front were of 66,1 thousand azerbaijanians. Division azerbaijanians on all fronts was display mistrust to them of a management. However in the Caucasian battles azerbaijanians courageously struggled against the fascists. The enemy grasping Mozdok, has met by a persistent defense and changed direction attack, has gone to Nalchik and Orjonikidze. In battles on region Mozdok 402-nd, 416-th and 223 Azerbaijan divisions were included into structure the basic shock forces of 44-th Soviet army. 77-th Azerbaijan division took part in defenсе operations. 833-rd regiment under command of the major Akim Abasov have shown heroism in battles for Mozdok, reflected 30 attacks of an enemy and have destroyed 36 their tanks. In the beginning of October, 1942 the Soviet Army having destroyed the basic forces of enemy at Orjonikidze also has expelled him to north. Such elected military parts sent to this front for capture of Baku as 23 tank division from Paris, regiment of "Brandenburg" and division Alp were destroyed here. By heroic defense of Caucasus 35 the Soviet troops has held down large forces of an enemy, which to it was necessary under Stalingrad. The soldiers of 77-th, 223, 227, 271-st, 296-th, 402-nd and 416-th Azerbaijan divisions and 707-th division, which in structure there were much Azerbaijan soldiers accepted active participation in counter-attack of the Soviet Army on Northern Caucasus, in clearing cities and villages from the fascist aggressors. 77-th division participated in clearing Kerch, Taman peninsulas, Novorossiyck, Mozdok, Mineralniye Vodi, Stavropol, Lebedi and Rostov, together with other occupied items from the fascists. 402-nd division has cleared from the enemy 10 occupied items in region Mozdok, and has destroyed a plenty of his alive force and engineering. Having lost a part of personal structure this division then was joined with 416-th division. In the beginning of December 416-th division has expelled the fascists from the occupied items Novo-Lediyov and Kapustino. In January, - April 1943 this division accepted active participation in clearing Mozdok, Grafskoe Lenilin, Stavropol and Armovir, together with coast of the Azov 36 sea from the enemy. In clearing of Taman peninsula personal structure of 227 division differed by heroism and it have appropriated a honourable rank " Temyurt`s division ".The soldier of 18 army Gafur Mammadov has shown courage on battles for Tuapse, in one battle has destroyed 13 fascists, and by life has rescued from death his Russian commander. After death he has received a high rank "Hero of the Soviet Union". For heroism on battles with the enemy the platoon commander of 43- rd rifle brigades Idris Syleymanov also has received such rank. In common, fascists on Caucasus lost more than 100 000 alive forces, and a lot of military engineering. The rout of fascist army on Caucasus was rescueed southern regions of the USSR, including Azerbaijan, and in the first turn of Baku from threat of capture, has destroyed the plans of the enemy, connected with Near and Average east. Azerbaijanians courageously battled and in Stalingrad battles. During two months group of the snipers of Baloglan Abbasov has destroyed approximately 3 thousand soldiers and officers of the enemy. The fearless 37 commander and itself was lost in one of battles. The Soviet Army passing to a contour approach in winter of 1942 besieged of a troops of enemy. The large heroism has shown 55-th separate tank regiment of the lieutenant colonel Hazi Aslanov. The Aslanov`s tank regiment during 6 days heroically battled to a part of general Manshteyn`s army, trying to come for the help to 6-th army, which has got in siege at Stalingrad and having destroyed 45 tanks (from 70 tanks) and alive force of an enemy has not given him to pass. And Hazi Aslanov has received a rank "Hero of the Soviet Union ". In February, 1943 the German fascist army was completely to break under Stalingrad. This year the Soviet Army has won half of grounds, grasped from the USSR. Has extended anti-fascist movement worldwide. Went deep crisis in the fascist block. The fascist mode in Italy fell and this country has left war. And anti-Hitler coalition, on the contrary, became stronger. In the Teheran conference of the allies in November, 1943 was made a decision to open of the second 38 front in Europe against fascist Germany. However, second front in Europe opened late, after the allies were convinced that the Soviet Union will win of a fascism and were afraid that all territories grasped of Red Army will get under influence of USSR. The brilliant victories of the Soviet Army in Stalingrad and Caucasian battles promoted change in a course of war. In summer of 1943 the Soviet Army began strong attack. In all fronts the Azerbaijan soldiers and the officers self- denyingly battled. A banner of a victory above city Oryol first was lifted by sergeant H. Ajdarov. The great courage have shown lientenant M. Bagirov in region of Oryol- Belgorod, M. Maharramov and S. Kazimov in battles for Dnieper, M. Guliyev in forcing a gulf Kerch. The pilots A. Guliyev, Z. Seyidmammadova and others were distinguished by battle merits. 416-th division accepted active participation in clearing city Togonrog and under the order of the Supreme Main Command for heroism has received a honourable name "Taganrog`s division". This division differed in battles for clearing 39 Melitopol from the fascists in October and was awarded with "Red Banner". In the beginning of September 271-st division actively participated in operation "Donetsk" and for courage has received a honourable name "Gorlovka`s division ". In 1944 as a result of the important victories of the Soviet army on fronts all the territory of the USSR was freed from the fascist aggressors. 416-th division in structure of 5-th shock army took part in forcing Dnieper and clearing cities Nikolayev and Kishinev. For difference in battles in clearing of city Odessa this division was awarded with an award ``Suvorov`` of the second degree. In April 13, 1944 fighters of 77-th division have shown of heroism in clearing city Simferopol from the enemy and has received a honourable rank "Simfiropol`s division". For military merits in a capture of height mountain of Sapun this division was awarded with an award ``Suvorov`` of the second degree. In summer of 1944 77-th division was sent to Pribaltik front, took part in clearing Pribaltik republics and East Prussion from the fascists. 40 At 23-30 of June, 1944 fighters of 35-th Guards tank brigade under command of the general - major Hazi Aslanov with the large courage forcing the river Berezina, have cleared of the fascists of city Pleshenitsi and other 580 occupied items, destroying many alive forces and military engineering of the opponent. It has created a favorable condition for successful attack of the basic forces of 3-rd Byelorussian front. Command of front has presented Hazi Aslanov for decoration a high rank "Hero of the Soviet Union" for the second time. However, rank twice hero of the USSR was given to him 47 years after death. A tank brigade of Hazi Aslanov accepted active participation in clearing Pribaltik. A management of empire and armenian lobby in army painfully have met an exit from environment of azerbaijanians the skilful commanders. In January 24, 1945 Hazi Aslanov in a very mysterious condition was fatally wounded in a place where there did not pass military operations and has died. 223 division deffered in battles behind clearing of Southern Ukraine, Kishinev, in operation of Yassi-Kishinev. 41 In Guerilla groups. In anti-fascist movement in Europe. Within war a part of azerbaijanians got in captivity to german continued struggle against a fascism, have made escape from captivity and entered into guerilla groups. Akpar Aliyev accepted active participation in organization of guerilla group in region Belotsk of Byelorussia. Since 1942 he became the chief of the headquarters of guerilla connection, and since 1944 - the commander of guerilla group after Suvorov. This guerilla group frequently has attacked fascist garrison. It buried 11 military echelons, 3 planes of the enemy, 28 times cut of a telephone line Berlin - front, have destroyed hundreds fascists, have rescued from captivity of 4 thousand Soviet people. Ismail Aliyev was the chief of the headquarters of the guerilla brigade which was at war in Kalinin area since October, 1942. 50 military captives – azerbaijanians under the direction of the officer Mammad Aliyev in September, 1943 have made escape from fascist camp of military captivity and have organized the special Azerbaijan guerilla 42 group of number 8 on Crimea. In autumn of this year 400 azerbaijanians having made escape from captivity have organized guerilla group of a name Shors in the Ukrainian woods. Guerilla group of a name Uritcki under command A. Maharramov and H. Namazov together with Czech partisans suddenly attacking fascist air station at the village Dobshina on Carpathians, have destroyed 21 military planes, 70 officers and soldier of enemy. In 1944 this guerilla group having united with other guerilla groups accepted an active participation in the struggle against the fascists on Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. They passed of 11 thousand km of a road in back of the opponent, has destroyed more than 2,5 thousand fascist officers and soldier, 32 planes, more than 50 echelons of an enemy, have put out of action hundreds bridges and railway ways. B. Dadashov and A. Aliyev were recognized as the courageous fighter in known guerilla army under command S. A. Kovpak. For courage 500 azerbaijanians were awarded in Ukrainian and 100 - in the Byelorussian guerilla groups. Azerbaijanians took part and in guerilla warfare of the European peoples 43 against the fascism. In spring of 1942 azerbaijanians, who were in captivity under a management of Hadi Giyasbayov and Mirzakhan Mammadov have organized illegal anti-fascist group in camp of military captives in Poland`s city Edlin. In the autumn of this year group of captives have made escape with the help of this organization under the direction of the officers Z. Zeynalov and H. Novruzov, also joined with Polish partisans. In the beginning of 1943 the fascists have got on a trace of this organization. A part of captives could make escape and having passed lines of front joined with parts of the Soviet army. A part exposed were sent in death camps in France. Illegal organization continued the work under the direction of M. Mammadov in death camp which was in city Rodes. Only in months March - April, 1944 from this camp was organized escapes 200 captives. In spring of this year illegal organization has adjusted connection with a management of the Resistance Movement of France. The revolt plan in April 15 and destructions of a death camp with the help French partisans was prepared. However, few hours up to a beginning of revolt the fascists have received 44 the information on it and revolt was prevented. The chiefs of illegal organization were arrested and sentenced to a death penalty. But they have attacked supervision. In struggle has died 5 men, including M. Mammadov, and others could run and joined with partisans. The Azerbaijan soldiers run from death camps in France were included into structure of the First Soviet guerilla army and accepted active participation in clearing Rodes, Larzak, Kursak, Mond , Nim etc. cities and tens villages of France from an enemy. The important role have played in the French Movement of Resistance A. Jabrayilov, A.Abdullayev, Kh.Hajiyev, R. Rzayev etc. Ahmadiyya Jabrayilov , who having run away from a death camp in November, 1942, has joined with partisans and accepted active participation in liberation movement of France, and has received of the high award of this country " the Militarian medal ", which gives the honourable right to the soldier to go ahead of the general in military parades. Hundreds fighters from Azerbaijan actively participated in guerilla movement behind clearing of Italy and Yugoslavia. Their large group battled in the Soviet guerilla 45 batallion, which conducted 9 months battle in structure of IХ case of National Liberation Army of Yugoslavia. 50 of them received for courage awards and medals of Yugoslav ia. The fearless scout Mehti Huseynzade - legendary "Mikhaylo", who has got in captivity hardly wounded in region Kalach at Stalingrad in August, 1942 and was included in structure of the Azerbaijan national military part, which was organized by Germans, soon has understood present plan the fascists, having made escape, has come in structure partisans of Yugoslavia and heroically struggled against the enemy. The chief of subversive group of the Yugoslavian National Army M. Huseynzade, and included in this group Т. Aliyev, M. Seyidov, A. Mammadov, D. Ismayilov together with sloven partisans have destroyed more than one thousand German officers in different operations. In November 16, 1944 he has got in an encirclement in a village Vitovli and not to get in a hand of the enemy has killed itself. In 1957 he was awarded to a rank of "Hero of the Soviet Union ". By one of groups, which were organized by the prisoners run together from 46 fascist camps supervised A.Babayev. Differed in battles for clearing of Northern Italy from a fascism V.Husseynov, A. Mirzoyev,Sh. Mejidov etc. Fearless machine-gunner Vilayat Husseynov was among partisans which have arrested the leader of the Italian fascism Mussoli. He heroically was lost in battles behind clearing Milan from the fascists. Was closely connected lieutenant Hajibayov to guerilla group in Czechoslovakia, which named "Sickle and hammer". One of the active members of illegal anti-fascist organization, which worked in a death camp "Buhenvald" about city Weimar in Germany was young azerbaijanian Akpar Agayev. Having opened his activity the fascists have killed him with heavy tortures. Actively worked azerbaijanians in illegal anti- fascist organizations of the prisoners in death camps "Dahau", "Mauthausen" etc. Empty hopes of the patriots. Azerbaijan national legion. Between azerbaijanians together with the Soviet patriots, and people, which considering a fascism larger evil than 47 bolshevism also have joined struggle against it, there were also those which in the future victory of Germany above the Soviet empire wrongly saw independence of Azerbaijan. The majority of the political figures which were compelled from the country, having saved from persecution of authorities after violent sovietisation of Azerbaijan, hoped for that, that Germany will put the end of empire of communist elite, will create conditions for restoration of national freedom of the Azerbaijan people. There were much people thinking so among the population of Azerbaijan and among the Azerbaijan soldiers of Soviet army. Could not up to the end suppress a vote of the protest against injustice and humiliation of national pride inside the people. Though not long have passed from terrible repression of 30-s` years, there were forces trying incorporate and to be organized against totalitarian mode. In spring of 1941 the illegal antisoviet, national group was organized under the direction of the student Suleyman Iskandarov, which has put before itself the purpose to unit all patriotic forces on struggle for clearing of a native land. But this group 48 existed not long, it have opened and destroyed, have shot its active members. But attempt to struggle against a mode proceeded, the new groups were organized. One of them was illegal organization "Ildirim", working from 1943 among the students. This organization created on the initiative of the student Gulhusseyn Abdullayev (Husseynoglu) seriously criticized national policy of the Soviet government and communist party, searched for means and opportunities for wide propagation. In activity of this organization participated Ismikhan Rahimov, Haji Zeynalov, Aydin Vahidov and others. From 1944 group of the young workers having created illegal, international organization, conducted propaganda with appeals to lift revolt and to overthrow an existing antihuman mode. There were people, which purposely have got in captivity and passed to the party of germans for active struggle against the Soviet empire. The military expert, major, graduate of the Moscow Military Academy Abdurrahman Fatalibayli Dudanginski (Abo bay) in the beginning of war on Baltic in the first battles has passed to 49 the parties of Germans, in November, 1941 having written the letter to Hitler has expressed desire to struggle against the Soviet Union and England. In some years Dudanginski wrote that, we could not battle for Russia and for the Soviet Union, which trampled down the tradition of our fathers and enslaved our people. Having convinced, that the war with the Soviet Union will be long, the fascists have decided to use 3,6 millions (including more than 150 thousand azerbaijanians) captives soldiers and officers for achievement of the purposes. From August, 1941 have begun to group of captives in national and religious attributes. Fascist government has used influence and skill of the political refugees for conducting works with the prisoners, to assure them that devoted service to Germany in interests of their peoples. Much earlier more in Germany was studied the purposes of the Azerbaijan political emigration. In Berlin worked the committee of a party Musavat, under a management Hilal Munshi. In Berlin were published the books by Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh "Some of a note about the 50 Azerbaijan Republic"(in 1933), "The Modern Azerbaijan literature"(in 1936), "A problem of Azerbaijan" (in 1938) and under his editions the newspaper "Istiglal" (Independence, 1932- 1934) and magazine "Gurtulush" (Rescue, 1934-1938). M. A. Rasulzadeh and Kh. Khasmammadov, sharply resisting to him, in autumn of 1941 were invited to Germany by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of this country. In the beginning of 1942 in Berlin was organized "National Committee of Azerbaijan" under the direction of M. A. Rasulzadeh. As M. A. Rasulzadeh has noted, this committee " worked on bases of struggle of national Azerbaijan was to accept by the German management". In the program of committee was written that, the purpose of this organization are " to protect the national rights of Azerbaijan, to struggle for independence of a native Land, for friendship of the Caucasian nations and to ensure close cooperation with Germany". The positions of the Azerbaijan party were reflected in the special memorandum in negotiation, which were held in October 7, 1942 in hotel "Adlen". The basic conditions (only 12 items) of this memorandum were: rescue azerbaijanians 51 from fascist death camps, use them basically at civil works, creation of national army, assignment of azerbaijanian officer the chapter of this army, use of this army only on east front, maintenance to national parts first enter Azerbaijan after exile of the Soviet army from these places etc. The chief of the ministry of East Rosenberg did not consider to possible work with national committees, which were sure that, the recognition of independence of these nations is the important condition for cooperation them with the German government. By his advice Hitler, having refused to work with committees, has decided to organize "Group of communication" (Vtubindunqstav) on functions connecting part between national legions and army headquarters. Into the Azerbaijan group of communication entered F.Dudanginski, A. Atamalibayov and F. Amirjan (Daryal). In December 22, 1941 Hitler has given the order on organization together with other national parts special military parts of Caucasian moslems. These hired military parts were formed by moslem prisoners, including azerbaijanians of camps of military captives in Poland. In searches of the Azerbaijan 52 prisoners, rescue them from correct death (before thousand azerbaijanians were destroyed, wrongly thought that they are the Jews), and in association them in national military parts active participation accepted M.A. Rasulzadeh and other political refugees. The book by M.A. Rasulzadeh " The Three- colour banner" was popularly among the soldier of a national part. The large educational work with the soldiers of these parts order Abdulali bay Amirjan, Nuru pasha, Israfil bay Isarafilbayov, Maryam khanym Amirjan etc. The most part of military captives were suitable for a military service. Many of them wanted to battle in structure of national military parts against the Soviet Union. The large influence has rendered to them that Stalin has named of captives " Enemies of the mother Land", their families have sufferred to persecution. But the fascists have shown themselves as the friend of moslems and turks. For effective work with them in Germany have invited mufti (the religious figure) of Guds (Yerusalem) Al-Husseyn. The order was given up to military parts, that at capture of Caucasus to not suppose humiliation national 53 and religious feeling of the population. The commander of tank army, taking part in battles on Caucasus, the general fon Markisen pointedly accepted islam and made a religious service - namaz in mosque. With the help of the political refugees Germans selected azerbaijanians from camp of military captives "Telsit", which was in Kenigsberk and carried them in camp "Shelesi". After military training under a management of the German officers knowing turkish language they were sent in the military part "Bergman", which was in Bavaria for preparation to battles in mountain conditions. As other national parts of the militarian subdivision organized by azerbaijanians were badly armed and did not pass enough military preparation. German officers with contempt have named the soldiers of these parts "as the soldiers of the second grade". In summer of 1942 the militarians connection organized from Caucasian moslems took part in battles on the Caucasian front. The military parts "Aslan", "Boz Gurd", "Javad khan", "Gorkhmaz", "Donmaz", "Vatan", etc., which had more than 7000 soldiers, courageously battled for 54 clearing of Caucasus from the Soviet empire. They accepted active participation in a capture of Mazdok and such strategic heights as Elbrus and Kazbek. Many people have met with pleasure these parts. Thousand soldiers of the Soviet army from Caucasuses send to their parties. Number passing in the party of Germans turks and caucasians there was approximately one million people, including 150 thousand azerbaijanians. The German command highly have estimated battle abilities of the Azerbaijan parts, many soldiers and officers were awarded by a medal "Infantri Sturmabsikhen". In connection with a capture in a hand the initiative and transition in a contour approach of the Soviet army in Caucasus and Stalingrad, these parts were compelled to recede with the large losses and took part in persistent defensive battles Germans in Crimea. After rout of Germans armies in Caucasus and on coast Volga have begun the oppressions of national parts. The reason to this was desertion Russian, Armenian etc. legioners. And in each Azerbaijan batallion, in which were till one thousand soldiers, were 55 left till 300 men. Other soldiers till different pretexts were sent in camps of captivе. But fascist government soon began trusts that, without the help of the local peoples it will be very difficult to conquer of these territories, and ostensibly only by representation of some hopes to these peoples it is possible to influence to the soldiers of a different nationality, which serve in the Soviet army. Hitler has agreed to some concessions. At the end of 1942- beginning of 1943 in Berlin passed assembly of the representatives of the peoples of the Soviet Union, including azerbaijanians. Hitler with the purpose of study of a history, psychology, culture and training of personnel for management of the puppet state - " Great Turkistan", which creation was planned, has organized special structure "Uniform organization of the Turkestan workers" in Drezden. In May, 1943 was created the Turkish foot division (number 162). Military connection made from Caucasian moslems was divided in two parts - Azerbaijan legion and Legion of Northern Caucasus. Germans do not send on concessions in negotiation neither group by M. 56 A. Rasulzadeh, nor group by Kh. Khasmammadov in a question of a recognition of independence of Azerbaijan. М. А. Rasulzadeh could not agree and had not agreed with an idea that his native land at a victory of the fascists will be colony in structure of the puppet state dependent on Germany. In the beginning of August, 1943 М. А. Rasulzadeh acting before Azerbaijan legion, has opened the purpose of the fascists in organization of these military parts. He has told: "... I trusted on the Germans, for our independence counted on them. But, it is vain! To me their true intention is already clear. It is naivety in clearing of slavery to hope to the country, which having conquered the independent states transforms them into the colonies". Such open anti-fascist introduction infuriated the German government and it required of M. A. Rasulzadeh to leave Germany. Some political refugees, officers of Azerbaijan`s legion considering necessary to agree with realities continued connection with the German government. In November 6-9, 1943 in Berlin`s hotel "Kaiserhot" was held "The Azerbaijan national congress" of the 57 representatives Azerbaijan turks abroad. The chapter of the ministry "East"- Rosenberg personally took part in congress. In the resolution of congress it was marked that, the participants of congress have deep hope about restoration of independence of Azerbaijan as a result of the Second World war. And first its condition is the destruction of our eternal enemy. Such position suited the German government. In autumn of 1943 under protectorate of Germany in Berlin was created emigratory "The Azerbaijan government". In the chapter of government stood Fatalibayli Dudanginski (Або bay). His assistant was Fuad bay Amirjan. Israfil bay Israfilbayov, professor Jabbar Aliyev and etc. were the members of this government. The German government has recognized of the Azerbaijan emigratory government. This government worked till winter of 1944. And М. А. Rasulzadeh, at the end of 1944 illegally having returned to Germany in Munhen has organized political structure of "The Azerbaijan Democratic Association". The "old" and "new" emigrants not as could not will unit. And when the destiny the most German state was decided, the fascists on the 58 initiative SS have created under the direction of the general Vlasov, who else in 1942 has passed in their party, political organization so- called "Committee of Rescue of Russian Peoples"(CRRP), which purpose was creation in territory of the Soviet Union the state without the communists. In December of this year was created Russian Army Rescue (RAR). Political structure "The Caucasian Council" at this time was formed also. Azerbaijan here was presented by A. Atamalibayov. Council has agreed to accept the offer SS (October, 1944) enter structure of CRRP only under condition of a recognition of independence of the Caucasian countries. This condition became the reason to the termination of negotiation. Soon inflame CRRP and RAR. When Berlin was in an encirclement by troops of the allies, in March 17, 1945 fascist government of Germany has recognized independence of all nations of the USSR. In first half of 1944 Azerbaijan legion was in the south of France. In middle of August the troops of the allies has begun approach from the south of France in northern and north – western direction. With the German troops Azerbaijan legion has receded 59 in north of Italy. In autumn of 1944, when legions were disbanded, was organized military connection under the name "East Turkish Military Force" (ETMF) under command of shtandartan furer SS Kharun Ar- Rashid bay. In December of this year fascist government has decided to unit weakened Northern Caucasian, Georgian, Azerbaijan and Armenian military parts under the name "The Caucasian Military Force". But azerbaijanians have refused to battle together with the armenians in one part and asked to include their part in association ETMF. The SS army headquarters has decided to include Azerbaijan legion in the Northern Caucasian military structure. On an ending of the war the Azerbaijan military parts were placed in territory of the neutral countries. About one thousand azerbaijanians were occupied in the different countries of Europe, three thousand - in Turkey and 500 were sent to protectorate& of the Egyptian king. Number of the people of the Caucasian nationality, which Germans handed over Red Army has made three thousand. 60 Ending of the war. After clearing territory of the USSR from the fascists a nature of war, which this the country conducted with Germany, has changed. The war proceeded for an implementation of policy of the Soviet empire`s chiefes directed to creation of communist modes in East Europe and Far East. The peoples of empire have given new victims. As well as all soldiers of the Soviet Army considering war against a fascism as business of honour, both Azerbaijan soldiers and officers actively accepted participations in battles. 223 Azerbaijan division differed in clearing Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia. To it was appropriated a honourable rank of "Belgrad". 1945 of heroism of this division in clearing city Vienna from an enemy was marked by an award " The Red Banner". 77-th Azerbaijan division finished war in Kurlyandiya. In clearing Poland and Czechoslovakia from the fascists took part also 271-st Azerbaijan division. 20 azerbaijanians, including Ziya Bunyatov, 61 Aslan Vazirov, Mamish Abdullayev shown of courage in these battles were awarded a high rank of "The Hero of the Soviet Union". 416- th Azerbaijan division in structure of 5-th shock army accepted active participation in clearing Poland. The battery commander B. Mirzayev for heroism was awarded to a rank " of the Hero of the Soviet Union ". In February, 1945 416-th division broke to resistance of the enemy had left on a coast the river Oder and it steel by one of the first military parts of the Soviet Army running a road to Berlin (marshal G. K. Jukov). 416-th division accepted active participation in battles for a capture Kustrin - gate of Berlin in February, - March 1945. In Aprils 20, it having grasped Kolosserdorf continued attack to Reichstag. 1374 regiment of this division has grasped palace "Vilhelm". For the large heroism on street battles and in attack to Reichstag Yusif Sadigov was presented to a rank of "The Hero of the Soviet Union". In May 2, 1373 regiment of 416-th division has lifted a banner of a victory above the Brandenburgo gate of Berlin. In night of May 9, 1945 military command of Germany has signed the act of unconditional 62 capitulation. August 9, 1945 the Soviet Union has joined in war against Japan. September 2 with capitulation of Japan finished the Second World war. As the winner left war the Soviet empire. And basic reason of this victory was that, that the totalitarian mode could mobilize forces of all nations of empire against a fascism. The true patriots of the country among the population and in lines of the Soviet Army, the people considering that a fascism is the even greater evil than bolshevism, self-denyingly struggled against the German fascism. For military feats only from Azerbaijan 121 soldiers and officer, including 45 azerbaijanians were awarded by a high, honourable rank of "The Hero of the Soviet Union". 30 men has received all levels of an award "Glory", 176 000 men - award and medal of the Soviet Union. On fronts more than 400 000 azerbaijanians were lost. The fascists hoping for fragility of union of the peoples of the USSR and the Soviet Army, planned to destroy or to leave in conditions of dependence of these peoples. And consequently it was not possible to carry out the plans of a raising the antisoviet 63 movement of the peoples, financially and spiritually loosens multinational Red Army. The Soviet empire could keep the territory, colonies, has expanded borders and sphere of influence. There came to authority communist modes on East Europe and Far East. The spiritual consequences of a victory of the Soviet empire in war were large. A victory has consolidated belief to "superiority" existing in the country of political, economic and ideological system. The second World war for new divisions both expansions of spheres influence and world markets was self-denying struggle of the peoples, which estimated of goods and evil from different positions, against front of evil. Each of these peoples hoped and struggled for a victory. But has won validity and truth. For this victory and people of Azerbaijan made all, that could, gave the large victims and it has proved that always in the parties of the truth. 64 The literature Abasov M. Baku within Great Patriotic War. Baku, 1967. – in Russian. Abasov M. The Contribution of the Workers of Baku to Achievement of a Victory above Germany. Baku, 2000. – in Russian. Altstadt Audrey. The Azerbaijan Turks. Power and Identity under Russian Rule. Stanford, 1992. Gold Stars of Azerbaijan. Baku, 1975. – in Azerbaijanian. National Economy of Azerbaijan within the Great Patriotic War. Baku, 1975. – in Azerbaijanian. Azerbaijan SSR in the Great Patriotic War (1940-1945). The collection of the documents. I and II volumes. Baku, 1976/77. – in Russian. Alijanov M. Participation of the Azerbaijan Soldiers in Guerilla Movement. Baku, 1975.- in Azerbaijanian. Bunyatov Z and Zeynalov R. From Caucasus up to Berlin, Baku, 1990. – in Russian. Gaffarov T. The History of Azerbaijan. 1920- 1991 .Baku, 1999. – in Azerbaijanian. Gaffarov T. Activity of the Azerbaijan Political Emigration and Azerbaijan National Legion in the Second World War. - " The Teacher of Azerbaijan ", July 20 1993. – in Azerbaijanian. Gaffarov T.Azerbaijan Oil Industry During the Soviet Power Period.- Materials by first 65 International Conference on the History of the Oil Industry of Azerbaijan. Pennzoil Caspian Corporation, 1997, pp. 76-83. Ibrahimli Kh. The Azerbaijan Political Emigration. (1920-1991) .Baku, 1996. – in Azerbaijanian. History of Azerbaijan in three volumes, III volum, second book. Baku, 1963. – in Russian. Madatov G. Azerbaijan in Great Patriotic War, Baku, 1965.- in Azerbaijanian. Orujov G. Azerbaijan and Battle for Caucasus. Baku, 1984.- in Azerbaijanian.
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